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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice.
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A design strategy for small molecule-based targeted MRI contrast agents: their application for detection of atherosclerotic plaques.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Gadolinium(iii) ion (Gd(3+)) complexes are widely used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and many attempts have been made to couple them to sensor moieties in order to visualize biological phenomena of interest inside the body. However, the low sensitivity of MRI has made it difficult to develop practical MRI contrast agents for in vivo imaging. We hypothesized that practical MRI contrast agents could be designed by targeting a specific biological environment, rather than a specific protein such as a receptor. To test this idea, we designed and synthesized a Gd(3+)-based MRI contrast agent, , for visualizing atherosclerotic plaques by linking the Gd(3+)-complex to the lipophilic fluorophore BODIPY to stain lipid-rich environments. We found that was selectively accumulated into lipid droplets of adipocytes at the cellular level. Atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were clearly visualized in T1-weighted MR images after intravenous injection of in vivo.
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Changes of hepatic lipid mediators associated with intake of high-fat diet for 12 weeks in endotoxemic rats using LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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It has recently been reported that anti-inflammatory lipid mediators are increased in the late phase of acute inflammation, whereas proinflammatory lipid mediators are regulated at the initiation of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of hepatic lipid mediators due to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in endotoxemic rats.
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18-HEPE, an n-3 fatty acid metabolite released by macrophages, prevents pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have potential cardiovascular benefit, although the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Fat-1 transgenic mice expressing Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase, which is capable of producing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, exhibited resistance to pressure overload-induced inflammation and fibrosis, as well as reduced cardiac function. Lipidomic analysis revealed selective enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fat-1 transgenic bone marrow (BM) cells and EPA-metabolite 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 transgenic macrophages. BM transplantation experiments revealed that fat-1 transgenic BM cells, but not fat-1 transgenic cardiac cells, contributed to the antiremodeling effect and that the 18-HEPE-rich milieu in the fat-1 transgenic heart was generated by BM-derived cells, most likely macrophages. 18-HEPE inhibited macrophage-mediated proinflammatory activation of cardiac fibroblasts in culture, and in vivo administration of 18-HEPE reproduced the fat-1 mice phenotype, including resistance to pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.
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Rapidly rendering cells phagocytic through a cell surface display technique and concurrent Rac activation.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Cell surfaces represent a platform through which extracellular signals that determine diverse cellular processes, including migration, division, adhesion, and phagocytosis, are transduced. Techniques to rapidly reconfigure the surface properties of living cells should thus offer the ability to harness these cellular functions. Although the molecular mechanism of phagocytosis is well characterized, the minimal molecular players that are sufficient to activate this elaborate process remain elusive. We developed and implemented a technique to present a molecule of interest at the cell surface in an inducible manner on a time scale of minutes. We simultaneously induced the cell surface display of the C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) and activated the intracellular small guanosine triphosphatase Rac, which stimulates actin polymerization at the cell periphery. The C2 domain binds to phosphatidylserine, a lipid exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. By integrating the stimulation of these two processes, we converted HeLa cells into a phagocytic cell line that bound to and engulfed apoptotic human Jurkat cells. Inducing either the cell surface display of the C2 domain or activating Rac alone was not sufficient to stimulate phagocytosis, which suggests that attachment to the target cell and actin reorganization together constitute the minimal molecular events that are needed to induce phagocytosis. This cell surface display technique might be useful as part of a targeted, cell-based therapy in which unwanted cells with characteristic surface molecules could be rapidly consumed by engineered cells.
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Regulation of intestinal IgA responses by dietary palmitic acid and its metabolism.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Enhancement of intestinal IgA responses is a primary strategy in the development of oral vaccine. Dietary fatty acids are known to regulate host immune responses. In this study, we show that dietary palmitic acid (PA) and its metabolites enhance intestinal IgA responses. Intestinal IgA production was increased in mice maintained on a PA-enriched diet. These mice also showed increased intestinal IgA responses against orally immunized Ag, without any effect on serum Ab responses. We found that PA directly stimulates plasma cells to produce Ab. In addition, mice receiving a PA-enriched diet had increased numbers of IgA-producing plasma cells in the large intestine; this effect was abolished when serine palmitoyltransferase was inhibited. These findings suggest that dietary PA regulates intestinal IgA responses and has the potential to be a diet-derived mucosal adjuvant.
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Identification of 14,20-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid as a novel anti-inflammatory metabolite.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity related to some of its oxygenated metabolites, such as D-series resolvins, protectin and maresin. Here, we analysed the lipids in inflammatory exudates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and identified a novel DHA metabolite, 14,20-dihydroxy-DHA (14,20-diHDHA) and showed that it is biosynthesized by eosinophils through the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway. The chemical structure of the dominant 14,20-diHDHA isomer, which is endogenously biosynthesized by eosinophils, was identified as 14S,20R-diHDHA using chemically synthesized stereoisomers. Nanogram doses of 14,20-diHDHA displayed a potent anti-inflammatory action by limiting neutrophil infiltration in zymosan-induced peritonitis. The in vivo formation and potent anti-inflammatory action of 14,20-diHDHA may contribute to the protective effects of DHA.
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Eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through the proresolving mediators and CXCL13 pathway in mice.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Resolution of inflammation is critical to restoration of tissue function after an inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-expressing eosinophils contribute to this process in murine zymosan-induced peritonitis. In this study, eosinophils promoted resolution by regulating expression of macrophage CXCL13. Microarray analysis revealed that eosinophils significantly increased (?3-fold) the expression of macrophage CXCL13 by a 12/15-LOX-dependent mechanism. CXCL13 depletion caused a resolution defect, with the reduced appearance of phagocytes carrying engulfed zymosan in the draining lymph nodes. Inflamed lymph node hypertrophy, a critical feature of the resolution process, was reduced by ?60% in eosinophil-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of eosinophils or administration of CXCL13 corrected this defect. Administration of the 12/15-LOX-derived mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) increased the expression of CXCL13 and restored the defect of lymph node hypertrophy in eosinophil-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through proresolving lipid mediators and the CXCL13 pathway in mice.-Tani, Y., Isobe, Y., Imoto, Y., Segi-Nishida, E., Sugimoto, Y., Arai, H., Arita, M. Eosinophils control the resolution of inflammation and draining lymph node hypertrophy through the proresolving mediators and CXCL13 pathway in mice.
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Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum), TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA), or EPA (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ?-3 PUFA lipid mediators.
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Basophils regulate the recruitment of eosinophils in a murine model of irritant contact dermatitis.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Although eosinophils have been detected in several human skin diseases in the vicinity of basophils, how eosinophils infiltrate the skin and the role of eosinophils in the development of skin inflammation have yet to be examined.
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Identification of novel omega-3 fatty acid-derived bioactive metabolites based on a targeted lipidomics approach.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial effects in many inflammatory disorders. Although the mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid action is still not fully defined in molecular terms, recent studies have revealed that, during the course of acute inflammation, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediators including resolvins and protectins are produced. This review presents recent advances in understanding the formation and action of these mediators, especially focusing on the LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach and recently identified bioactive products with potent anti-inflammatory property.
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Combination therapy of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 with antibiotics protects mice from Escherichia coli-induced sepsis*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Inflammation occurs along with infection during sepsis. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 has protective and resolving effects in experimental models of infection. In this study, we examined the effects of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics on Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis.
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Immunomodulation with eicosapentaenoic acid supports the treatment of autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Small-vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening autoimmune disease that is frequently associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Conventional immunotherapy including steroids and cyclophosphamide can cause serious adverse events, limiting the efficacy and safety of treatment. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a key component of fish oil, is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid widely known to be cardioprotective and beneficial for vascular function. We report two elderly patients with systemic ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) in whom the administration of EPA in concert with steroids safely induced and maintained remission, without the use of additioal immunosuppressants. To explore the mechanisms by which EPA enhances the treatment of AAV, we employed SCG/Kj mice as a spontaneous murine model of AAV. Dietary enrichment with EPA significantly delayed the onset of crescentic glomerulonephritis and prolonged the overall survival. EPA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and their precursors were present in the kidney, plasma, spleen, and lungs in the EPA-treated mice. Furthermore, a decrease in ANCA production and CD4/CD8-double negative T cells, and an increase in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes of the kidney were observed in the EPA-treated mice. These clinical and experimental observations suggest that EPA can safely support and augment conventional therapy for treating autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis.
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Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) is suppressed by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secreted from cancer stroma populated by CAFs is a prerequisite for cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) have been reported to have anti-tumor effects on diverse types of malignancies. Fat-1 mice, which can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA independent of diet, are useful to investigate the functions of endogenous omega-3 PUFA. To examine the effect of omega-3 PUFA on tumorigenesis, TC-1 cells, a murine epithelial cell line immortalized by human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes, were injected subcutaneously into fat-1 or wild type mice. Tumor growth and angiogenesis of the TC-1 tumor were significantly suppressed in fat-1 compared to wild type mice. cDNA microarray of the tumors derived from fat-1 and wild type mice revealed that MMP-9 is downregulated in fat-1 mice. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated immunoreactivity for MMP-9 in the tumor stromal fibroblasts was diffusely positive in wild type whereas focal in fat-1 mice. MMP-9 was expressed in primary cultured fibroblasts isolated from fat-1 and wild type mice but was not expressed in TC-1 cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with TC-1 cells enhanced the expression and the proteinase activity of MMP-9, although the protease activity of MMP-9 in fat-1-derived fibroblasts was lower than that in wild type fibroblasts. Our data suggests that omega-3 PUFAs suppress MMP-9 induction and tumor angiogenesis. These findings may provide insight into mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs exert anti-tumor effects by modulating tumor microenvironment.
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Eicosapentaenoic acid is converted via ?-3 epoxygenation to the anti-inflammatory metabolite 12-hydroxy-17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has beneficial effects in many inflammatory disorders. In this study, dietary EPA was converted to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) by ?-3 epoxygenation in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Mediator lipidomics revealed a series of novel oxygenated metabolites of 17,18-EpETE, and one of the major metabolites, 12-hydroxy-17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-OH-17,18-EpETE), displayed a potent anti-inflammatory action by limiting neutrophil infiltration in murine zymosan-induced peritonitis. 12-OH-17,18-EpETE inhibited leukotriene B4-induced neutrophil chemotaxis and polarization in vitro in a low nanomolar range (EC50 0.6 nM). The complete structures of two natural isomers were assigned as 12S-OH-17R,18S-EpETE and 12S-OH-17S,18R-EpETE, using chemically synthesized stereoisomers. These natural isomers displayed potent anti-inflammatory action, whereas the unnatural stereoisomers were essentially devoid of activity. These results demonstrate that 17,18-EpETE derived from dietary EPA is converted to a potent bioactive metabolite 12-OH-17,18-EpETE, which may generate an endogenous anti-inflammatory metabolic pathway.-Kubota, T., Arita, M., Isobe, Y., Iwamoto, R., Goto, T., Yoshioka, T., Urabe, D., Inoue, M., Arai, H. Eicosapentaenoic acid is converted via ?-3 epoxygenation to the anti-inflammatory metabolite 12-hydroxy-17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition.
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Increased tissue levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents pathological preterm birth.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have anti-inflammatory effects. Preterm birth is an important problem in modern obstetrics and one of the main causes is an inflammation. We here showed that abundance of omega-3 fatty acids reduced the incidence of preterm birth induced by LPS with fat-1 mice, capable of converting omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. We also indicated that the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1? in uteruses and the number of cervical infiltrating macrophages were reduced in fat-1 mice. The analyses of lipid metabolomics showed the high level of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate in fat-1 mice, which was derived from EPA and was metabolized to anti-inflammatory product named resolvin E3 (RvE3). We finally showed that the administration of RvE3 to LPS-exposed pregnant wild type mice lowered the incidence of preterm birth. Our data suggest that RvE3 could be a potential new therapeutic for the prevention of preterm birth.
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Lymphoid tissue phospholipase A2 group IID resolves contact hypersensitivity by driving antiinflammatory lipid mediators.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Resolution of inflammation is an active process that is mediated in part by antiinflammatory lipid mediators. Although phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. Herein, we show that secreted PLA2 group IID (PLA2G2D) is preferentially expressed in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and displays a pro-resolving function. In hapten-induced contact dermatitis, resolution, not propagation, of inflammation was compromised in skin and LNs of PLA2G2D-deficient mice (Pla2g2d(-/-)), in which the immune balance was shifted toward a proinflammatory state over an antiinflammatory state. Bone marrow-derived DCs from Pla2g2d(-/-) mice were hyperactivated and elicited skin inflammation after intravenous transfer into mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2, which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. Altogether, our results highlight PLA2G2D as a "resolving sPLA2" that ameliorates inflammation through mobilizing pro-resolving lipid mediators and points to a potential use of this enzyme for treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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Effects of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the immune functions of young rats.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats.
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Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS-ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation.
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Lipidomic analysis of brain tissues and plasma in a mouse model expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein/tau for Alzheimers disease.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Alzheimers disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among neurodegenerative diseases, afflicts millions of elderly people worldwide. In addition to amyloid-beta (A?) peptide and phosphorylated tau, lipid dysregulation is suggested to participate in AD pathogenesis. However, alterations in individual lipid species and their role in AD disease progression remain unclear.
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The lipid mediator protectin D1 inhibits influenza virus replication and improves severe influenza.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Influenza A viruses are a major cause of mortality. Given the potential for future lethal pandemics, effective drugs are needed for the treatment of severe influenza such as that caused by H5N1 viruses. Using mediator lipidomics and bioactive lipid screen, we report that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediator protectin D1 (PD1) markedly attenuated influenza virus replication via RNA export machinery. Production of PD1 was suppressed during severe influenza and PD1 levels inversely correlated with the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses. Suppression of PD1 was genetically mapped to 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. Importantly, PD1 treatment improved the survival and pathology of severe influenza in mice, even under conditions where known antiviral drugs fail to protect from death. These results identify the endogenous lipid mediator PD1 as an innate suppressor of influenza virus replication that protects against lethal influenza virus infection.
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Global metabolomic analysis of heart tissue in a hamster model for dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a common cause of heart failure, is characterized by cardiac dilation and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the mechanistic basis, we performed global metabolomic analysis of myocardial tissues from the left ventricles of J2N-k cardiomyopathic hamsters. This model exhibits symptoms similar to those of human DCM, owing to the deletion of the ?-sarcoglycan gene. Charged and lipid metabolites were measured by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography MS(/MS), respectively, and J2N-k hamsters were compared with J2N-n healthy controls at 4 (presymptomatic phase) and 16weeks (symptomatic) of age. Disturbances in membrane phospholipid homeostasis were initiated during the presymptomatic phase. Significantly different levels of charged metabolites, occurring mainly in the symptomatic phase, were mapped to primary metabolic pathways. Reduced levels of metabolites in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, together with large decreases in major triacylglycerol levels, suggested that decreased energy production leads to cardiac contractile dysfunction in the symptomatic phase. A mild reduction in glutathione and a compensatory increase in ophthalmate levels suggest increased oxidative stress in diseased tissues, which was confirmed by histochemical staining. Increased levels of 4 eicosanoids, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1?, in the symptomatic phase suggested activation of the protective response pathways. These results provide mechanistic insights into DCM pathogenesis and may help identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnosis.
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Stereochemical assignment and anti-inflammatory properties of the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E3.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered to be a link between many widely occurring diseases. Thus, controlling the innate inflammatory response and its local chemical mediators has been receiving increasing attention. We recently identified a novel family of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived mediators produced by eosinophils, denoted as resolvin E3 (RvE3), that possess potent anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Carbons at 17 and 18 positions are asymmetric and thus the molecule has a total of four potential stereoisomers. Here, we assigned the stereochemistry of the conjugated double bonds and chirality of alcohols present in two natural isomers of RvE3 with four different stereoisomers prepared by total organic synthesis. The complete structures of two natural isomers of RvE3 were determined to be 17R,18S- and 17R,18R-dihydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,15E-EPA, respectively. These natural isomers prepared by total organic synthesis displayed a potent anti-inflammatory action by limiting neutrophil infiltrations both in vitro and in vivo. The unnatural stereoisomers were much less active compared with the natural isomers, demonstrating the stereoselective action of RvE3.
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-knockout (KO) and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.
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Inflammation and resolution are associated with upregulation of fatty acid ?-oxidation in Zymosan-induced peritonitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inflammation is a fundamental defensive response to harmful stimuli. However, it can cause damage if it does not subside. To avoid such damage, organisms have developed a mechanism called resolution of inflammation. Here we applied an untargeted metabolomics approach to a sterile and self-resolving animal model of acute inflammation, namely zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice, to examine the effect of inflammation and resolution on the metabolomic profiles. Significant and time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles after zymosan administration were observed in both peritoneal wash fluid (PWF) and plasma. These metabolomic changes correlated well with inflammatory chemokine or cytokine production. In PWF, most of metabolites that could detected increased in zymosan-treated mice, which is suggestive of inflammation, oxidative stress and increased energy demands. In plasma, most metabolites in the central metabolic pathway (glycolysis and TCA cycle) were significantly downregulated after zymosan administration. The concentration of the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) in plasma and PWF increased in zymosan-injected animals indicating upregulation of fatty acid ?-oxidation. Increased 3-HB level was observed in the cells that infiltrated into the peritoneal cavity and these infiltrated cells might contribute, at least in part, to the production of 3-HB in the peritoneal cavity.
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[Roles of lipid mediators in controlling vascular inflammation and the progression of atherosclerosis].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Atherosclerosis is recognized as an inflammatory condition of the vessel wall, characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and T cells. There are accumulating evidences that chemokines, cytokines, and lipid mediators coordinately modulate platelet- or leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and contribute to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of lipid mediators, especially those derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, in controlling vascular inflammation and the progression of atherosclerosis.
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Eosinophils promote resolution of acute peritonitis by producing proresolving mediators in mice.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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Acute inflammation in healthy individuals is self-limiting and has an active termination program. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest. In murine zymosan-induced peritonitis, we found that eosinophils are recruited to the inflamed loci during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. In vivo depletion of eosinophils caused a resolution deficit, namely impaired lymphatic drainage with reduced appearance of phagocytes carrying engulfed zymosan in the draining lymph node, and sustained numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in inflamed tissues. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipidomics of the resolving exudates revealed that locally activated eosinophils in the resolution phase produced proresolving mediators, including protectin D1 (PD1) from docosahexaenoic acid. The resolution deficit caused by eosinophil depletion was rescued by eosinophil restoration or the administration of PD1. Eosinophils deficient in 12/15-lipoxygenase could not rescue the resolution phenotype. The present results indicate that mouse eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators, including PD1, have a role in promoting the resolution of acute inflammation, expanding the roles of eosinophils in host defense and resolution.
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Transgenic restoration of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in insulin target tissues improves resolution capacity and alleviates obesity-linked inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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The catabasis of inflammation is an active process directed by n-3 derived pro-resolving lipid mediators. We aimed to determine whether high-fat (HF) diet-induced n-3 deficiency compromises the resolution capacity of obese mice and thereby contributes to obesity-linked inflammation and insulin resistance.
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Total synthesis and bioactivities of two proposed structures of maresin.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Maresin is a potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A highly convergent total synthesis of two proposed structures of C7-epimeric maresins from the four known fragments was achieved in 17 steps. The three key coupling reactions were the BF(3)-mediated alkyne attack on the epoxide, chiral titanium complex-promoted enantioselective alkyne addition to the aldehyde, and a Julia-Kocienski olefination. The two synthesized diastereomers were found to be comparably active in blocking neutrophil infiltration in the acute peritonitis model.
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Resolvins as regulators of the immune system.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or injury, but excessive or inappropriate inflammatory responses contribute to a range of acute and chronic human diseases. Clinical assessment of dietary supplementation of ù-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) indicate that they have beneficial impact on these diseases, although the mechanisms are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this decade, it has been revealed that EPA and DHA are enzymatically converted to bioactive metabolites in the course of acute inflammation and resolution. These metabolites were shown to regulate immune cell functions and to display potent anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Because of their ability to resolve an acute inflammatory response, they are referred to as proresolving mediators, or resolvins. In this review, we provide an overview of the formation and actions of these lipid mediators.
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Development and application of a near-infrared fluorescence probe for oxidative stress based on differential reactivity of linked cyanine dyes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) operate as signaling molecules under various physiological conditions, and overproduction of ROS is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Therefore, fluorescent probes for visualizing ROS are promising tools with which to uncover the molecular mechanisms of physiological and pathological processes and might also be useful for diagnosis. Here we describe a novel fluorescence probe, FOSCY-1, operating in the physiologically favorable near-infrared region. The probe consists of two differentially ROS-reactive cyanine dyes connected by a linker; reaction of the more susceptible dye with ROS releases intramolecular fluorescence quenching of the less susceptible dye. We successfully applied this probe to detect ROS produced by HL60 cells and porcine neutrophils and for imaging oxidative stress in a mouse model of peritonitis.
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The anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator resolvin E1 protects mice from bacterial pneumonia and acute lung injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Whereas pneumonia is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide, most cases of pneumonia spontaneously resolve. Mechanisms that promote pneumonia resolution remain to be determined. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous mediator that displays proresolving actions in sterile inflammation. In this study, we developed a new model of aspiration pneumonia to evaluate the effect of RvE1 on acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration and subsequent bacterial challenge. Mice received hydrochloric acid into the left lung followed by the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli. I.v. administration of RvE1 (approximately 0.005 mg/kg) prior to acid injury selectively decreased lung neutrophil accumulation by 55% and enhanced clearance of E. coli. RvE1 significantly decreased lung tissue levels of several proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-6, HMGB-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and MCP-1, in a manner independent of the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10 and lipoxin A4. In addition, animals treated with RvE1 had a marked improvement in survival. These findings in experimental aspiration pneumonia have uncovered protective roles for RvE1 in pathogen-mediated inflammation that are both anti-inflammatory for neutrophils and protective for host defense, suggesting that RvE1 represents the first candidate for a novel therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury and pneumonia that harnesses natural resolution mechanisms.
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Resolvin E1 receptor activation signals phosphorylation and phagocytosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1; (5S,12R,18R)-trihydroxy-6Z,8E,10E,14Z,16E-eicosapentaenoic acid) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid that regulates leukocyte migration and enhances macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils to resolve inflammation. In the inflammatory milieu, RvE1 mediates counter-regulatory actions initiated via specific G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we have identified RvE1-specific signaling pathways initiated by the RvE1 receptor ChemR23. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that was both ligand- and receptor-dependent. RvE1 regulated Akt phosphorylation in a time (0-15 min)- and dose-dependent (0.01-100 nm) manner in human ChemR23-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. RvE1 stimulated phosphorylation of both Akt and a 30-kDa protein, a downstream target of Akt, identified using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody. The 30-kDa protein was identified as ribosomal protein S6, a translational regulator, and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) but not by a p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Ribosomal protein S6 is a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as well as the Raf/ERK pathway. In ChemR23-expressing differentiated HL60 cells, RvE1 also stimulated the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. In addition, RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan A by human macrophages, which are inhibited by PD98059 and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). These results indicate that RvE1 initiates direct activation of ChemR23 and signals receptor-dependent phosphorylation. These phosphorylation-signaling pathways identified for RvE1 receptor-ligand interactions underscore the importance of endogenous pro-resolving agonists in resolving acute inflammation.
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Lipoxin A(4) reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Lipoxins, which are bioactive lipids derived from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, play important roles in various biological functions. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of lipoxin A(4) (LXA4; 5S,6R,15S-trihydroxy-7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) were investigated in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells, LXA4 reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in the mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. LXA4 also reduced the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In an LPS-induced acute inflammation mouse model, the injection of LXA4 at 5 microg/kg b.wt. led to down-regulation of the TNF-alpha level in serum and the TNF-alpha mRNA expression level in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LXA4 reduced the LPS-caused phosphorylation of IkappaB kinases, IkappaB, and NF-kappaB, the degradation of IkappaB, and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in intestinal epithelial cells. In a coculture system using RAW264.7 cells and human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 cells, treatment with LXA4 to Caco-2 cells led to reduction of LPS-evoked TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells and interleukin-8 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. These results indicate that LXA4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation, and, therefore, LXA4 may be useful as a therapeutic strategy against intestinal mucosa inflammation.
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Total synthesis and bioactivity of resolvin E2.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Resolvin E2 is a potent anti-inflammatory compound, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid. The efficient total synthesis of resolvin E2 by taking advantage of its intrinsic pseudoenantiomeric substructures is reported. The synthetic resolvin E2 proved to be biologically active in blocking neutrophil infiltration and reducing proinflammatory cytokines in the acute peritonitis model.
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Anti-angiogenesis effect of the novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Resolvins and lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids that are the first dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals identified in the resolution phase of inflammation. Here the authors investigated the potential of aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) A4 analog (ATLa), resolving (Rv) D1, and RvE1, in regulating angiogenesis in a murine model.
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Omega-3 PUFA derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator resolvin E1.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Inflammation is a defensive response to injury and infection, but excessive or inappropriate inflammation contributes to a range of acute and chronic human diseases. Clinical assessment of dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicate their beneficial impact on human diseases in which inflammation is suspected as a key component of the pathogenesis. Although the mechanism of EPA and DHA action is still not fully defined in molecular terms, recent studies have revealed that, during the course of acute inflammation, omega-3 PUFA-derived mediators including resolvins and protectins with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties are produced. In this review, we provide an overview of the formation and actions of EPA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator resolvin E1.
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LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice.
Mol. Biol. Cell
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Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference-based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1(-/-) mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1(-/-) mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1(-/-) mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice.
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Dysregulated synthesis of protectin D1 in eosinophils from patients with severe asthma.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
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Protectin D1 (PD1) is an anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediator biosynthesized from the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Exogenous PD1 conferred protection against eosinophilic inflammation in animals with experimental asthma, although its endogenous cellular source and functions in human airways are of interest.
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Emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation.
Front Immunol
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Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e., lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin) generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.
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Mediator lipidomics in acute inflammation and resolution.
J. Biochem.
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Acute inflammation is an indispensable host response to foreign challenges or tissue injury. In healthy conditions, inflammatory processes are self-limiting and self-resolving, suggesting the existence of endogenous mechanisms for the control of inflammation and resolution. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response is required, and recent studies have uncovered the roles of endogenous lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e. lipoxins, resolvins, protectins) in controlling the resolution of inflammation. This review presents recent advances in understanding the formation and action of these mediators, especially focusing on the LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach and the emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in controlling acute inflammation and resolution.
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Identification and structure determination of novel anti-inflammatory mediator resolvin E3, 17,18-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Bioactive mediators derived from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) elicit potent anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we identified novel EPA metabolites, including 8,18-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8,18-diHEPE), 11,18-diHEPE, 12,18-diHEPE, and 17,18-diHEPE from 18-HEPE. Unlike resolvins E1 and E2, both of which are biosynthesized by neutrophils via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, these metabolites are biosynthesized by eosinophils via the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway. Among them, two stereoisomers of 17,18-diHEPE, collectively termed resolvin E3 (RvE3), displayed a potent anti-inflammatory action by limiting neutrophil infiltration in zymosan-induced peritonitis. The planar structure of RvE3 was unambiguously determined to be 17,18-dihydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,15E-EPE by high resolution NMR, and the two stereoisomers were assigned to have 17,18R- and 17,18S-dihydroxy groups, respectively, using chemically synthesized 18R- and 18S-HEPE as precursors. Both 18R- and 18S-RvE3 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations. These findings suggest that RvE3 contributes to the beneficial actions of EPA in controlling inflammation and related diseases.
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