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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Personal particulate matter exposures and locations of students in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Air pollution exposure and places where the exposures occur may differ in cities in the developing world compared with high-income countries. Our aim was to measure personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure of students in neighborhoods of varying socioeconomic status in Accra, Ghana, and to quantify the main predictors of exposure. We measured 24-hour PM2.5 exposure of 56 students from eight schools in four neighborhoods. PM2.5 was measured both gravimetrically and continuously, with time-matched global positioning system coordinates. We collected data on determinants of exposure, such as distances of homes and schools from main roads and fuel used for cooking at their home or in the area of residence/school. The association of PM2.5 exposure with sources was estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Personal PM2.5 exposures ranged from less than 10??g/m(3) to more than 150??g/m(3) (mean 56??g/m(3)). Girls had higher exposure than boys (67 vs 44??g/m(3); P-value=0.001). Exposure was inversely associated with distance of home or school to main roads, but the associations were not statistically significant in the multivariate model. Use of biomass fuels in the area where the school was located was also associated with higher exposure, as was household's own biomass use. Paved schoolyard surface was associated with lower exposure. School locations in relation to major roads, materials of school ground surfaces, and biomass use in the area around schools may be important determinants of air pollution exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 August 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.56.
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Highway proximity and black carbon from cookstoves as a risk factor for higher blood pressure in rural China.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China's economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P < 0.001), followed by PM mass and water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC's health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions.
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Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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High sodium intake increases blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the effects of sodium intake on global cardiovascular mortality are uncertain.
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A feasibility study of the association of exposure to biomass smoke with vascular function, inflammation, and cellular aging.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Biomass smoke at higher concentrations is associated with respiratory symptoms and, after years of exposure, increased risk of respiratory disorders in adults, but its effects on cardiovascular diseases are not well characterized, particularly compared with other pollution sources like tobacco smoke or traffic.
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Variations in Ischemic Heart Disease Burden by Age, Country, and Income: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010 Study.
Glob Heart
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) was the leading cause of disease burden worldwide in 2010. The majority of IHD burden affected middle income regions. We hypothesized that IHD burden may vary among countries, even within the same broad geographic region.
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Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25×25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Countries have agreed to reduce premature mortality (defined as the probability of dying between the ages of 30 years and 70 years) from four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs)--cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes--by 25% from 2010 levels by 2025 (referred to as 25×25 target). Targets for selected NCD risk factors have also been agreed on. We estimated the contribution of achieving six risk factor targets towards meeting the 25×25 mortality target.
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Temporal trends in ischemic heart disease mortality in 21 world regions, 1980 to 2010: the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors and Injuries 2010 Study estimated global and regional IHD mortality from 1980 to 2010.
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The global burden of ischemic heart disease in 1990 and 2010: the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Ischemic heart disease (IHD) burden consists of years of life lost from IHD deaths and years of disability lived with 3 nonfatal IHD sequelae: nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and ischemic heart failure. Our aim was to estimate the global and regional burden of IHD in 1990 and 2010.
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An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking.
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Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Although stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, no comprehensive and comparable assessment of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, and epidemiological trends has been estimated for most regions. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010.
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Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited.
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Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1·8 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Body-mass index (BMI) and diabetes have increased worldwide, whereas global average blood pressure and cholesterol have decreased or remained unchanged in the past three decades. We quantified how much of the effects of BMI on coronary heart disease and stroke are mediated through blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose, and how much is independent of these factors.
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Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To summarise evidence on the associations of maternal anaemia and prenatal iron use with maternal haematological and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and to evaluate potential exposure-response relations of dose of iron, duration of use, and haemoglobin concentration in prenatal period with pregnancy outcomes.
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Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries.
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Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups.
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The contributions of risk factor trends to cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized countries.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Cardiovascular disease mortality has declined and diabetes mortality has increased in high-income countries. We estimated the potential role of trends in population body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and smoking in cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized countries.
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Effect of air pollution control on life expectancy in the United States: an analysis of 545 U.S. counties for the period from 2000 to 2007.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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In recent years (2000-2007), ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have continued to decline as a result of interventions, but the decline has been at a slower rate than previous years (1980-2000). Whether these more recent and slower declines of PM2.5 levels continue to improve life expectancy and whether they benefit all populations equally is unknown.
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Contribution of H. pylori and smoking trends to US incidence of intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma: a microsimulation model.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Although gastric cancer has declined dramatically in the US, the disease remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A better understanding of reasons for the decline can provide important insights into effective preventive strategies. We sought to estimate the contribution of risk factor trends on past and future intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA) incidence.
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The global cardiovascular risk transition: associations of four metabolic risk factors with national income, urbanization, and Western diet in 1980 and 2008.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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It is commonly assumed that cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with affluence and Westernization. We investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol with national income, Western diet, and, for BMI, urbanization in 1980 and 2008.
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Fine particulate air pollution and life expectancies in the United States: the role of influential observations.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Changes in life expectancy (LE) across metropolitan areas in the United States have been associated with substantial differential reductions in fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm; PM2.5) air pollution that occurred during the 1980s and 1990s. It has been suggested that a single influential observation was largely responsible for the statistically significant LE-PM2.5 associations. In this paper, the role of influential observations is further explored. Stable and statistically significant LE-PM2.5 associations are observed in analyses that control for available socioeconomic, demographic, and proxy smoking variables and that use robust regression procedures that are relatively resistant to influential observations. These associations are not dependent upon the inclusion or exclusion of any single observation. Implications: These results contribute to the large and growing literature indicating that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution has substantive adverse effects on human health. These results, however, also provide encouraging evidence that the improvements in air quality that occurred during the 1980s and 1990s contributed to measurable improvements in human health and life expectancy in the United States.
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UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to examine the patterns of health loss in the UK, the leading preventable risks that explain some of these patterns, and how UK outcomes compare with a set of comparable countries in the European Union and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010.
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The effect of multiple anthropometric deficits on child mortality: meta-analysis of individual data in 10 prospective studies from developing countries.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Child stunting, wasting, and underweight have been individually associated with increased mortality. However, there has not been an analysis of the mortality risk associated with multiple anthropometric deficits.
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Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends on the countrys stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs in disadvantaged groups is necessary to achieve substantial decreases in the total NCD burden, making them mutually reinforcing priorities. Effective actions to reduce NCD inequalities include equitable early childhood development programmes and education; removal of barriers to secure employment in disadvantaged groups; comprehensive strategies for tobacco and alcohol control and for dietary salt reduction that target low socioeconomic status groups; universal, financially and physically accessible, high-quality primary care for delivery of preventive interventions and for early detection and treatment of NCDs; and universal insurance and other mechanisms to remove financial barriers to health care.
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Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of tuberculosis: prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand-smoke exposure and tuberculosis is limited.
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The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available.
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Associations of suboptimal growth with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in children under five years: a pooled analysis of ten prospective studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies.
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The exposure of infants and children to carbon monoxide from biomass fuels in The Gambia: a measurement and modeling study.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Smoke from biomass fuels is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of child death worldwide. Although particulate matter (PM) is the metric of choice for studying the health effects of biomass smoke, measuring childrens PM exposure is difficult. Carbon monoxide (CO), which is easier to measure, can be used as a proxy for PM exposure. We measured the exposure of children ? 5 years of age in The Gambia to CO using small, passive, color stain diffusion tubes. We conducted multiple CO measurements on a subset of children to measure day-to-day exposure variability. Usual CO exposure was modeled using a mixed effects model, which also included individual and household level exposure predictors. Mean measured CO exposure for 1181 children (n=2263 measurements) was 1.04 ± 1.46?p.p.m., indicating that the Gambian children in this study on average have a relatively low CO exposure. However, 25% of children had exposures of 1.3?p.p.m. or higher. CO exposure was higher during the rainy months (1.33 ± 1.62?p.p.m.). Burning insect coils, using charcoal, and measurement done in the rainy season were associated with higher exposure. A parsimonious model with fuel, season, and other PM sources as covariates explained 39% of between-child variation in exposure and helped remove within-child variability.
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Effectiveness of diabetes and hypertension management by rural primary health-care workers (Behvarz workers) in Iran: a nationally representative observational study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Non-communicable diseases and their risk factors are leading causes of disease burden in Iran and other middle-income countries. Little evidence exists for whether the primary health-care system can effectively manage non-communicable diseases and risk factors at the population level. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of the Iranian rural primary health-care system (the Behvarz system) in the management of diabetes and hypertension, and to assess whether the effects depend on the number of health-care workers in the community.
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What has made the population of Japan healthy?
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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People in Japan have the longest life expectancy at birth in the world. Here, we compile the best available evidence about population health in Japan to investigate what has made the Japanese people healthy in the past 50 years. The Japanese population achieved longevity in a fairly short time through a rapid reduction in mortality rates for communicable diseases from the 1950s to the early 1960s, followed by a large reduction in stroke mortality rates. Japan had moderate mortality rates for non-communicable diseases, with the exception of stroke, in the 1950s. The improvement in population health continued after the mid-1960s through the implementation of primary and secondary preventive community public health measures for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and an increased use of advanced medical technologies through the universal insurance scheme. Reduction in health inequalities with improved average population health was partly attributable to equal educational opportunities and financial access to care. With the achievement of success during the health transition since World War 2, Japan now needs to tackle major health challenges that are emanating from a rapidly ageing population, causes that are not amenable to health technologies, and the effects of increasing social disparities to sustain the improvement in population health.
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Indoor air pollution and blood pressure in adult women living in rural China.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Almost half of the worlds population uses coal and biomass fuels for domestic energy. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to air pollutants from indoor biomass combustion may be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP).
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National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Data for trends in glycaemia and diabetes prevalence are needed to understand the effects of diet and lifestyle within populations, assess the performance of interventions, and plan health services. No consistent and comparable global analysis of trends has been done. We estimated trends and their uncertainties in mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and diabetes prevalence for adults aged 25 years and older in 199 countries and territories.
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Household and community poverty, biomass use, and air pollution in Accra, Ghana.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Many urban households in developing countries use biomass fuels for cooking. The proportion of household biomass use varies among neighborhoods, and is generally higher in low socioeconomic status (SES) communities. Little is known of how household air pollution varies by SES and how it is affected by biomass fuels and traffic sources in developing country cities. In four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana, we collected and analyzed geo-referenced data on household and community particulate matter (PM) pollution, SES, fuel use for domestic and small-commercial cooking, housing characteristics, and distance to major roads. Cooking area PM was lowest in the high-SES neighborhood, with geometric means of 25 (95% confidence interval, 21-29) and 28 (23-33) ?g/m(3) for fine and coarse PM (PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10)), respectively; it was highest in two low-SES slums, with geometric means reaching 71 (62-80) and 131 (114-150) ?g/m(3) for fine and coarse PM. After adjustment for other factors, living in a community where all households use biomass fuels would be associated with 1.5- to 2.7-times PM levels in models with and without adjustment for ambient PM. Community biomass use had a stronger association with household PM than households own fuel choice in crude and adjusted estimates. Lack of regular physical access to clean fuels is an obstacle to fuel switching in low-income neighborhoods and should be addressed through equitable energy infrastructure.
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Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context.
Popul Health Metr
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The United States health care debate has focused on the nations uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends.
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Major risk factors for stillbirth in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Stillbirth rates in high-income countries have shown little or no improvement over the past two decades. Prevention strategies that target risk factors could be important in rate reduction. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to identify priority areas for stillbirth prevention relevant to those countries.
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Stillbirths: the way forward in high-income countries.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Stillbirth rates in high-income countries declined dramatically from about 1940, but this decline has slowed or stalled over recent times. The present variation in stillbirth rates across and within high-income countries indicates that further reduction in stillbirth is possible. Large disparities (linked to disadvantage such as poverty) in stillbirth rates need to be addressed by providing more educational opportunities and improving living conditions for women. Placental pathologies and infection associated with preterm birth are linked to a substantial proportion of stillbirths. The proportion of unexplained stillbirths associated with under investigation continues to impede efforts in stillbirth prevention. Overweight, obesity, and smoking are important modifiable risk factors for stillbirth, and advanced maternal age is also an increasingly prevalent risk factor. Intensified efforts are needed to ameliorate the effects of these factors on stillbirth rates. Culturally appropriate preconception care and quality antenatal care that is accessible to all women has the potential to reduce stillbirth rates in high-income countries. Implementation of national perinatal mortality audit programmes aimed at improving the quality of care could substantially reduce stillbirths. Better data on numbers and causes of stillbirth are needed, and international consensus on definition and classification related to stillbirth is a priority. All parents should be offered a thorough investigation including a high-quality autopsy and placental histopathology. Parent organisations are powerful change agents and could have an important role in raising awareness to prevent stillbirth. Future research must focus on screening and interventions to reduce antepartum stillbirth as a result of placental dysfunction. Identification of ways to reduce maternal overweight and obesity is a high priority for high-income countries.
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National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment.
Popul Health Metr
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), and high body mass index (BMI) on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods.
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Altitude, life expectancy and mortality from ischaemic heart disease, stroke, COPD and cancers: national population-based analysis of US counties.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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There is a substantial variation in life expectancy across US counties, primarily owing to differentials in chronic diseases. The authors aim was to examine the association of life expectancy and mortality from selected diseases with altitude.
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How many deaths are attributable to smoking in the United States? Comparison of methods for estimating smoking-attributable mortality when smoking prevalence changes.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The number of smoking-attributable deaths is commonly estimated using current and former smoking prevalences or lung cancer mortality as an indirect metric of cumulative population smoking. Neither method accounts for differences in the timing with which relative risks (RRs) for different diseases change following smoking initiation and cessation. We aimed to develop a method to account for time-dependent RRs.
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National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consistent and comparable global analysis. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean serum total cholesterol.
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National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI.
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National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5·4 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Data for trends in blood pressure are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. However, few worldwide analyses of trends in blood pressure have been done. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean systolic blood pressure (SBP).
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Adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human airway epithelial cells exposed to urban particulate matter.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Epidemiologic studies report an association between pneumonia and urban particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microns (?m) in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. To date, the mechanism whereby urban PM enhances vulnerability to S pneumoniae infection is unclear. Adhesion of S pneumoniae to host cells is a prerequisite for infection. Host-expressed proteins, including the receptor for platelet-activating factor (PAFR), are co-opted by S pneumoniae to adhere to lower airway epithelial cells.
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Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of the Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera Grown in Iran, as a Possible Renewable Source for Anticonvulsant Compounds.
Iran J Pharm Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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A review of the publications in traditional medicine indicates that the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae, is recommended for treatment of epilepsy. As a renewable source, the leaves of G. glabra var. glandulifera growing in Iran were examined for possible anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant activity of the leaves ethanol extract and dichloromethane, f1, n-Hexane, f1A, and methanol, f1B, fractions were evaluated intraperitoneally in mice using maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure tests. Acute toxicity of the extract and the fractions were also assessed. Phytochemical screening of the extract and the fractions for their active constituents was also carried out by thin layer chromatography and various chemical reagents. The extract and the fractions showed anticonvulsant effect in PTZ test. The ED50 value of 2.11 g/Kg and 1.30 g/Kg was obtained for the crude extract and f1 fraction, respectively. The LD50 value of 3.0 g/Kg was found for the extract. Triterpenes/sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and tannins were present in the extract and fractions. Triterpenes and anthraquinones were the highest in the extract, while triterpenes and tannins were prevailing in f1 fraction. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract and f1 fraction could be mainly attributed to the compounds of triterpenes/sterols class present in the leaves of the plant. The therapeutic index of the leaves extract was narrow and in this regard it has low anticonvulsant potential. Evaluation of the possible anticonvulsant activity of the leaves of the other varieties of G. glabra grown in Iran (e.g., var. violacea) is suggested.
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Association of secondhand smoke exposure with pediatric invasive bacterial disease and bacterial carriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and pediatric invasive bacterial disease (IBD) but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of SHS exposure and two outcomes, IBD and pharyngeal carriage of bacteria, for Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae).
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Cost-effectiveness of treatment and endoscopic surveillance of precancerous lesions to prevent gastric cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Although surveillance for Barrett esophagus and other gastrointestinal precancerous conditions is recommended, no analogous guidelines exist for gastric lesions. The objective of this study was to estimate the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of treatment and endoscopic surveillance to prevent gastric cancer.
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Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in Chinas cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify Chinas environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.
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Air pollution in Accra neighborhoods: spatial, socioeconomic, and temporal patterns.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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This study examined the spatial, socioeconomic status (SES), and temporal patterns of ambient air pollution in Accra, Ghana. Over 22 months, integrated and continuous rooftop particulate matter (PM) monitors were placed at a total of 11 residential or roadside monitoring sites in four neighborhoods of varying SES and biomass fuel use. PM concentrations were highest in late December and January, due to dust blown from the Sahara. Excluding this period, annual PM(2.5) ranged from 39 to 53 microg/m(3) at roadside sites and 30 to 70 microg/m(3) at residential sites; mean annual PM(10) ranged from 80 to 108 microg/m(3) at roadside sites and 57 to 106 microg/m(3) at residential sites. The low-income and densely populated neighborhood of Jamestown/Ushertown had the single highest residential PM concentration. There was less difference across traffic sites. Daily PM increased at all sites at daybreak, followed by a mid-day peak at some sites, and a more spread-out evening peak at all sites. Average carbon monoxide concentrations at different sites and seasons ranged from 7 to 55 ppm, and were generally lower at residential sites than at traffic sites. The results show that PM in these four neighborhoods is substantially higher than the WHO Air Quality Guidelines and in some cases even higher than the WHO Interim Target 1, with the highest pollution in the poorest neighborhood.
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The promise of prevention: the effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the "Eight Americas") defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.
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Within-neighborhood patterns and sources of particle pollution: mobile monitoring and geographic information system analysis in four communities in Accra, Ghana.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Sources of air pollution in developing country cities include transportation and industrial pollution, biomass and coal fuel use, and resuspended dust from unpaved roads.
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Comparative impact assessment of child pneumonia interventions.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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To compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce pneumonia mortality through risk reduction, immunization and case management.
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Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking on gastric cancer incidence in China: a population-level analysis of trends and projections.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Although gastric cancer incidence is declining in China, trends may differ from historical patterns in developed countries. Our aim was to (1) retrospectively estimate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and smoking on past gastric cancer incidence and (2) project how interventions on these two risk factors can reduce future incidence.
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Association between tobacco smoking and active tuberculosis in Taiwan: prospective cohort study.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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Previous case-control studies and a small number of cohort studies in high-risk populations have found an association between tobacco and active tuberculosis, but no cohort studies have been conducted in the general population on this association to date.
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National cardiovascular prevention should be based on absolute disease risks, not levels of risk factors.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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It has been shown that the prevention of multicausal diseases such as heart attack (at an individual level) should be guided by absolute risks rather than by the level of risk factors. Here, we show that an analogous argument should form the basis of population-level prevention.
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Contraceptive use, birth spacing, and autonomy: an analysis of the Oportunidades program in rural Mexico.
Stud Fam Plann
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Oportunidades, a conditional cash-transfer program instituted in Mexico in 1997, provides cash incentives to mothers to invest in the health and education of family members. Drawing from data gathered by Mexicos National Institute of Public Health, this study assesses the effect of the program on contraceptive use and birth spacing among titulares (female household heads) living in rural areas during the experimental period, 1998-2000, and during 2000-03, after incorporation of the control group. In 2000, titulares were more likely to use modern contraceptives than were women in the control group, although by 2003 all beneficiaries had the same probability of use. Change in autonomy was not a mediator, although baseline autonomy modified the programs influence on contraceptive use. Cox proportional hazard models produced estimates that birth spacing was similar between the beneficiaries and controls. Inconsistent findings may be the result of the way contraceptive use was defined in this study. Findings from this study may be useful for helping program planners better understand the role of conditional cash transfers in modifying family planning and fertility among poor rural women in Latin America.
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Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in US states: analysis of health surveys.
Popul Health Metr
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state.
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The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.
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Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Exposure to fine-particulate air pollution has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, suggesting that sustained reductions in pollution exposure should result in improved life expectancy. This study directly evaluated the changes in life expectancy associated with differential changes in fine particulate air pollution that occurred in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s.
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Exploring the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening to prevent gastric cancer in China in anticipation of clinical trial results.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, the leading causal risk factor, can reduce disease progression, but the long-term impact on cancer incidence is uncertain. Using the best available data, we estimated the potential health benefits and economic consequences associated with H. pylori screening in a high-risk region of China. An empirically calibrated model of gastric cancer was used to project reduction in lifetime cancer risk, life-expectancy and costs associated with (i) single lifetime screening (age 20, 30 or 40); (ii) single lifetime screening followed by rescreening individuals with negative results and (iii) universal treatment for H. pylori (age 20, 30 or 40). Data were from the published literature and national and international databases. Screening and treatment for H. pylori at age 20 reduced the mean lifetime cancer risk by 14.5% (men) to 26.6% (women) and cost less than $1,500 per year of life saved (YLS) compared to no screening. Rescreening individuals with negative results and targeting older ages was less cost-effective. Universal treatment prevented an additional 1.5% to 2.3% of risk reduction, but incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeded $2,500 per YLS. Screening young adults for H. pylori could prevent one in every 4 to 6 cases of gastric cancer in China and would be considered cost-effective using the GDP per capita threshold. These results illustrate the potential promise of a gastric cancer screening program and provide rationale for urgent clinical studies to move the prevention agenda forward.
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Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease: Part 1: Methods for a Systematic Review of the Global Epidemiology of Ischemic Heart Disease in 1990 and 2010.
Glob Heart
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Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010.
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Assessing the global burden of ischemic heart disease, part 2: analytic methods and estimates of the global epidemiology of ischemic heart disease in 2010.
Glob Heart
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Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors (GBD) 2010 Study estimated IHD mortality and disability burden for 21 world regions for the years 1990 to 2010.
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A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Stephen S Lim, Theo Vos, Abraham D Flaxman, Goodarz Danaei, Kenji Shibuya, Heather Adair-Rohani, Markus Amann, H Ross Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Martin Aryee, Charles Atkinson, Loraine J Bacchus, Adil N Bahalim, Kalpana Balakrishnan, John Balmes, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Jed D Blore, Fiona Blyth, Carissa Bonner, Guilherme Borges, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Michael Brauer, Peter Brooks, Nigel G Bruce, Bert Brunekreef, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Fiona Bull, Richard T Burnett, Tim E Byers, Bianca Calabria, Jonathan Carapetis, Emily Carnahan, Zoe Chafe, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Jian Shen Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, Jennifer Christine Child, Aaron Cohen, K Ellicott Colson, Benjamin C Cowie, Sarah Darby, Susan Darling, Adrian Davis, Louisa Degenhardt, Frank Dentener, Don C Des Jarlais, Karen Devries, Mukesh Dherani, Eric L Ding, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Karen Edmond, Suad Eltahir Ali, Rebecca E Engell, Patricia J Erwin, Saman Fahimi, Gail Falder, Farshad Farzadfar, Alize Ferrari, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Greg Freedman, Michael K Freeman, Emmanuela Gakidou, Santu Ghosh, Edward Giovannucci, Gerhard Gmel, Kathryn Graham, Rebecca Grainger, Bridget Grant, David Gunnell, Hialy R Gutierrez, Wayne Hall, Hans W Hoek, Anthony Hogan, H Dean Hosgood, Damian Hoy, Howard Hu, Bryan J Hubbell, Sally J Hutchings, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Gemma L Jacklyn, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Jost B Jonas, Haidong Kan, John A Kanis, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Young-Ho Khang, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Jon-Paul Khoo, Cindy Kok, Francine Laden, Ratilal Lalloo, Qing Lan, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, James Leigh, Yang Li, John Kent Lin, Steven E Lipshultz, Stephanie London, Rafael Lozano, Yuan Lu, Joelle Mak, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, Robin Marks, Randall Martin, Paul McGale, John McGrath, Sumi Mehta, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Renata Micha, Catherine Michaud, Vinod Mishra, Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Ali A Mokdad, Lidia Morawska, Dariush Mozaffarian, Tasha Murphy, Mohsen Naghavi, Bruce Neal, Paul K Nelson, Joan Miquel Nolla, Rosana Norman, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Jessica Orchard, Richard Osborne, Bart Ostro, Andrew Page, Kiran D Pandey, Charles D H Parry, Erin Passmore, Jayadeep Patra, Neil Pearce, Pamela M Pelizzari, Max Petzold, Michael R Phillips, Dan Pope, C Arden Pope, John Powles, Mayuree Rao, Homie Razavi, Eva A Rehfuess, Jürgen T Rehm, Beate Ritz, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Jose A Rodriguez-Portales, Isabelle Romieu, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Ananya Roy, Lesley Rushton, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, Amir Sapkota, Soraya Seedat, Peilin Shi, Kevin Shield, Rupak Shivakoti, Gitanjali M Singh, David A Sleet, Emma Smith, Kirk R Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Kyle Steenland, Heidi Stöckl, Lars Jacob Stovner, Kurt Straif, Lahn Straney, George D Thurston, Jimmy H Tran, Rita Van Dingenen, Aaron van Donkelaar, J Lennert Veerman, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Robert Weintraub, Myrna M Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Warwick Williams, Nicholas Wilson, Anthony D Woolf, Paul Yip, Jan M Zielinski, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Majid Ezzati, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time.
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Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Christopher J L Murray, Theo Vos, Rafael Lozano, Mohsen Naghavi, Abraham D Flaxman, Catherine Michaud, Majid Ezzati, Kenji Shibuya, Joshua A Salomon, Safa Abdalla, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Ilana Ackerman, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Mohammed K Ali, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Adil N Bahalim, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Lope H Barrero, David H Bartels, María-Gloria Basáñez, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Eduardo Bernabé, Kavi Bhalla, Bishal Bhandari, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, James A Black, Hannah Blencowe, Jed D Blore, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Audrey Bonaventure, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Tasanee Braithwaite, Carol Brayne, Lisa Bridgett, Simon Brooker, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M Budke, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Roy Burstein, Bianca Calabria, Benjamin Campbell, Charles E Canter, Hélène Carabin, Jonathan Carapetis, Loreto Carmona, Claudia Cella, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Manu Dahiya, Nabila Dahodwala, James Damsere-Derry, Goodarz Danaei, Adrian Davis, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert Dellavalle, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Sarah Derrett, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh Dherani, César Diaz-Torné, Helen Dolk, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Suad Eltahir Ali, Holly Erskine, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Stalin E Ewoigbokhan, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery Feigin, David T Felson, Alize Ferrari, Cleusa P Ferri, Eric M Fèvre, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Louise Flood, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Belinda J Gabbe, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Hammad A Ganatra, Bianca Garcia, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Gerhard Gmel, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Richard Gosselin, Rebecca Grainger, Bridget Grant, Justina Groeger, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Ramyani Gupta, Juanita Haagsma, Holly Hagan, Yara A Halasa, Wayne Hall, Diana Haring, Josep Maria Haro, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Hideki Higashi, Catherine Hill, Bruno Hoen, Howard Hoffman, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, John J Huang, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Deborah Jarvis, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Jost B Jonas, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Charles H King, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Francine Laden, Ratilal Lalloo, Laura L Laslett, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Yong Yi Lee, James Leigh, Daphna Levinson, Stephen S Lim, Elizabeth Limb, John Kent Lin, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Wei Liu, Maria Loane, Summer Lockett Ohno, Ronan Lyons, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Sivabalan Manivannan, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, Neil McGill, John McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Michele Meltzer, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Ana-Claire Meyer, Valeria Miglioli, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Philip B Mitchell, Charles Mock, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Terrie E Moffitt, Ali A Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Andrew Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Michael K Mwaniki, Kovin Naidoo, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Paul K Nelson, Robert G Nelson, Michael C Nevitt, Charles R Newton, Sandra Nolte, Paul Norman, Rosana Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Simon O'Hanlon, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Andrew Page, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Scott B Patten, Neil Pearce, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Michael R Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, Sébastien Pion, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C Arden Pope, Svetlana Popova, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Rachel L Pullan, Kapa D Ramaiah, Dharani Ranganathan, Homie Razavi, Mathilda Regan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, James Graham Scott, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Donald S Shepard, Hwashin Shin, Rupak Shivakoti, David Singh, Gitanjali M Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Jessica Singleton, David A Sleet, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Jennifer L Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Andrew Steer, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Sana Syed, Giorgio Tamburlini, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R Taylor, Jennifer A Taylor, William J Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, W Murray Thomson, George D Thurston, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris, Clotilde Ubeda, Eduardo A Undurraga, Marieke J van der Werf, Jim van Os, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, David J Weatherall, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Myrna M Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Natasha Wiebe, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Sean R M Williams, Emma Witt, Frederick Wolfe, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Anita K M Zaidi, Zhi-Jie Zheng, David Zonies, Alan D Lopez, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.
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Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Theo Vos, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Rafael Lozano, Catherine Michaud, Majid Ezzati, Kenji Shibuya, Joshua A Salomon, Safa Abdalla, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Ilana Ackerman, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Mohammed K Ali, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Adil N Bahalim, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Lope H Barrero, David H Bartels, María-Gloria Basáñez, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Eduardo Bernabé, Kavi Bhalla, Bishal Bhandari, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, James A Black, Hannah Blencowe, Jed D Blore, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Audrey Bonaventure, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Tasanee Braithwaite, Carol Brayne, Lisa Bridgett, Simon Brooker, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M Budke, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Roy Burstein, Bianca Calabria, Benjamin Campbell, Charles E Canter, Hélène Carabin, Jonathan Carapetis, Loreto Carmona, Claudia Cella, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Manu Dahiya, Nabila Dahodwala, James Damsere-Derry, Goodarz Danaei, Adrian Davis, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert Dellavalle, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Sarah Derrett, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh Dherani, César Diaz-Torné, Helen Dolk, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Suad Eltahir Ali, Holly Erskine, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Stalin E Ewoigbokhan, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery Feigin, David T Felson, Alize Ferrari, Cleusa P Ferri, Eric M Fèvre, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Louise Flood, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Richard Franklin, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Belinda J Gabbe, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Hammad A Ganatra, Bianca Garcia, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Gerhard Gmel, Richard Gosselin, Rebecca Grainger, Justina Groeger, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Ramyani Gupta, Juanita Haagsma, Holly Hagan, Yara A Halasa, Wayne Hall, Diana Haring, Josep Maria Haro, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Hideki Higashi, Catherine Hill, Bruno Hoen, Howard Hoffman, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, John J Huang, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Deborah Jarvis, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Jost B Jonas, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Charles H King, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Ratilal Lalloo, Laura L Laslett, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Yong Yi Lee, James Leigh, Stephen S Lim, Elizabeth Limb, John Kent Lin, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Wei Liu, Maria Loane, Summer Lockett Ohno, Ronan Lyons, Jixiang Ma, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Sivabalan Manivannan, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, Neil McGill, John McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Michele Meltzer, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Ana-Claire Meyer, Valeria Miglioli, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Philip B Mitchell, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Terrie E Moffitt, Ali A Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Andrew Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Michael K Mwaniki, Kovin Naidoo, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Paul K Nelson, Robert G Nelson, Michael C Nevitt, Charles R Newton, Sandra Nolte, Paul Norman, Rosana Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Simon O'Hanlon, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Andrew Page, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Scott B Patten, Neil Pearce, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Michael R Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, Sébastien Pion, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C Arden Pope, Svetlana Popova, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Rachel L Pullan, Kapa D Ramaiah, Dharani Ranganathan, Homie Razavi, Mathilda Regan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, James Graham Scott, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Donald S Shepard, Hwashin Shin, Rupak Shivakoti, David Singh, Gitanjali M Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Jessica Singleton, David A Sleet, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Jennifer L Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Andrew Steer, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Sana Syed, Giorgio Tamburlini, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R Taylor, Jennifer A Taylor, William J Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, W Murray Thomson, George D Thurston, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris, Clotilde Ubeda, Eduardo A Undurraga, Marieke J van der Werf, Jim van Os, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, David J Weatherall, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Myrna M Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Sean R M Williams, Emma Witt, Frederick Wolfe, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Anita K M Zaidi, Zhi-Jie Zheng, David Zonies, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs).
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Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Joshua A Salomon, Theo Vos, Daniel R Hogan, Michael Gagnon, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali Mokdad, Nazma Begum, Razibuzzaman Shah, Muhammad Karyana, Soewarta Kosen, Mario Reyna Farje, Gilberto Moncada, Arup Dutta, Sunil Sazawal, Andrew Dyer, Jason Seiler, Victor Aboyans, Lesley Baker, Amanda Baxter, Emelia J Benjamin, Kavi Bhalla, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Fiona Blyth, Rupert Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Rachelle Buchbinder, Peter Burney, Bianca Calabria, Honglei Chen, Sumeet S Chugh, Rebecca Cooley, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Nabila Dahodwala, Adrian Davis, Louisa Degenhardt, César Diaz-Torné, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Majid Ezzati, Valery Feigin, Cleusa P Ferri, Abraham D Flaxman, Louise Flood, Marlene Fransen, Kana Fuse, Belinda J Gabbe, Richard F Gillum, Juanita Haagsma, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Abdullah Hel-Baqui, Hans W Hoek, Howard Hoffman, Emily Hogeland, Damian Hoy, Deborah Jarvis, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Stephen S Lim, Steven E Lipshultz, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Ronan Lyons, Reza Malekzadeh, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Neil McGill, John McGrath, George A Mensah, Ana-Claire Meyer, Catherine Michaud, Andrew Moran, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Luigi Naldi, Charles R Newton, Rosana Norman, Saad B Omer, Richard Osborne, Neil Pearce, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Jürgen T Rehm, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Robin Room, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Kenji Shibuya, David Singh, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Hugh R Taylor, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marieke J van der Werf, Wendy L Watson, David J Weatherall, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Harvey Whiteford, James D Wilkinson, Anthony D Woolf, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Christopher J L Murray, Jost B Jonas.
Lancet
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Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our primary objective was a comprehensive re-estimation of disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 through a large-scale empirical investigation in which judgments about health losses associated with many causes of disease and injury were elicited from the general public in diverse communities through a new, standardised approach.
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Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Rafael Lozano, Mohsen Naghavi, Kyle Foreman, Stephen Lim, Kenji Shibuya, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Timothy Adair, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Suzanne Barker-Collo, David H Bartels, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Kavi Bhalla, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Soufiane Boufous, Chiara Bucello, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Jonathan Carapetis, Honglei Chen, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Nabila Dahodwala, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Majid Ezzati, Valery Feigin, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Richard Franklin, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Yara A Halasa, Diana Haring, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Bruno Hoen, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Summer Lockett Ohno, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Leslie Mallinger, Lyn March, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, John McGrath, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Catherine Michaud, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Charles Mock, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Ali A Mokdad, Andrew Moran, Kim Mulholland, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Kiumarss Nasseri, Paul Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, David Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, C Arden Pope, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Murugesan Raju, Dharani Ranganathan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, Maria Segui-Gomez, Donald S Shepard, David Singh, Jessica Singleton, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Andrew Steer, Jennifer A Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, Imad M Tleyjeh, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Eduardo A Undurraga, N Venketasubramanian, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Theo Vos, Gregory R Wagner, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, James D Wilkinson, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Paul Yip, Azadeh Zabetian, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex.
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Worldwide risk factors for heart failure: a systematic review and pooled analysis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
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Heart failure risk factors are diverse and likely to vary among world regions. Systematic review and pooled analysis were used to describe contributions of major underlying risk factors for heart failure in six world regions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.