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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ras pathway mutations are highly prevalent in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, may act as relapse-drivers and confer sensitivity to MEK inhibition.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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For most children who relapse with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the prognosis is poor and there is a need for novel therapies to improve outcome. We screened samples from children with B lineage ALL entered into the ALL-REZ BFM 2002 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00114348) for somatic mutations activating the Ras pathway (KRAS, NRAS, FLT3 and PTPN11) and showed mutation to be highly prevalent (76 from 206). Clinically, they were associated with high risk features including early relapse, CNS involvement and specifically for NRAS/KRAS mutations, chemoresistance. KRAS mutations were associated with a reduced overall survival. Mutation screening of the matched diagnostic samples found many to be wildtype but using more sensitive allelic specific assays, low level mutated subpopulations were found in many cases, suggesting that they survived up front therapy and subsequently emerged at relapse. Preclinical evaluation of the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) showed significant differential sensitivity in Ras pathway mutated ALL compared to wild type cells both in vitro and in a orthotopic xenograft model engrafted with primary ALL and in the latter, reduced RAS mutated CNS leukaemia. Given these data, clinical evaluation of selumetinib may be warranted for Ras pathway mutated relapsed ALL.
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Casitas B lymphoma mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL) proteins are RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligases that attenuate the signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases and are mutated in a number of myeloid disorders. In this study, mutational screening of the linker-RING domains of CBL and CBLB was performed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography in a cohort of diagnostic (n = 180) or relapse (n = 46) samples from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Somatic mutations were identified in three children, giving an overall incidence of 1.7% and involved small deletions affecting the intron/exon boundaries of exon 8, leading to skipping of exon 8 and abolishing E3 ligase function. Mutated primary samples were associated with constitutive activation of the RAS pathway and sensitivity to MEK inhibitors was shown. Thus, mutation of CBL is an alternative route to activate the RAS pathway and may identify children who are candidates for MEK inhibitor clinical trials.
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Genomic characterization implicates iAMP21 as a likely primary genetic event in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) defines a distinct subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) that has a dismal outcome when treated with standard therapy. For improved diagnosis and risk stratification, the initiating genetic events need to be elucidated. To investigate the genetic basis of BCP-ALL, genomes of 94 iAMP21 patients were interrogated by arrays, FISH, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Most copy number alterations targeted chromosome 21, reinforcing the complexity of this chromosome. The common region of amplification on chromosome 21 was refined to a 5.1-mb region that included RUNX1, miR-802, and genes mapping to the Down syndrome critical region. Recurrent abnormalities affecting genes in key pathways were identified: IKZF1 (22%), CDKN2A/B (17%), PAX5 (8%), ETV6 (19%), and RB1 (37%). Investigation of clonal architecture provided evidence that these abnormalities, and P2RY8-CRLF2, were secondary to chromosome 21 rearrangements. Patient outcome was uniformly poor with standard therapy irrespective of the presence or absence of these changes. This study has provided evidence that chromosome 21 instability is the only anomaly among those so far investigated that is common to all iAMP21 patients, and therefore the initiating event is likely to be found among the complex structural rearrangements of this abnormal chromosome.
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Mismatch repair and the downstream target genes, PAX5 and Ikaros, in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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The mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is a post-replicative DNA repair process and MMR deficiency is a common feature of ALL cell lines. In this study we have investigated MMR deficiency in a large cohort of primary relapsed ALL (n=40) and investigated coding microsatellites (MS) of the lymphoid transcription factors, PAX5 and IKZF1 as downstream target genes. Only one patient showed MMR deficiency, as evidenced by microsatellite instability, which was acquired at relapse and was associated with reduced expression of both MLH1 and MSH2. Coding MS in candidate target genes including PAX5, IKZF1, BAX and TGFBRII were all wild type in this patient but the MMR-deficient cell line REH, was confirmed to have a coding MS in both PAX5 and TGFBRII. Whilst MMR deficiency is not highly prevalent in primary ALL, optimisation of the drug regimen to omit/replace thioguanines should be considered for children with MMR deficiency and/or reduced expression of key pathway components.
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Flow minimal residual disease monitoring of candidate leukemic stem cells defined by the immunophenotype, CD34+CD38lowCD19+ in B-lineage childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Flow cytometric minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring could become more powerful if directed towards the disease-maintaining leukemic stem cell (LSC) compartment. Using a cohort of 48 children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we sought the newly proposed candidate-LSC population, CD34(+)CD38(low)CD19(+), at presentation and in end of induction bone marrow samples. We identified the candidate LSC population in 60% of diagnostic samples and its presence correlated with expression of CD38, relative to that of normal B-cell progenitors. In addition, the candidate LSC was not detectable in all MRD positive samples. The absence of the population in 40% of diagnostic and 40% of MRD positive samples does not support the use of this phenotype as a generic biomarker to track LSCs and suggests that this phenotype may be an artifact of CD38 underexpression rather than a biologically distinct LSC population. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00222612.
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Deregulated expression of cytokine receptor gene, CRLF2, is involved in lymphoid transformation in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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We report 2 novel, cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL): a translocation, either t(X;14)(p22;q32) or t(Y;14)(p11;q32), in 33 patients and an interstitial deletion, either del(X)(p22.33p22.33) or del(Y)(p11.32p11.32), in 64 patients, involving the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. The incidence of these abnormalities was 5% in childhood ALL (0.8% with the translocation, 4.2% with the deletion). Patients with the translocation were older (median age, 16 years), whereas the patients with the deletion were younger (median age, 4 years). The 2 abnormalities result in deregulated expression of the cytokine receptor, cytokine receptor-like factor 2, CRLF2 (also known as thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin receptor, TSLPR). Overexpression of CRLF2 was associated with activation of the JAK-STAT pathway in cell lines and transduced primary B-cell progenitors, sustaining their proliferation and indicating a causal role of CRLF2 overexpression in lymphoid transformation. In Down syndrome (DS) ALL and 2 non-DS BCP-ALL cell lines, CRLF2 deregulation was associated with mutations of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain, suggesting oncogenic cooperation as well as highlighting a link between non-DS ALL and JAK2 mutations.
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Establishment and validation of a standard protocol for the detection of minimal residual disease in B lineage childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry in a multi-center setting.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Minimal residual disease detection, used for clinical management of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, can be performed by molecular analysis of antigen-receptor gene rearrangements or by flow cytometric analysis of aberrant immunophenotypes. For flow minimal residual disease to be incorporated into larger national and international trials, a quality assured, standardized method is needed which can be performed in a multi-center setting. We report a four color, flow cytometric protocol established and validated by the UK acute lymphoblastic leukemia Flow minimal residual disease group. Quality assurance testing gave high inter-laboratory agreement with no values differing from a median consensus value by more than one point on a logarithmic scale. Prospective screening of B-ALL patients (n=206) showed the method was applicable to 88.3% of patients. The minimal residual disease in bone marrow aspirates was quantified and compared to molecular data. The combined risk category concordance (minimal residual disease levels above or below 0.01%) was 86% (n=134). Thus, this standardized protocol is highly reproducible between laboratories, sensitive, applicable, and shows good concordance with molecular-based analysis.
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A comprehensive analysis of the CDKN2A gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia reveals genomic deletion, copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, and association with specific cytogenetic subgroups.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A, can occur by deletion, methylation, or mutation. We assessed the principal mode of inactivation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and frequency in biologically relevant subgroups. Mutation or methylation was rare, whereas genomic deletion occurred in 21% of B-cell precursor ALL and 50% of T-ALL patients. Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays revealed copy number neutral (CNN) loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 8% of patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated that the mean size of deletions was 14.8 Mb and biallelic deletions composed a large and small deletion (mean sizes, 23.3 Mb and 1.4 Mb). Among 86 patients, only 2 small deletions were below the resolution of detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Patients with high hyperdiploidy, ETV6-RUNX1, or 11q23/MLL rearrangements had low rates of deletion (11%, 15%, 13%), whereas patients with t(9;22), t(1;19), TLX3, or TLX1 rearrangements had higher frequencies (61%, 42%, 78%, and 89%). In conclusion, CDKN2A deletion is a significant secondary abnormality in childhood ALL strongly correlated with phenotype and genotype. The variation in the incidence of CDKN2A deletions by cytogenetic subgroup may explain its inconsistent association with outcome. CNN LOH without apparent CDKN2A inactivation suggests the presence of other relevant genes in this region.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.