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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.
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Plasmodium ovale malaria in Brazil: report of an imported case with a prolonged incubation period.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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We report the first case of imported Plasmodium ovale in Brazil, confirmed using both conventional microscopy and PCR-based protocols. The patient was a 36-year-old Brazilian male who had been working as a miner in Cabinda Province, Angola. Based on his travel history, the parasite was dormant for at least two years. The relatively long period of incubation of P. ovale may obscure the link between exposure and disease. The recent increase in the number of people travelling to regions where P. ovale is endemic, suggests that a PCR-based protocol should be included as a complementary tool for malaria reference laboratories.
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Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.
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The Duffy binding protein as a key target for a Plasmodium vivax vaccine: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC). The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII) and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania.
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The Duffy binding protein as a key target for a Plasmodium vivax vaccine: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC). The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII) and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania.
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Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine (DARC) polymorphisms and its involvement in acquisition of inhibitory anti-duffy binding protein II (DBPII) immunity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its erythrocytic receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), are involved in the major P. vivax erythrocyte invasion pathway. An open cohort study to analyze DARC genotypes and their relationship to PvDBP immune responses was carried out in 620 volunteers in an agricultural settlement of the Brazilian Amazon. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted at 6-month intervals, comprising 395, 410, and 407 subjects, respectively. The incidence rates of P. vivax infection was 2.32 malaria episodes per 100 person-months under survey (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.92-2.80/100 person-month) and, of P. falciparum, 0.04 per 100 person-months (95% CI of 0.007-0.14/100 person-month). The distribution of DARC genotypes was consistent with the heterogeneous ethnic origins of the Amazon population, with a predominance of non-silent DARC alleles: FY*A > FY*B. The 12-month follow-up study demonstrated no association between DARC genotypes and total IgG antibodies as measured by ELISA targeting PvDBP (region II, DBPII or regions II-IV, DBPII-IV). The naturally acquired DBPII specific binding inhibitory antibodies (BIAbs) tended to be more frequent in heterozygous individuals carrying a DARC-silent allele (FY*BES). These results provide evidence that DARC polymorphisms may influence the naturally acquired inhibitory anti-Duffy binding protein II immunity.
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Influence of HLA-DRB-1 alleles on the production of antibody against CSP, MSP-1, AMA-1, and DBP in Brazilian individuals naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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We evaluated the influence of allelic frequency of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -DRB1 on the acquisition of antibody response against malaria sporozoite and merozoite peptides in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in endemic areas of Brazil. IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against four peptides of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) (amino, carboxyl, and VK210 and VK247 repeats) and peptides of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP). We found an association between HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR5 alleles and lack of antibody response to CSP amino terminal, as well as an association between HLA-DR3 and the highest antibody response to MSP1 (Pv200L). In conclusion, we suggest a potential regulatory role of the HLA-DRB1 alleles in the production of antibodies to a conserved region of P. vivax CSP and MSP1 in Brazilian population exposed to malaria.
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Worldwide genetic variability of the Duffy binding protein: insights into Plasmodium vivax vaccine development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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The dependence of Plasmodium vivax on invasion mediated by Duffy binding protein (DBP) makes this protein a prime candidate for development of a vaccine. However, the development of a DBP-based vaccine might be hampered by the high variability of the protein ligand (DBP(II)), known to bias the immune response toward a specific DBP variant. Here, the hypothesis being investigated is that the analysis of the worldwide DBP(II) sequences will allow us to determine the minimum number of haplotypes (MNH) to be included in a DBP-based vaccine of broad coverage. For that, all DBP(II) sequences available were compiled and MNH was based on the most frequent nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, the majority mapped on B and T cell epitopes. A preliminary analysis of DBP(II) genetic diversity from eight malaria-endemic countries estimated that a number between two to six DBP haplotypes (17 in total) would target at least 50% of parasite population circulating in each endemic region. Aiming to avoid region-specific haplotypes, we next analyzed the MNH that broadly cover worldwide parasite population. The results demonstrated that seven haplotypes would be required to cover around 60% of DBP(II) sequences available. Trying to validate these selected haplotypes per country, we found that five out of the eight countries will be covered by the MNH (67% of parasite populations, range 48-84%). In addition, to identify related subgroups of DBP(II) sequences we used a Bayesian clustering algorithm. The algorithm grouped all DBP(II) sequences in six populations that were independent of geographic origin, with ancestral populations present in different proportions in each country. In conclusion, in this first attempt to undertake a global analysis about DBP(II) variability, the results suggest that the development of DBP-based vaccine should consider multi-haplotype strategies; otherwise a putative P. vivax vaccine may not target some parasite populations.
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Plasma circulating nucleic acids levels increase according to the morbidity of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity.
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Analysis of the genetic variability of PvMSP-3? among Plasmodium vivax in Brazilian field isolates.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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Reliable molecular markers are essential for a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, which is a neglected human malaria parasite. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the highly polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMSP-3?) gene. To accomplish this, 60 isolates of P. vivax from different endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon were collected. The PvMSP-3? gene was amplified by nested-PCR. Three major types of the PvMSP-3? locus were detected at different frequencies: type A (68%), B (15%) and C (17%). A single sample showed two PCR fragments, which corresponded to infection with types A and C. PCR-RFLP analysis using the HhaI restriction enzyme for 52 isolates clearly identified 11 haplotypes, eight of which were from type A, two from type B and only one from type C. Seven other isolates did not show a clear pattern using PCR-RFLP. This result might be due to multiple clone infections. This study showed a high diversity of the PvMSP-3? gene among P. vivax isolates from the Brazilian Amazon, but also indicated that the detection performance of PCR-RFLP of the PvMSP-3? gene may not be sufficient to detect multiple clone infections.
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Augmented plasma microparticles during acute Plasmodium vivax infection.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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In the last few years, the study of microparticles (MPs)--submicron vesicles released from cells upon activation or apoptosis--has gained growing interest in the field of inflammation and in infectious diseases. Their role in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax remains unexplored. Because acute vivax malaria has been related to pro-inflammatory responses, the main hypothesis investigated in this study was that Plasmodium vivax infection is associated with elevated levels of circulating MPs, which may play a role during acute disease in non-immune patients.
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Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein.
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite genotypes: a limited variation or new subspecies with major biological consequences?
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants have been identified in several geographical areas. The real implication of the genetic variation in this region of the P. vivax genome has been questioned for a long time. Although previous studies have observed significant association between VK210 and the Duffy blood group, we present here that evidences of this variation are limited to the CSP central portion.
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Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) in Brazilian Amazon.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Duffy binding protein (DBP), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, plays a critical role in Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte invasion. Sixty-eight of 366 (18.6%) subjects had IgG anti-DBP antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a community-based cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Despite continuous exposure to low-level malaria transmission, the overall seroprevalence decreased to 9.0% when the population was reexamined 12 months later. Antibodies from 16 of 50 (36.0%) subjects who were ELISA-positive at the baseline were able to inhibit erythrocyte binding to at least one of two DBP variants tested. Most (13 of 16) of these subjects still had inhibitory antibodies when reevaluated 12 months later. Cumulative exposure to malaria was the strongest predictor of DBP seropositivity identified by multiple logistic regression models in this population. The poor antibody recognition of DBP elicited by natural exposure to P. vivax in Amazonian populations represents a challenge to be addressed by vaccine development strategies.
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Analysis of genetic variability of Plasmodium vivax isolates from different Brazilian Amazon areas using tandem repeats.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Few genetic markers have been described to analyze populations of Plasmodium vivax. The genetic variability of P. vivax has been analyzed mainly among isolates taken from areas ranging from hyper- to holoendemic areas. These studies of genetic variability have neglected many areas with different epidemiologic profiles. The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of P. vivax isolates from four different Brazilian Amazon areas. We chose to study the five most polymorphic tandem repeats (TRs) identified so far. All TRs studied were polymorphic in at least one studied population, with a modal allele at nearly all loci. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.462 to 0.666 and did not correlate with the repeat array length. The genetic distances among the populations varied from 0.027 to 0.241, and did not correlate with their geographic separation. Tandem repeats identified in P. vivax isolates failed to allow geographic clustering.
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Genetic variability in platelet integrin ?2?1 density: possible contributor to Plasmodium vivax-induced severe thrombocytopenia.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Understanding the pathogenesis of Plasmodium vivax malaria is challenging. We hypothesized that susceptibility to P. vivax-induced thrombocytopenia could be associated with polymorphisms on relevant platelet membrane integrins: integrin ?2 (C807T), and integrin ?3 (T1565C). Although ?3 polymorphism was not related with P. vivax malaria, ?2 807T carriers, which show high levels of integrin ?2?1, had a higher probability for severe thrombocytopenia than wild-type carriers. This evidence of the association of integrin polymorphism and P. vivax morbidity was further demonstrated by a moderate but significant correlation between clinical disease and surface levels of the integrin ?2?1.
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Multiple-clone activation of hypnozoites is the leading cause of relapse in Plasmodium vivax infection.
PLoS ONE
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Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by a dormant hepatic stage, the hypnozoite that is activated at varying periods of time after clearance of the primary acute blood-stage, resulting in relapse. Differentiation between treatment failure and new infections requires characterization of initial infections, relapses, and clone multiplicity in vivax malaria infections.
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Improving N-terminal protein annotation of Plasmodium species based on signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins.
Malar. J.
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Signal peptide is one of the most important motifs involved in protein trafficking and it ultimately influences protein function. Considering the expected functional conservation among orthologs it was hypothesized that divergence in signal peptides within orthologous groups is mainly due to N-terminal protein sequence misannotation. Thus, discrepancies in signal peptide prediction of orthologous proteins were used to identify misannotated proteins in five Plasmodium species.
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Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein: baseline antibody responses and parasite polymorphisms in a well-consolidated settlement of the Amazon Region.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate risk factors associated with the acquisition of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) - a leading malaria vaccine candidate - in a well-consolidated agricultural settlement of the Brazilian Amazon Region and to determine the sequence diversity of the PvDBP ligand domain (DBP(II)) within the local malaria parasite population.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.