Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare tumor deriving from mesenchymal tissue. Approximately 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor an anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harboring tropomyosin3-anaplastic lymphoma kinase or protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type F polypeptide-interacting protein-binding protein 1-anaplastic lymphoma kinase have been reported previously. However, it has not been reported that inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene which is considered to be very specific to lung cancers. A few tumors harboring echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene other than lung cancers have been reported and the tumors were all carcinomas. A 67-year-old man had been followed up for a benign tumor for approximately 3 years before the tumor demonstrated malignant transformation. Lobectomy and autopsy revealed that an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor harboring echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene had transformed into an undifferentiated sarcoma. This case suggests that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion is an oncogenic event in not only carcinomas but also sarcomas originating from stromal cells.
A 23-year-old woman developed acute severe hepatitis and jaundice on day 183 after bone marrow transplantation from HLA-B antigen mismatched-related donor. The administration of prednisolone and cessation of the prescribed drugs resolved the liver injury. Drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for acyclovir, and liver biopsy indicated the characteristics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) rather than graft-versus-host disease. Physicians should keep DILI in mind when considering differential diagnosis for liver complications after allogeneic cell transplantation.
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is involved in one of the inhibitory pathways of the B7-cluster of differentiation (CD) 28 family; this pathway is known to be involved in the attenuation of T-cell responses and promotion of T-cell tolerance. PD-1 is known to negatively regulate T-cell receptor-mediated proliferation and cytokine production, lead to alternation in the tumor microenvironment. Although several studies have shown that high levels of PD-1-positive cells in follicular lymphoma (FL) patients influence their prognosis, those studies included patients treated without rituximab, and the prognostic impact of PD-1 positivity in the rituximab era (R-era) has not yet been elucidated. We retrospectively studied 82 patients with FL uniformly treated with standard R-CHOP therapy at six institutions between 2001 and 2009 (median follow-up for survivors: 55 months). We also collected and examined biopsy specimens for diagnosis with respect to PD-1 positivity. The PD-1 positivity was significantly higher in male patients and patients with high beta-2 microglobulin (B2M ? 3.0) (P = 0.03 and 0.003, respectively). Three-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 60% and 86%, respectively. By univariate analysis, elevated LDH (P = 0.07) worsened PFS. Male gender (P = 0.03), high FLIPI score (P = 0.05), and high B2M levels (P = 0.08) worsened OS. Multivariate analysis detected no significant prognostic factors, including PD-1 positivity. However, in male subgroup, high levels of PD-1-positive cells were found to be a prognostic factor for PFS. Addition of rituximab might have altered the prognostic impact of PD-1-positive cells.
Reported herein is a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a 25-year-old Japanese man who was diagnosed with Crohns disease (CD) at 14 years of age; treatment included predonisolone, azathioprine, and infliximab. The tumor was located in right upper lobe and the size was 8 cm in diameter; histology was poorly differentiated HCC with pleomorphic cellular changes. Adjacent normal liver showed no evidence of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis. Until now, only six cases of HCC arising in patients with CD have been reported in the English-language literature. Most of these patients had early onset of CD and HCC: none had cirrhosis or virus hepatitis. Most patients had a long disease history of CD and were being medicated with several immunosuppressive agents. Some factors associated with CD might indirectly or directly be related to the development of HCC in CD patients, although the possibility that these HCC occurred coincidentally in CD patients, including the present patient, cannot be ruled out. Accumulation of cases is necessary to evaluate the relationship between CD and HCC precisely.
We reported 5 patients who developed air-leak syndrome (ALS) including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The underlying diseases were AML (n=2), ALL (n=1), MDS (n=1), and CML (n=1). All patients received allogeneic SCT from related donors including 2 donors with HLA mismatch. Total body irradiation was performed as a conditioning regimen in all patients. Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPC) were detected in all patients before the development of ALS. The interval from diagnosis of LONIPC to onset of ALS was 10-360 days (median, 20 days). Four of 5 patients were treated with corticosteroid for chronic graft-versus-host disease and/or LONIPC. To date, three patients have died of respiratory failure. The others are currently alive and one of these surviving patients is receiving home oxygen treatment. Physicians should be aware of this rare complication following LONIPC, because treatment of ALS is difficult in some patients.
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