An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-LFFLv (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs.
Tumor cells often exhibit an altered metabolic phenotype. However, it is unclear as to when this switch takes place in ovarian cancer, and the potential for these changes to serve as therapeutic targets in clinical prevention and intervention trials. We used our recently developed and characterized mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cancer progression model to study metabolic changes in distinct disease stages. As ovarian cancer progresses, complete oxidation of glucose and fatty acids were significantly decreased, concurrent with increases in lactate excretion and (3)H-deoxyglucose uptake by the late-stage cancer cells, shifting the cells towards a more glycolytic phenotype. These changes were accompanied by decreases in TCA flux but an increase in citrate synthase activity, providing substrates for de novo fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Also, uncoupled maximal respiration rates in mitochondria decreased as cancer progressed. Treatment of the MOSE cells with 1.5 ?M sphingosine, a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, decreased citrate synthase activity, increased TCA flux, decreased cholesterol synthesis and glycolysis. Together, our data confirm metabolic changes during ovarian cancer progression, indicate a stage specificity of these changes, and suggest that multiple events in cellular metabolism are targeted by exogenous sphingosine which may be critical for future prevention trials.
We tested the hypothesis that olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) devoid of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist activity, would improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese individuals with elevated blood pressure (BP). Sixteen individuals (8 women, 8 men; age=49.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass index=33.0 ± 1.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned in a crossover manner to control and ARB interventions. Insulin sensitivity was determined from intravenous glucose tolerances tests before and after each 8-week intervention. BP, body weight, body fat, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and insulin sensitivity were similar at baseline for both treatments (all p > 0.05). Diastolic BP and triglyceride concentrations were higher (p = 0.007 and 0.042 respectively) at baseline for the ARB compared with the control intervention. Systolic (-11.7 mmHg; p = 0.008) and diastolic (-12.1 mmHg; p = 0.0001) BP decreased, however insulin sensitivity did not change (p > 0.05) following ARB treatment. Furthermore, there were no significant correlates of changes in insulin sensitivity following the ARB intervention. In summary, our findings indicate that short-term ARB treatment did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight or obese individuals with elevated BP. Future studies are needed to clarify the effect of individual ARBs on insulin sensitivity in obesity.
Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a lifespan sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late life health.
MicroRNAs modulate cellular phenotypes by inhibiting expression of mRNA targets. In this study, we have shown that the muscle-specific microRNAs miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2 are essential for multiple facets of skeletal muscle function and homeostasis in mice. Mice with genetic deletions of miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2 developed adult-onset centronuclear myopathy in type II (fast-twitch) myofibers, accompanied by impaired mitochondrial function, fast-to-slow myofiber conversion, and disarray of muscle triads (sites of excitation- contraction coupling). These abnormalities mimicked human centronuclear myopathies and could be ascribed, at least in part, to dysregulation of the miR-133a target mRNA that encodes dynamin 2, a GTPase implicated in human centronuclear myopathy. Our findings reveal an essential role for miR-133a in the maintenance of adult skeletal muscle structure, function, bioenergetics, and myofiber identity; they also identify a potential modulator of centronuclear myopathies.
With the aging of the baby-boom generation and increases in life expectancy, the American population is growing older. Aging is associated with adverse changes in glucose tolerance and increased risk of diabetes; the increasing prevalence of diabetes among older adults suggests a clear need for effective diabetes prevention approaches for this population. The purpose of paper is to review what is known about changes in glucose tolerance with advancing age and the potential utility of resistance training (RT) as an intervention to prevent diabetes among middle-aged and older adults. Age-related factors contributing to glucose intolerance, which may be improved with RT, include improvements in insulin signaling defects, reductions in tumor necrosis factor-?, increases in adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, and reductions in total and abdominal visceral fat. Current RT recommendations and future areas for investigation are presented.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a protein integral to innate immunity, is elevated in skeletal muscle of obese and type 2 diabetic humans and has been implicated in the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of TLR4 as a modulator of basal (non-insulin-stimulated) substrate metabolism in skeletal muscle with the hypothesis that its activation would result in reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased partitioning of fatty acids toward neutral lipid storage. Human skeletal muscle, rodent skeletal muscle, and skeletal muscle cell cultures were employed to study the functional consequences of TLR4 activation on glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that activation of TLR4 with low (metabolic endotoxemia) and high (septic conditions) doses of LPS results in increased glucose utilization and reduced fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle and that these changes in metabolism in vivo occur in concert with increased circulating triglycerides. Moreover, animals with a loss of TLR4 function possess increased oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle and present with lower fasting levels of triglycerides and nonesterified free fatty acids. Evidence is also presented to suggest that these changes in substrate metabolism under metabolic endotoxemic conditions are independent of skeletal muscle-derived proinflammatory cytokine production. This report illustrates that skeletal muscle is a target for circulating endotoxin and may provide critical insight into the link between a proinflammatory state and dysregulated metabolism as observed with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
This study assessed cardiovascular disease risk factors in three groups of human subjects aged 20-34 [young, 20 male (M)/33 female (F)], 60-74 (aged, 29M/29F), and > 90 years (nonagenarian, 47M/50F). Components of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. Nonagenarians weighed less than the two other groups (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in percent fat among the three groups. Aged individuals had the highest prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001) according to the Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Both fibrinogen and homocysteine concentrations were significantly higher in the nonagenarians compared to younger groups. However, there were no significant differences between groups in fasting insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations. There were also no relationships between inflammation/ oxidative stress and the metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease although nonagenarians appear to be protected from oxidative damage to DNA.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and deranged regulation of metabolic genes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through stimulation of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors. We report that the PGC-1? gene encodes two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-378 and miR-378*, which counterbalance the metabolic actions of PGC-1?. Mice genetically lacking miR-378 and miR-378* are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and exhibit enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and elevated oxidative capacity of insulin-target tissues. Among the many targets of these miRNAs, carnitine O-acetyltransferase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, and MED13, a component of the Mediator complex that controls nuclear hormone receptor activity, are repressed by miR-378 and miR-378*, respectively, and are elevated in the livers of miR-378/378* KO mice. Consistent with these targets as contributors to the metabolic actions of miR-378 and miR-378*, previous studies have implicated carnitine O-acetyltransferase and MED13 in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Our findings identify miR-378 and miR-378* as integral components of a regulatory circuit that functions under conditions of metabolic stress to control systemic energy homeostasis and the overall oxidative capacity of insulin target tissues. Thus, these miRNAs provide potential targets for pharmacologic intervention in obesity and metabolic syndrome.
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