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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TCR affinity and tolerance mechanisms converge to shape T cell diabetogenic potential.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Autoreactive T cells infiltrating the target organ can possess a broad TCR affinity range. However, the extent to which such biophysical parameters contribute to T cell pathogenic potential remains unclear. In this study, we selected eight InsB9-23-specific TCRs cloned from CD4(+) islet-infiltrating T cells that possessed a relatively broad range of TCR affinity to generate NOD TCR retrogenic mice. These TCRs exhibited a range of two-dimensional affinities (? 10(-4)-10(-3) ?m(4)) that correlated with functional readouts and responsiveness to activation in vivo. Surprisingly, both higher and lower affinity TCRs could mediate potent insulitis and autoimmune diabetes, suggesting that TCR affinity does not exclusively dictate or correlate with diabetogenic potential. Both central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms selectively impinge on the diabetogenic potential of high-affinity TCRs, mitigating their pathogenicity. Thus, TCR affinity and multiple tolerance mechanisms converge to shape and broaden the diabetogenic T cell repertoire, potentially complicating efforts to induce broad, long-term tolerance.
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Monoclonal antibody blocking the recognition of an insulin peptide-MHC complex modulates type 1 diabetes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The primary autoantigen triggering spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is insulin. The major T-cell insulin epitope lies within the amino acid 9-23 peptide of the ?-chain (B:9-23). This peptide can bind within the peptide binding groove of the NOD MHC class II molecule (MHCII), IA(g7), in multiple positions or "registers." However, the majority of pathogenic CD4 T cells recognize this complex only when the insulin peptide is bound in register 3 (R3). We hypothesized that antibodies reacting specifically with R3 insulin-IA(g7) complexes would inhibit autoimmune diabetes specifically without interfering with recognition of other IA(g7)-presented antigens. To test this hypothesis, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb287), which selectively binds to B:9-23 and related variants when presented by IA(g7) in R3, but not other registers. The monoclonal antibody blocks binding of IA(g7)-B:10-23 R3 tetramers to cognate T cells and inhibits T-cell responses to soluble B:9-23 peptides and NOD islets. However, mAb287 has no effect on recognition of other peptides bound to IA(g7) or other MHCII molecules. Intervention with mAb287, but not irrelevant isotype matched antibody, at either early or late stages of disease development, significantly delayed diabetes onset by inhibiting infiltration by not only insulin-specific CD4 T cells, but also by CD4 and CD8 T cells of other specificities. We propose that peptide-MHC-specific monoclonal antibodies can modulate autoimmune disease without the pleiotropic effects of nonselective reagents and, thus, could be applicable to the treatment of multiple T-cell mediated autoimmune disorders.
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Cutting edge: CD4 T cells reactive to an islet amyloid polypeptide peptide accumulate in the pancreas and contribute to disease pathogenesis in nonobese diabetic mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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We previously reported a peptide KS20 from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) to be the target Ag for a highly diabetogenic CD4 T cell clone BDC-5.2.9. To track IAPP-reactive T cells in NOD mice and determine how they contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, we designed a new I-Ag7 tetramer with high affinity for BDC-5.2.9 that contains the peptide KS20. We found that significant numbers of KS20 tetramer(+) CD4 T cells can be detected in the pancreas of prediabetic and diabetic NOD mice. To verify pathogenicity of IAPP-reactive cells, we sorted KS20 tetramer(+) cells and cloned them from uncloned T cell lines isolated from spleen and lymph nodes of diabetic mice. We isolated a new KS20-reactive Th1 CD4 T cell clone that rapidly transfers diabetes. Our results suggest that IAPP triggers a broad autoimmune response by CD4 T cells in NOD mice.
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Generation of T cell receptor-retrogenic mice: improved retroviral-mediated stem cell gene transfer.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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The use of retrogenic mice offers a rapid and flexible approach to T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mice. By transducing bone marrow progenitor cells with a retrovirus that encodes a given TCR-?/? subunit, TCR-retrogenic mice can be generated in as few as 4-6 weeks, whereas conventional TCR transgenics can take 6 months or longer. In this updated protocol, we have increased the efficiency of the bone marrow transduction and bone marrow reconstitution compared with our previously published protocol. The main departure from the previous protocol is the implementation of spin transduction with the viral supernatant instead of coculture with the viral producer cell line. The changes in this protocol improve bone marrow viability, increase consistency of the bone marrow transduction and bone marrow engraftment, and they reduce the ratio of bone marrow donor mice to bone marrow recipients.
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Excessive Th1 responses due to the absence of TGF-? signaling cause autoimmune diabetes and dysregulated Treg cell homeostasis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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TGF-? signaling in T cells is critical for peripheral T-cell tolerance by regulating effector CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell differentiation. However, it is still controversial to what extent TGF-? signaling in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contributes to immune homeostasis. Here we showed that abrogation of TGF-? signaling in thymic T cells led to rapid type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in NOD mice transgenic for the BDC2.5 T-cell receptor. Disease development in these mice was associated with increased peripheral Th1 cells, whereas Th17 cells and Foxp3(+) Treg cells were reduced. Blocking of IFN-? signaling alone completely suppressed diabetes development in these mice, indicating a critical role of Th1 cells in this model. Furthermore, deletion of TGF-? signaling in peripheral effector CD4(+) T cells, but not Treg cells, also resulted in rapid T1D development, suggesting that conventional CD4(+) T cells are the main targets of TGF-? to suppress T1D. TGF-? signaling was dispensable for Treg cell function, development, and maintenance, but excessive IFN-? production due to the absence of TGF-? signaling in naive CD4(+) T cells indirectly caused dysregulated Treg cell homeostasis. We further showed that T cell-derived TGF-?1 was critical for suppression of Th1 cell differentiation and T1D development. These results indicate that autocrine/paracrine TGF-? signaling in diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells, but not Treg cells, is essential for controlling T1D development.
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The microRNA miR-181 is a critical cellular metabolic rheostat essential for NKT cell ontogenesis and lymphocyte development and homeostasis.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune system provides a mechanism to actively control cellular function, growth, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that miR-181 is a nonredundant determinant of cellular metabolism and is essential for supporting the biosynthetic demands of early NKT cell development. As a result, miR-181-deficient mice showed a complete absence of mature NKT cells in the thymus and periphery. Mechanistically, miR-181 modulated expression of the phosphatase PTEN to control PI3K signaling, which was a primary stimulus for anabolic metabolism in immune cells. Thus miR-181-deficient mice also showed severe defects in lymphoid development and T cell homeostasis associated with impaired PI3K signaling. These results uncover miR-181 as essential for NKT cell development and establish this family of miRNAs as central regulators of PI3K signaling and global metabolic fitness during development and homeostasis.
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Insulin as a key autoantigen in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Type 1 diabetes is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease against pancreatic beta cells. T cells target various antigens such as insulin, chromogranin A, glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. Elimination of insulin dramatically prevents diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model and response to insulin occurs prior to that to other antigens. These findings suggest that insulin is a target antigen at the early stage of the disease and is likely to be essential to cause anti-islet autoimmunity in NOD mice. In this review, we discuss whether insulin is truly essential and is only the single essential autoantigen for NOD mice and potentially for man. Although the ultimate principle is still being addressed, it is certain that T-cell response to insulin is a major check point to develop type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Given multiple similarities between diabetes of NOD mice and man, targeting insulin and insulin-reactive T cells may provide opportunities to develop robust immunotherapies.
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Structure-based selection of small molecules to alter allele-specific MHC class II antigen presentation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Class II major histocompatibility molecules are the primary susceptibility locus for many autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes. Human DQ8 and I-A(g7), in the NOD mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, confers diabetes risk by modulating presentation of specific islet peptides in the thymus and periphery. We used an in silico molecular docking program to screen a large "druglike" chemical library to define small molecules capable of occupying specific structural pockets along the I-A(g7) binding groove, with the objective of influencing presentation to T cells of the autoantigen insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23. In this study we show, using both murine and human cells, that small molecules can enhance or inhibit specific TCR signaling in the presence of cognate target peptides, based upon the structural pocket targeted. The influence of compounds on the TCR response was pocket dependent, with pocket 1 and 6 compounds inhibiting responses and molecules directed at pocket 9 enhancing responses to peptide. At nanomolar concentrations, the inhibitory molecules block the insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23, endogenous insulin, and islet-stimulated T cell responses. Glyphosine, a pocket 9 compound, enhances insulin peptide presentation to T cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM, upregulates IL-10 secretion, and prevents diabetes in NOD mice. These studies present a novel method for identifying small molecules capable of both stimulating and inhibiting T cell responses, with potentially therapeutic applications.
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Specificity and detection of insulin-reactive CD4+ T cells in type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin peptide (B:9-23) is a major target for pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of the various positions or "registers" this peptide can take when bound in the groove of the NOD MHCII molecule, IA(g7). This has hindered structural studies and the tracking of the relevant T cells in vivo with fluorescent peptide-MHCII tetramers. Using mutated B:9-23 peptides and methods for trapping the peptide in particular registers, we show that most, if not all, NOD CD4(+) T cells react to B:9-23 bound in low-affinity register 3. However, these T cells can be divided into two types depending on whether their response is improved or inhibited by substituting a glycine for the B:21 glutamic acid at the p8 position of the peptide. On the basis of these findings, we constructed a set of fluorescent insulin-IA(g7) tetramers that bind to most insulin-specific T-cell clones tested. A mixture of these tetramers detected a high frequency of B:9-23-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the pancreases of prediabetic NOD mice. Our data are consistent with the idea that, within the pancreas, unique processing of insulin generates truncated peptides that lack or contain the B:21 glutamic acid. In the thymus, the absence of this type of processing combined with the low affinity of B:9-23 binding to IA(g7) in register 3 may explain the escape of insulin-specific CD4(+) T cells from the mechanisms that usually eliminate self-reactive T cells.
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Peptide antigens for gamma/delta T cells.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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?? T cells express adaptive antigen receptors encoded by rearranging genes. Their diversity is highest in the small region of TCR V-J junctions, especially in the ? chain, which should enable the ?? TCRs to distinguish differences in small epitopes. Indeed, recognition of small molecules, and of an epitope on a larger protein has been reported. Responses to small non-peptides known as phospho-antigens are multi-clonal yet limited to a single ?? T cell subset in humans and non-human primates. Responses to small peptides are multi-clonal or oligo-clonal, include more than one subset of ?? T cells, and occur in rodents and primates. However, less effort has been devoted to investigate the peptide responses. To settle the questions of whether peptides can be ligands for the ?? TCRs, and whether responses to small peptides might occur normally, peptide binding will have to be demonstrated, and natural peptide ligands identified.
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In vitro selection of highly darunavir-resistant and replication-competent HIV-1 variants by using a mixture of clinical HIV-1 isolates resistant to multiple conventional protease inhibitors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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We attempted to select HIV-1 variants resistant to darunavir (DRV), which potently inhibits the enzymatic activity and dimerization of protease and has a high genetic barrier to HIV-1 development of resistance to DRV. We conducted selection using a mixture of 8 highly multi-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant, DRV-susceptible clinical HIV-1 variants (HIV-1(MIX)) containing 9 to 14 PI resistance-associated amino acid substitutions in protease. HIV-1(MIX) became highly resistant to DRV, with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) ?333-fold greater than that against HIV-1(NL4-3). HIV-1(MIX) at passage 51 (HIV-1(MIX(P51))) replicated well in the presence of 5 ?M DRV and contained 14 mutations. HIV-1(MIX(P51)) was highly resistant to amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir and moderately resistant to saquinavir and tipranavir. HIV-1(MIX(P51)) had a resemblance with HIV-1(C) of the HIV-1(MIX) population, and selection using HIV-1(C) was also performed; however, its DRV resistance acquisition was substantially delayed. The H219Q and I223V substitutions in Gag, lacking in HIV-1(C(P51)), likely contributed to conferring a replication advantage on HIV-1(MIX(P51)) by reducing intravirion cyclophilin A content. HIV-1(MIX(P51)) apparently acquired the substitutions from another HIV-1 strain(s) of HIV-1(MIX) through possible homologous recombination. The present data suggest that the use of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates is of utility in selecting drug-resistant variants and that DRV would not easily permit HIV-1 to develop significant resistance; however, HIV-1 can develop high levels of DRV resistance when a variety of PI-resistant HIV-1 strains are generated, as seen in patients experiencing sequential PI failure, and ensuing homologous recombination takes place. HIV-1(MIX(P51)) should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to DRV and related agents.
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The anti-insulin trimolecular complex in type 1 diabetes.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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Description of the immunologic components needed for autoimmune diabetes.
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Gamma delta T cell receptors confer autonomous responsiveness to the insulin-peptide B:9-23.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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The range and physical qualities of molecules that act as ligands for the gammadelta T cell receptors (TCRs) remain uncertain. Processed insulin is recognized by alphabeta T cells, which mediate diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we present evidence that gammadelta T cells in these mice recognize processed insulin as well. Hybridomas generated from NOD spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes included clones expressing gammadelta TCRs that responded specifically to purified islets of Langerhans and to an insulin peptide, but not to intact insulin. The gammadelta TCRs associated with this type of response are diverse, but a cloned gammadelta TCR was sufficient to transfer the response. The response to the insulin peptide was autonomous as demonstrated by stimulating single responder cells in isolation. This study reveals a novel specificity for gammadelta TCRs, and raises the possibility that gammadelta T cells become involved in islet-specific autoimmunity.
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Comparison of insulin autoantibody: polyethylene glycol and micro-IAA 1-day and 7-day assays.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Older studies of diabetes development typically utilized a 7-day incubation polyethylene glycol competitive insulin autoantibody assay (CIAA). Our standard micro-IAA assay (mIAA) utilizes precipitation with proteins A/G and 1-day incubation (1-day mIAA), but is less sensitive compared to the CIAA assay.
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GRL-02031, a novel nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI) containing a stereochemically defined fused cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran potent against multi-PI-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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We generated a novel nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI), GRL-02031, by incorporating a stereochemically defined fused cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) which exerted potent activity against a wide spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, including multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. GRL-02031 was highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates, including subtypes A, B, C, and E (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] range, 0.015 to 0.038 microM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >100 microM in CD4(+) MT-2 cells), although it was less active against two HIV-2 strains (HIV-2(EHO) and HIV-2(ROD)) (EC(50), approximately 0.60 microM) than against HIV-1 strains. GRL-02031 at relatively low concentrations blocked the infection and replication of each of the HIV-1(NL4-3) variants exposed to and selected by up to 5 microM of saquinavir, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir and 1 microM of lopinavir or atazanavir (EC(50) range, 0.036 to 0.14 microM). GRL-02031 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to the conventional antiretroviral regimens that then existed, with EC(50)s ranging from 0.014 to 0.042 microM (changes in the EC(50)s were less than twofold the EC(50) for wild-type HIV-1). Upon selection of HIV-1(NL4-3) in the presence of GRL-02031, mutants carrying L10F, L33F, M46I, I47V, Q58E, V82I, I84V, and I85V in the protease-encoding region and G62R (within p17), L363M (p24-p2 cleavage site), R409K (within p7), and I437T (p7-p1 cleavage site) in the gag-encoding region emerged. GRL-02031 was potent against a variety of HIV-1(NL4-3)-based molecular infectious clones containing a single primary mutation reported previously or a combination of such mutations, although it was slightly less active against HIV-1 variants containing consecutive amino acid substitutions: M46I and I47V or I84V and I85V. Structural modeling analysis demonstrated a distinct bimodal binding of GRL-02031 to protease, which may provide advantages to GRL-02031 in blocking the replication of a wide spectrum of HIV-1 variants resistant to PIs and in delaying the development of resistance of HIV-1 to GRL-02031. The present data warrant the further development of GRL-02031 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections with primary and multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants.
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Instability of the transcription factor Foxp3 leads to the generation of pathogenic memory T cells in vivo.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, little is known about the stability of T(reg) cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that a substantial percentage of cells had transient or unstable expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. These exFoxp3 T cells had an activated-memory T cell phenotype and produced inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, exFoxp3 cell numbers were higher in inflamed tissues in autoimmune conditions. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive exFoxp3 cells led to the rapid onset of diabetes. Finally, analysis of the T cell receptor repertoire suggested that exFoxp3 cells developed from both natural and adaptive T(reg) cells. Thus, the generation of potentially autoreactive effector T cells as a consequence of Foxp3 instability has important implications for understanding autoimmune disease pathogenesis.
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Analysis of T cell receptor beta chains that combine with dominant conserved TRAV5D-4*04 anti-insulin B:9-23 alpha chains.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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The objective of this study was to define the spectrum of TCR beta chains permissive for T cells with alpha chains containing the conserved TRAV5D-4*04 sequence to target the insulin B:9-23 peptide, a major epitope for initiation of diabetes in the NOD mouse.
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NO-mediated cytotoxicity contributes to multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes but not to NOD diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused mostly by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells, the precise mechanism of which remains unclear. Two major effector mechanisms have been proposed: direct cell-mediated and indirect cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity. Cytokine-mediated beta-cell destruction is presumed mainly caused by NO production. To evaluate the role of iNOS expression in T1D, this study used a novel iNOS inhibitor ONO-1714. ONO-1714 significantly reduced cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity and NO production in both MIN6N9a cells and C57BL/6 islets in the presence of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. To evaluate whether NO contributes to diabetes progression in vivo, ONO-1714 was administered to four different mouse models of autoimmune diabetes: multiple low-dose STZ (MLDS)-induced C57BL/6, CY-induced, adoptive transfer and spontaneous NOD diabetes. Exposure to STZ in vitro induced NO production in MIN6N9a cells and C57BL/6 islets, and in vivo injection of ONO-1714 to MLDS-treated mice significantly reduced hyperglycemia and interestingly, led to complete suppression of cellular infiltration of pancreatic islets. In contrast, when ONO-1714 was injected into spontaneous NOD mice and CY-induced and adoptive transfer models of NOD diabetes, overt diabetes could not be inhibited in these models. These findings suggest that NO-mediated cytotoxicity significantly contributes to MLDS-induced diabetes but not to NOD diabetes.
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Following the fate of one insulin-reactive CD4 T cell: conversion into Teffs and Tregs in the periphery controls diabetes in NOD mice.
Diabetes
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In diabetic patients and susceptible mice, insulin is a targeted autoantigen. Insulin B chain 9-23 (B:9-23) autoreactive CD4 T cells are key for initiating autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice; however, little is known regarding their origin and function. To this end, B:9-23-specific, BDC12-4.1 T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) mice were studied, of which, despite expressing a single TCR on the recombination activating gene-deficient background, only a fraction develops diabetes in an asynchronous manner. BDC12-4.1 CD4 T cells convert into effector (Teff) and Foxp3(+)-expressing adaptive regulatory T cells (aTregs) soon after leaving the thymus as a result of antigen recognition and homeostatic proliferation. The generation of aTreg causes the heterogeneous diabetes onset, since crossing onto the scurfy (Foxp3) mutation, BDC12-4.1 TCR Tg mice develop accelerated and fully penetrant diabetes. Similarly, adoptive transfer and bone marrow transplantation experiments showed differential diabetes kinetics based on Foxp3(+) aTregs presence in the BDC12-4.1 donors. A single-specificity, insulin-reactive TCR escapes thymic deletion and simultaneously converts into aTreg and Teff, establishing an equilibrium that determines diabetes penetrance. These results are of particular importance for understanding disease pathogenesis. They suggest that once central tolerance is bypassed, autoreactive cells arriving in the periphery do not by default follow solely a pathogenic fate upon activation.
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Germline TRAV5D-4 T-cell receptor sequence targets a primary insulin peptide of NOD mice.
Diabetes
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There is accumulating evidence that autoimmunity to insulin B chain peptide, amino acids 9-23 (insulin B:9-23), is central to development of autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse model. We hypothesized that enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes is the result of targeting of insulin by a T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence commonly encoded in the germline. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that a particular V? gene TRAV5D-4 with multiple junction sequences is sufficient to induce anti-islet autoimmunity by studying retrogenic mouse lines expressing ?-chains with different V? TRAV genes. Retrogenic NOD strains expressing V? TRAV5D-4 ?-chains with many different complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 sequences, even those derived from TCRs recognizing islet-irrelevant molecules, developed anti-insulin autoimmunity. Induction of insulin autoantibodies by TRAV5D-4 ?-chains was abrogated by the mutation of insulin peptide B:9-23 or that of two amino acid residues in CDR1 and 2 of the TRAV5D-4. TRAV13-1, the human ortholog of murine TRAV5D-4, was also capable of inducing in vivo anti-insulin autoimmunity when combined with different murine CDR3 sequences. Targeting primary autoantigenic peptides by simple germline-encoded TCR motifs may underlie enhanced susceptibility to the development of autoimmune diabetes.
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