There is an association between persistent, prolonged inflammation of a primary tooth and the development of an inflammatory dentigerous cyst involving the succedaneous tooth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of an inflammatory dentigerous cyst of the permanent maxillary left central incisor in a nine-year-old boy caused by a long-term inflammation/infection of its predecessor. The treatment consisted of conservative decompression, which allowed for rapid healing and the eruption of the permanent tooth. The patient was followed up with periodic clinical and radiographic evaluations for several years.
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of chemical-mechanical procedures of two endodontic protocols for septic content reduction of root canals from primary teeth with pulp necrosis and periradicular lesion. Twenty-four primary root canals with pulp necrosis and periradicular lesion were divided into two treatment groups (n=12): multiple-visit and single-visit protocols. Samples were collected using sterile paper points before and after endodontic cleaning followed by microbiological identification through checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Statistical analysis was performed using Proportion Test for score=0 comparing the findings before and after treatment for each group (Wilcoxon's test) as well as the differences in scores between protocols (Mann-Whitney's test) (p<0.05). Data were expressed as prevalence (presence or absence) and estimate of the average count (x10(5) cells) of each species. Differences in proportions of score=0 prior to treatment were non-significant (p=0.415), demonstrating equivalence between groups. A significant increase in score=0 was detected after treatment for both groups (p<0.0001). Single-visit protocol achieved a significantly greater reduction in mean scoring following endodontic treatment (p=0.024). Both protocols were capable of significantly reducing septic content in root canals of primary teeth with periradicular lesion. Moreover, single-visit protocol showed greater efficacy in reducing endodontic infection.
Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analog of the Morris water maze (MWM), the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN) task.
BACKGROUND: The chronic course of schizophrenia typically results in severe social, vocational and functional impairment, interferes with patients autonomy, reduces quality of life and increases disability. AIMS: The aim of our study was: (1) to assess social and functional impairment in schizophrenia outpatients from the Czech Republic and Slovakia; and (2) to examine a relationship between functioning and antipsychotic treatment and demographic variables. METHODS: Schizophrenia outpatients in a stable phase of illness, treated with current antipsychotic medication for a minimum of one month, were enrolled for the study. Demographic and medication data were recorded. The Personal and Social Performance (PSP), Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptics (SWN) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scales were administered. RESULTS: The total number of study subjects was 926. Most PSP values were within the interval of moderate impairment. Functional performance correlated positively with subjective satisfaction with medication and negatively with symptom severity. Higher education predicted better functioning on PSP. The best performance was associated with a stable relationship and a useful work role. Patients who showed the best level of functioning were more likely to be treated with antipsychotic monotherapy. No difference among drugs in monotherapy was found in subjective satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The PSP values of stable schizophrenia outpatients indicated a moderate degree of impairment. Improvement of functional capacity remains one of the unmet needs of schizophrenia patients.
This study evaluated the histometric characteristics of the peri-implant mucosa of human subjects that received textured implant abutments with conventional (implant and abutment with same diameter) or platform-switched (implant diameter wider than that of the abutment) configurations. Wider and longer connective tissue around platform-switched implants was observed compared to that with conventional abutments. Despite the different dimensions between the two abutment types, the abutment-soft tissue interaction was similar for both groups at the histometric level.
There is a current debate about the ecological validity of executive function (EF) tests. Consistent with the verisimilitude approach, this research proposes the ballet executive scale (BES), a self-rating questionnaire that assimilates idiosyncratic executive behaviors of classical dance community. The BES was administrated to 149 adolescents, students of the Cuban Ballet School. Results present a Cronbachs alpha coefficient of .80 and a split-half Spearman-Brown coefficient r (SB) = .81. An exploratory factor analysis describes a bifactorial pattern of EF dimensions, with a self-regulation component, which explains more than 40% of variance, and a Developmental component, which accounts for more than 20% of variance. The questionnaires total scores fit linear regression models with two external criteria of academic records, confirming concurrent validity. These findings support the hypothesis that the internalization of specific contextual cultural meanings has a mediating influence in the development of EF.
Despite the progress in the pharmacotherapy of depression, there is a substantial proportion of treatment-resistant patients. Recently, reversible invasive stimulation methods, i.e. vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), have been introduced into the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). VNS has already received regulatory approval for TRD. This paper reviews the available clinical evidence and neurobiology of VNS and DBS in TRD. The principle of VNS is a stimulation of the left cervical vagus nerve with a programmable neurostimulator. VNS was examined in 4 clinical trials with 355 patients. VNS demonstrated steadily increasing improvement with full benefit after 6-12 months, sustained up to 2 years. Patients who responded best had a low-to-moderate antidepressant resistance. However, the primary results of the only controlled trial were negative. DBS involves stereotactical implantation of electrodes powered by a pulse generator into the specific brain regions. For depression, the targeted areas are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus, ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum, the subgenual cingulated region, and the nucleus accumbens. Antidepressant effects of DBS were examined in case series with a total number of 50 TRD patients. Stimulation of different brain regions resulted in a reduction of depressive symptoms. The clinical data on the use of VNS and DBS in TRD are encouraging. The major contribution of the methods is a novel approach that allows for precise targeting of the specific brain areas, nuclei and circuits implicated in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. For clinical practice, it is necessary to identify patients who may best benefit from VNS or DBS.
Hyaluronidases (Hyal) present in the venom of poisonous animals have been considered as "spreading factors" that facilitate a fast penetration of the venom in the prey. We have found that hyaluronidase from the tarantula Brachypelma vagans venom (BvHyal) displays a substrate-specific Hyal activity against hyaluronan. By using a combined strategy based on peptide sequencing and RT-PCR, we have cloned a BvHyal cDNA. Active recombinant BvHyal was efficiently expressed in a baculovirus system in insect cell.
Rotavirus VP6 nanotubes are an attractive option for a recombinant vaccine against rotavirus disease. Protection against rotavirus infection and an adjuvant effect have been observed upon immunization with VP6 nanotubes. However, little information exists on how VP6 nanotubes interact with cells and trigger an immune response. In this work, the interaction between VP6 nanotubes and different cell lines was characterized. VP6 nanotubes were not cytotoxic to any of the animal or human cell lines tested. Uptake of nanotubes into cells was cell-line-dependent, as only THP1 and J774 macrophage cells internalized them. Moreover, the size and spatial arrangement of VP6 assembled into nanotubes allowed their uptake by macrophages, as double-layered rotavirus-like particles also displaying VP6 in their surface were not taken up. The internalization of VP6 nanotubes was inhibited by methyl-?-cyclodextrin, but not by genistein, indicating that nanotube entry is specific, depends on the presence of cholesterol in the plasma membrane, and does not require the activity of tyrosine kinases. The information generated here expands our understanding of the interaction of protein nanotubes with cells, which is useful for the application of VP6 nanotubes as a vaccine.
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