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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Renal F4/80+CD11c+ Mononuclear Phagocytes Display Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Macrophages in Health and in Adriamycin Nephropathy.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Conventional markers of macrophages (M?s) and dendritic cells (DCs) lack specificity and often overlap, leading to confusion and controversy regarding the precise function of these cells in kidney and other diseases. This study aimed to identify the phenotype and function of renal mononuclear phagocytes (rMPs) expressing key markers of both M?s and DCs. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells accounted for 45% of total rMPs in normal kidneys and in those from mice with Adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Despite expression of the DC marker CD11c, these double-positive rMPs displayed the features of M?s, including M?-like morphology, high expression of CD68, CD204, and CD206, and high phagocytic ability but low antigen-presenting ability. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were found in the cortex but not in the medulla of the kidney. In AN, F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells displayed an M1 M? phenotype with high expression of inflammatory mediators and costimulatory factors. Adoptive transfer of F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells separated from diseased kidney aggravated renal injury in AN mice. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of common progenitors revealed that kidney F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were derived predominantly from monocytes, but not from pre-DCs. In conclusion, renal F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells are a major subset of rMPs and display M?-like phenotypic and functional characteristics in health and in AN.
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A rare variant in human fibroblast activation protein associated with ER stress, loss of enzymatic function and loss of cell surface localisation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a focus of interest as a potential cancer therapy target. This membrane bound protease possesses the unique catalytic activity of hydrolysis of the post-proline bond two or more residues from the N-terminus of substrates. FAP is highly expressed in activated fibroblastic cells in tumours, arthritis and fibrosis. A rare, novel, human polymorphism, C1088T, encoding Ser363 to Leu, occurring in the sixth blade of the ? propeller domain, was identified in a family. Both in primary human fibroblasts and in Ser363LeuFAP transfected cells, we showed that this single substitution ablates FAP dimerisation and causes loss of enzyme activity. Ser363LeuFAP was detectable only in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in contrast to the distribution of wild-type FAP on the cell surface. The variant FAP showed decreased conformational antibody binding, consistent with an altered tertiary structure. Ser363LeuFAP expression was associated with upregulation of the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78, ER stress sensor ATF6, and the ER stress response target phospho-eIF2?, all indicators of ER stress. Proteasomal inhibition resulted in accumulation of Ser363LeuFAP, indicating the involvement of ER associated degradation (ERAD). Neither CHOP expression nor apoptosis was elevated, so ERAD is probably important for protecting Ser363LeuFAP expressing cells. These data on the first loss of function human FAP gene variant indicates that although the protein is vulnerable to an amino acid substitution in the ?-propeller domain, inactive, unfolded FAP can be tolerated by cells.
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Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naïve HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.
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Regulatory T cells require renal antigen recognition through the TCR to protect against injury in nephritis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. Adoptive transfer of Tregs is protective in renal disease models in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. However the involvement of TCR recognition of renal antigens remains to be clarified. To address this question, we made use of Tregs from the DO11.10 mouse (a TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse), that recognise the non-murine antigen Ovalbumin (OVA) and therefore are not activated by renal antigens. DO11.10 Tregs were assessed functionally in vitro and demonstrated equivalent suppression to WT BALB/c Tregs. Adriamycin Nephropathy (AN) was induced in mice which had been transfused with CD4+CD25+Tregs isolated from DO11.10 or BALB/c mice. To eliminate the memory/activation state as a cause of differences in activity, the protective capacity of DO11.10 Tregs pre-activated with OVA in vivo was assessed. Transfer of WT BALB/c Tregs significantly attenuated the development of AN with less glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and macrophage infiltration as compared to AN mice without Treg transfer. However, mice receiving either naïve or pre-activated DO11.10 Tregs were not protected from AN. The lack of protection by DO11.10 Tregs was not due to failure to traffic to the affected kidney. These results suggest that antigen recognition in the kidney is important for Treg protection against injury.
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High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Over the recent years, antibodies against surface and conformational proteins involved in neurotransmission have been detected in autoimmune CNS diseases in children and adults. These antibodies have been used to guide diagnosis and treatment. Cell-based assays have improved the detection of antibodies in patient serum. They are based on the surface expression of brain antigens on eukaryotic cells, which are then incubated with diluted patient sera followed by fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing, secondary antibody binding is then analyzed by flow cytometry. Our group has developed a high-throughput flow cytometry live cell-based assay to reliably detect antibodies against specific neurotransmitter receptors. This flow cytometry method is straight forward, quantitative, efficient, and the use of a high-throughput sampler system allows for large patient cohorts to be easily assayed in a short space of time. Additionally, this cell-based assay can be easily adapted to detect antibodies to many different antigenic targets, both from the central nervous system and periphery. Discovering additional novel antibody biomarkers will enable prompt and accurate diagnosis and improve treatment of immune-mediated disorders.
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Efficacy and safety 48 weeks after switching from efavirenz to rilpivirine using emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based single-tablet regimens.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Due to ongoing neuropsychiatric adverse events in some efavirenz (EFV)-treated patients, a switch to an alternative non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor may be considered. Rilpivirine (RPV) has been coformulated as a single-tablet regimen (STR) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), and the components have demonstrated noninferior efficacy to EFV+FTC/TDF, good tolerability profile, and high adherence. After discontinuation, EFV has an extended inductive effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 that, after switching, may reduce RPV exposures and adversely impact clinical outcomes.
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Quantitative and qualitative differences in the T cell response to HIV in uninfected Ugandans exposed or unexposed to HIV-infected partners.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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HIV-exposed and yet persistently uninfected individuals have been an intriguing, repeated observation in multiple studies, but uncertainty persists on the significance and implications of this in devising protective strategies against HIV. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of exposed uninfected partners in a Ugandan cohort of heterosexual serodiscordant couples (37.5% antiretroviral therapy naive) comparing their T cell responses to HIV peptides with those of unexposed uninfected individuals. We used an objective definition of exposure and inclusion criteria, blinded ex vivo and cultured gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunospot assays, and multiparameter flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining to investigate the features of the HIV-specific response in exposed versus unexposed uninfected individuals. A response rate to HIV was detectable in unexposed uninfected (5.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3 to 8.1%) and, at a significantly higher level (12.5%, 95% CI = 9.7 to 15.4%, P = 0.0004), in exposed uninfected individuals. The response rate to Gag was significantly higher in exposed uninfected (10/50 [20.%]) compared to unexposed uninfected (1/35 [2.9%]) individuals (P = 0.0004). The magnitude of responses was also greater in exposed uninfected individuals but not statistically significant. The average number of peptide pools recognized was significantly higher in exposed uninfected subjects than in unexposed uninfected subjects (1.21 versus 0.47; P = 0.0106). The proportion of multifunctional responses was different in the two groups, with a higher proportion of single cytokine responses, mostly IFN-?, in unexposed uninfected individuals compared to exposed uninfected individuals. Our findings demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative differences in T cell reactivity to HIV between HESN (HIV exposed seronegative) and HUSN (HIV unexposed seronegative) subject groups but do not discriminate as to whether they represent markers of exposure or of protection against HIV infection.
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Cross sectional survey of influenza antibodies before and during the 2009 pandemic in Shenzhen, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen - the largest migration city in China. We found that the 0-5 age group had an increased antibody level for all types of seasonal influenza during the pandemic compared to the pre-outbreak level, in contrast with almost all other age groups, in which the antibody level decreased. Also, distinct from the antibodies of A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria that decreased significantly during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the antibody of A/H1N1 showed no statistical difference from the pre-outbreak level. The results suggest that the antibodies against the 2009 sH1N1 cross-reacted with seasonal H1N1. Moreover, the 0-5 age group was under attack by both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza during the pandemic, hence vaccination merely against a new strain of flu might not be enough to protect the youngest group.
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Development and implementation of an international proficiency testing program for a neutralizing antibody assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Recent advances in assay technology have led to major improvements in how HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies are measured. A luciferase reporter gene assay performed in TZM-bl (JC53bl-13) cells has been optimized and validated. Because this assay has been adopted by multiple laboratories worldwide, an external proficiency testing program was developed to ensure data equivalency across laboratories performing this neutralizing antibody assay for HIV/AIDS vaccine clinical trials. The program was optimized by conducting three independent rounds of testing, with an increased level of stringency from the first to third round. Results from the participating domestic and international laboratories improved each round as factors that contributed to inter-assay variability were identified and minimized. Key contributors to increased agreement were experience among laboratories and standardization of reagents. A statistical qualification rule was developed using a simulation procedure based on the three optimization rounds of testing, where a laboratory qualifies if at least 25 of the 30 ID50 values lie within the acceptance ranges. This ensures no more than a 20% risk that a participating laboratory fails to qualify when it should, as defined by the simulation procedure. Five experienced reference laboratories were identified and tested a series of standardized reagents to derive the acceptance ranges for pass-fail criteria. This Standardized Proficiency Testing Program is the first available for the evaluation and documentation of assay equivalency for laboratories performing HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assays and may provide guidance for the development of future proficiency testing programs for other assay platforms.
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Differences in HIV-specific T cell responses between HIV-exposed and -unexposed HIV-seronegative individuals.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses in individuals exposed to HIV-1 but who remain persistently seronegative (HESNs) have been reported in some but not all previous studies. This study was designed to resolve unequivocally the question of whether HESNs make HIV-1-specific T cell responses. We performed a blind investigation to measure HIV-1-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-serodiscordant couples and HIV-1-unexposed seronegative controls (HUSNs). We found low-frequency HIV-1-specific T cells in both HESNs and HUSNs but show that the response rates were higher over time in the former (P = 0.01). Furthermore, the magnitudes of the HIV-1-specific T cell responses were significantly higher among responding HESNs than among HUSNs over time (P = 0.002). In both groups, responses were mediated by CD4 T cells. The responses were mapped to single peptides, which often corresponded to epitopes restricted by multiple HLA-DR types that have previously been detected in HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-1-specific T cell responses in HUSNs and some HESNs likely represent cross-reactivity to self or foreign non-HIV-1 antigens. The significantly greater T cell responses in HESNs, including in two who were homozygous for CCR5?32, demonstrates that HIV-1-specific T cell responses can be induced or augmented by exposure to HIV-1 without infection.
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Magnitude and breadth of a nonprotective neutralizing antibody response in an efficacy trial of a candidate HIV-1 gp120 vaccine.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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A candidate vaccine consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subunit gp120 protein was found previously to be nonprotective in an efficacy trial (Vax004) despite strong antibody responses against the vaccine antigens. Here we assessed the magnitude and breadth of neutralizing antibody responses in Vax004.
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Gastric bypass increases energy expenditure in rats.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Mechanisms underlying weight loss maintenance after gastric bypass are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the effects of gastric bypass on energy expenditure in rats.
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Comparison of sexual behavior and HIV risk between two HIV-1 serodiscordant couple cohorts: the CHAVI 002 study.
PLoS ONE
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The CHAVI002 study was designed to characterize immune responses, particularly HIV-specific T-cell responses, amongst 2 cohorts of HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals. The absence of a clear definition of HESNs has impaired comparison of research within and between such cohorts. This report describes two distinct HESN cohorts and attempts to quantify HIV exposure using a HIV risk index (RI) model.
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CD8+ regulatory T cells induced by T cell vaccination protect against autoimmune nephritis.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
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Autoreactive T cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune kidney disease. T cell vaccination (TCV) may limit autoimmune disease and induce CD8+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). We used Heymann nephritis (HN), a rat model of human membranous nephritis, to study the effects of TCV on autoimmune kidney disease. We harvested CD4+ T cells from renal tubular antigen (Fx1A) -immunized rats and activated these cells in vitro to express the MHC Class Ib molecule Qa-1. Vaccination of Lewis rats with these autoreactive Fx1A-induced T cells protected against HN, whereas control-primed T cells did not. Rats that underwent TCV had lower levels of proteinuria and serum creatinine and significantly less glomerulosclerosis, tubular damage, and interstitial infiltrates. Furthermore, these rats expressed less IFN-? and IL-6 in splenocytes, whereas the numbers of Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 were unchanged. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed CD8+ T cell-mediated elimination of Qa-1-expressing CD4+ T cells. In vivo, TCV abrogated the increase in Qa-1-expressing CXCR5+ TFH cells observed in HN compared with controls. Taken together, these results suggest that TCV protects against autoimmune kidney disease by targeting Qa-1-expressing autoreactive CD4+ cells.
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Safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine with or without IL-12 and/or IL-15 plasmid cytokine adjuvant in healthy, HIV-1 uninfected adults.
PLoS ONE
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DNA vaccines are a promising approach to vaccination since they circumvent the problem of vector-induced immunity. DNA plasmid cytokine adjuvants have been shown to augment immune responses in small animals and in macaques.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.