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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A DFT approach to the charge transport related properties in columnar stacked ?-conjugated N-heterocycle cores including electron donor and acceptor units.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We present a density functional theory (DFT) study on charge-transport related properties in a series of discotic systems based on 1,3,5-triazine and tris[1,2,4]triazolo[1,3,5]triazine central cores as electron acceptor units, and phenyl-thiophene and N-carbazolyl-thiophene segments as electron donor units. The presence of both electron donor and acceptor moieties in the ?-conjugated core could lead to new discotic liquid crystal (DLC) materials which are predicted to display ambipolar charge transport behavior in such a way that electrons could move through the central part of the next cores while holes mainly do through the peripheral groups. A significant increase in hole mobility when N-carbazolyl is present as an electron donor unit in the peripheral region is predicted. In addition, a detailed topological analysis of the electron charge density within the framework provided by Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) has been performed in order to characterize intra- and intermolecular interactions in terms of hydrogen bonds and/or ?? stacking which contribute to the stabilization of the columnar stack and the helical self-assembly at the molecular scale.
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Synthesis of Multibranched Australine Derivatives from Reducing Castanospermine Analogues through the Amadori Rearrangement of gem-Diamine Intermediates: Selective Inhibitors of beta-Glucosidase.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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A practical one-pot synthesis of bi- and tri-antennated australine analogues from a pivotal sp2-iminosugar-type reducing castanospermine precursor is reported. The transformation involves a gem-diamine intermediate that undergoes the indolizidine-->pyrrolizidine Amadori-type rearrangement and proceeds under strict control of the generalized anomeric effect to afford a single diastereomer. The final compounds behave as selective competitive inhibitors of beta-glucosidase and are promising candidates as pharmacological chaperones for Gaucher disease.
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Adipocyte Pseudohypoxia Suppresses Lipolysis and Facilitates Benign Adipose Tissue Expansion.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHDs) sense cellular oxygen upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signalling leading to HIF degradation in normoxic conditions. Here we demonstrate that adipose PHD2 inhibition plays a key role in the suppression of adipocyte lipolysis. Adipose Phd2 gene ablation in mice enhanced adiposity, with a parallel increase in adipose vascularization associated with reduced circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and normal glucose homeostasis. Phd2 gene-depleted adipocytes exhibited lower basal lipolysis in normoxia and reduced ?-adrenergic-stimulated lipolysis in both normoxia and hypoxia. A selective PHD inhibitor suppressed lipolysis in murine and human adipocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. PHD2 genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition attenuated protein levels of the key lipolytic effectors hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), suggesting a link between adipocyte oxygen sensing and fatty acid release. PHD2 mRNA levels correlated positively with mRNA levels of AB-hydrolase domain containing-5 (ABHD5), an activator of ATGL, and negatively with mRNA levels of lipid droplet proteins, perilipin and TIP47 in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Therapeutic "pseudohypoxia" caused by PHD2 inhibition in adipocytes blunts lipolysis and promotes benign adipose tissue expansion and may have therapeutic applications in obesity or lipodystrophy.
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[Predictors of scoliosis in school-aged children].
Gac Med Mex
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Alterations in the spinal column and obesity are on the rise, causing great concern in health and educational strata. This paper aims to take a step further and study in detail the relationship of the presence of scoliotic hump in obese schoolchildren.
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[The effects of methylmercury on health in children and adults; national and international studies].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.
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[Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.
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Reliability of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire and its association with physical activity in female fibromyalgia patients: the al-Ándalus project.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Abstract Physical activity attenuates the symptoms of fibromyalgia, and its level is oftentimes associated with the perceived environment of fibromyalgia patients. Within this context, we aimed to study the reliability of the Spanish version of the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) environmental questionnaire and the mode of commuting questionnaire. We also studied the association between the perceived environment and mode of commuting with physical activity levels among female fibromyalgia patients in Spain. Test-retest reliability was judged by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), weighted kappa statistic, Spearman correlations and the proportion of agreement. We calculated bivariate Pearson's correlations between environmental sum scores and physical activity measured by both International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and accelerometry. More than 70% of the scales and items showed a good reliability regarding the ICC, the weighted kappa, the Spearman correlation and the percentage of inter-agreement (higher than 50%). The perceived environment assessed with the ALPHA showed a low correlation with both IPAQ and accelerometry. The Spanish version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire proved to be reliable and showed a weak degree of association with physical activity in female fibromyalgia patients.
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The next revolution in stroke care.
Expert Rev Neurother
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Stroke is the second leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives to decrease the burden of stroke have largely focused on prevention and acute care strategies. Despite considerable resources and attention, the focus on prevention and acute care has not been successful in changing the clinical trajectory for the majority of stroke patients. While efforts to prevent strokes will continue to have an impact, the total burden of stroke will increase due to the aging population and decreased mortality rates. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation in better managing stroke and its related disabilities. The time has come to shift the attention in stroke care and research from prevention and cure to a greater focus and investment in the rehabilitation and quality of life of stroke survivors. The rebalancing of stroke care and research initiatives requires a reinvestment in rehabilitation and community reintegration of stroke survivors.
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Trehalose- and Glucose-Derived Glycoamphiphiles: Small-Molecule and Nanoparticle Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Modulators.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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An increasing number of pathologies have been linked to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation and signaling, therefore new hit and lead compounds targeting this receptor activation process are urgently needed. We report on the synthesis and biological properties of glycolipids based on glucose and trehalose scaffolds which potently inhibit TLR4 activation and signaling in vitro and in vivo. Structure-activity relationship studies on these compounds indicate that the presence of fatty ester chains in the molecule is a primary prerequisite for biological activity and point to facial amphiphilicity as a preferred architecture for TLR4 antagonism. The cationic glycolipids here presented can be considered as new lead compounds for the development of drugs targeting TLR4 activation and signaling in infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the biological activity of the best drug candidate was retained after adsorption at the surface of colloidal gold nanoparticles, broadening the options for clinical development.
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[Analysis of the prevalence of scoliosis and associated factors in a population of mexican schoolchildren using sifting techniques].
Gac Med Mex
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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It is known that in the last decade, spinal disorders are increasing among children, and this generates high concern in areas of healthcare and educational stakeholders to develop preventative strategies to help curb this trend. This paper intends to go a step further in this direction and to explore factors associated with the presence of scoliosis hump, thus contributing to a better approach in the treatment and prevention of this disease in Mexican schools.
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A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time.
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Brain iron overload, insulin resistance, and cognitive performance in obese subjects: a preliminary MRI case-control study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The linkage among the tissue iron stores, insulin resistance (IR), and cognition remains unclear in the obese population. We aimed to identify the factors that contribute to increased hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and brain iron overload (BIO), as evaluated by MRI, and to evaluate their impact on cognitive performance in obese and nonobese subjects.
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A handy approximate solution for a squeezing flow between two infinite plates by using of Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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This article proposes Laplace Transform Homotopy Perturbation Method (LT-HPM) to find an approximate solution for the problem of an axisymmetric Newtonian fluid squeezed between two large parallel plates. After comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions, we will see that the proposed solutions besides of handy, are highly accurate and therefore LT-HPM is extremely efficient.
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Adipose Tissue ?-Crystallin Is a Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein Associated With Systemic Insulin Sensitivity.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Circulating thyroid hormones have been described to be intrinsically associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. ?-Crystallin is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent thyroid hormone-binding protein that has been shown to bind T3 in the cytoplasm. We aimed to study ?-Crystallin expression in adipose tissue and in muscle in association with insulin action and thyroid function.
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Fitness Testing in the Fibromyalgia Diagnosis: the al-Ándalus Project.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To determine the ability of a set of physical fitness tests to discriminate presence/absence of fibromyalgia in women.
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Three-dimensional whole-heart T2 mapping at 3T.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Detecting variations in myocardial water content with T2 mapping is superior to conventional T2 -weighted MRI since quantification enables direct observation of complicated pathology. Most commonly used T2 mapping techniques are limited in achievable spatial and/or temporal resolution, both of which reduce accuracy due to partial-volume averaging and misregistration between images. The goal of this study was to validate a novel free breathing T2 mapping sequence that overcomes these limitations.
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Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps < 0.01) were found. Changes in pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy.
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Haplo-Cord Transplantation Using CD34(+) Cells from a Third-Party Donor to Speed Engraftment in High-Risk Patients with Hematologic Disorders.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Among the strategies to optimize engraftment of cord blood (CB) stem cell transplantation (SCT), single CB with the coinfusion of CD34(+) stem cells from an HLA-mismatched auxiliary donor (haplo-cord) provides a valid alternative for adult patients without a suitable donor. A total of 132 high-risk adult patients with hematological malignancies from 3 Spanish institutions underwent myeloablative haplo-cord SCT. The median age was 37 years and median weight was 70 kg; 37% had active disease. The median number of postprocessing CB total nucleated and CD34(+) cells was 2.4 × 10(7)/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 1.8 to 2.9) and 1.4 × 10(5)/kg (IQR, .9 to 2), respectively. Neutrophil engraftment occurred in a median of 11.5 days (IQR, 10.5 to 16.5) and platelet engraftment at 36 days (IQR, 25.5 to 77). Graft failure was 2% overall and only 9% for CB. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GHVD) grades II to IV was 21% and cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 21%. Median follow-up was 60 months (range, 3.5 to 163). Overall survival was 43.5%, event-free survival was 38.3%, nonrelapse mortality was 35%, and relapse was 20% at 5 years. Myeloablative haplo-cord SCT results in fast engraftment of neutrophils and platelets, low incidences of acute and chronic GVHD, and favorable long-term outcomes using single CB units with relatively low cell content. Moreover, CB cell dose had no impact on CB engraftment and survival in this study. Therefore, haplo-cord SCT expands donor availability while reducing CB cell dose requirements.
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Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.
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The effects of custom-made foot orthosis using the Central Stabilizer Element on foot pain.
Prosthet Orthot Int
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Background:Foot orthoses have been applied for the management of lower limb disorders, mainly for those who develop foot pain. The Central Stabilizer Element (CSE) is a new element that contains the midfoot laterally when a plantar insole is manufactured.Objectives:To determine the effect on foot pain of adding the Central Stabilizer Element during the manufacturing process of foot orthosis, and to describe the proportions of Central Stabilizer Element in terms of width and length of this element.Study design:A clinical study.Methods:A sample comprising 130 patients (57 males and 73 females) with foot pain was recruited for this study, with the patients having supinated, neutral, pronated and overpronated feet. All the patients received a custom-made foot orthosis with the Central Stabilizer Element. The Central Stabilizer Element was made of resins of polyvinyl chloride, and is a device insert in foot orthosis that contains the midfoot laterally to control pronation and supination movements. Perceived patient's foot pain was collected using a Visual Analog Scale at baseline, 15, 60 and 90 days after treatment.Results:A statistically significant decrease was found after foot orthosis application at all times in all foot types. There was a statistically significant correlation between all the ratio proportions according to foot posture (Foot Posture Index scores), except for heel length proportion.Conclusions:The Central Stabilizer Element, applied at midfoot level of a custom-made foot orthoses through a directly mould technique, can reduce foot pain, when a previous foot posture status is considered.Clinical relevanceThe Central Stabilizer Element can be of interest for those professionals who are involved in the manufacturing process of foot orthosis, throughout the control of an excesive pronated or a supinated foot condition that is provoking foot pain.
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The possible role of antimicrobial proteins in obesity-associated immunologic alterations.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Currently, obesity-associated metabolic disturbances are envisioned as chronic inflammatory processes, characterized by activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Although the features of chronic inflammation in obese subjects are clearly defined, the signals and mechanisms that trigger chronic inflammation are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an imbalance in circulating antimicrobial proteins as a possible cause of obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance. This imbalance promotes a relative failure in the capacity of buffering external insults and might cause the onset of chronic inflammation and immunologic alterations in obesity. Here, we review the current literature on the possible role of circulating antimicrobial proteins in obesity-associated immunologic alterations.
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Effects of iron overload on chronic metabolic diseases.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Iron can affect the clinical course of several chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. Iron overload can affect major tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (pancreatic ? cells, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) and organs affected by chronic diabetic complications. Because iron is a potent pro-oxidant, fine-tuned control mechanisms have evolved to regulate entry, recycling, and loss of body iron. These mechanisms include the interplay of iron with transferrin, ferritin, insulin, and hepcidin, as well as with adipokines and proinflammatory molecules. An imbalance of these homoeostatic mechanisms results in systemic and parenchymal siderosis that contributes to organ damage (such as ?-cell dysfunction, fibrosis in liver diseases, and atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability). Conversely, iron depletion can exert beneficial effects in patients with iron overload and even in healthy frequent blood donors. Regular assessment of iron balance should be recommended for patients with chronic metabolic diseases, and further research is needed to produce guidelines for the identification of patients who would benefit from iron depletion.
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Transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) in adipose tissue is increased in situations characterized by decreased PPAR? gene expression.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Transgenic overexpression of adipose tissue (AT) transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) mimicked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists, improving insulin resistance in mice. This study aimed to investigate TLE3 gene expression (qRT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) in subjects with a wide spectrum of obesity and insulin sensitivity and in an independent cohort of obese subjects following surgery-induced weight loss. TLE3 was analyzed in human adipocytes and after treatment with rosiglitazone. Given the findings in humans, TLE3 was also investigated in mice after a high-fat diet (HFD) and in PPAR? knockout mice. Subcutaneous (SC) AT TLE3 was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In fact, SC TLE3 was associated with increased fasting glucose (r?=?0.25, p?=?0.015) and S6K1 activity (r?=?0.671, p?=?0.003), and with decreased Glut4 (r?=?-0.426, p?=?0.006) and IRS-1 expression (-31 %, p?=?0.007) and activation (P-IRS-1/IRS-1, -17 %, p?=?0.024). TLE3 was preferentially expressed in mature adipocytes and increased during in vitro differentiation in parallel to PPAR?. Weight loss led to improved insulin sensitivity, increased AT PPAR? and decreased TLE3 (-24 %, p?=?0.0002), while rosiglitazone administration downregulated TLE3 gene expression in fully differentiated adipocytes (-45 %, p?
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Spatially resolved magnetic field structure in the disk of a T Tauri star.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Magnetic fields in accretion disks play a dominant part during the star formation process but have hitherto been observationally poorly constrained. Field strengths have been inferred on T Tauri stars and possibly in the innermost part of their accretion disks, but the strength and morphology of the field in the bulk of a disk have not been observed. Spatially unresolved measurements of polarized emission (arising from elongated dust grains aligned perpendicularly to the field) imply average fields aligned with the disks. Theoretically, the fields are expected to be largely toroidal, poloidal or a mixture of the two, which imply different mechanisms for transporting angular momentum in the disks of actively accreting young stars such as HL Tau (ref. 11). Here we report resolved measurements of the polarized 1.25-millimetre continuum emission from the disk of HL Tau. The magnetic field on a scale of 80 astronomical units is coincident with the major axis (about 210 astronomical units long) of the disk. From this we conclude that the magnetic field inside the disk at this scale cannot be dominated by a vertical component, though a purely toroidal field also does not fit the data well. The unexpected morphology suggests that the role of the magnetic field in the accretion of a T Tauri star is more complex than our current theoretical understanding.
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Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone: a randomized, anti-Müllerian hormone-stratified, dose-response trial in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations.
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Olive oil phenolic compounds decrease the postprandial inflammatory response by reducing postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharide levels.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which phenolic compounds (phenols) in virgin olive oil reduce the postprandial inflammatory response with the aim of identifying the transcription factor involved and the downstream effects. Olive oil-based breakfasts prepared with virgin olive oil (VOO) with high (398 ppm), intermediate (149 ppm) and low (70 ppm) phenol content were administered to 49 metabolic syndrome patients following a randomized crossover design. The consumption of a high-phenol VOO-based breakfast limited the increase of lipopolysaccharide plasma levels, TLR4, and SOCS3 proteins (p<0.001, p=0.041 and p=0.008, respectively), the activation of NF-?B (p=0.016) and the IL6 (p=0.007 and p=0.048, low and intermediate oil, respectively), IL1B (p=0.002, intermediate oil), and CXCL1 (p=0.001) postprandial gene expression, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as compared with the consumption of a breakfast prepared with the same oil but with low or intermediate phenol content. Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in association with postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharide levels.
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Influence of follicle rupture and uterine contractions on intrauterine insemination outcome: a new predictive model.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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To correlate the detection of follicle rupture and the number of uterine contractions per minute with the outcome of IUI and to build a predictive model for the outcome of IUI including these parameters.
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[What is the optimal dose for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine patients?].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) is indicated for headache prophylaxis in patients with chronic migraine. However, there is some controversy about what is the minimum effective dose for treating chronic migraine patients.
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Fine-tuned iron availability is essential to achieve optimal adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Adipose tissue from obese and insulin-resistant individuals showed altered expression of several iron-related genes in a recent study, suggesting that iron might have an important role in adipogenesis. To investigate this possible role, we aimed to characterise the effects of iron on adipocyte differentiation.
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Lactoferrin gene knockdown leads to similar effects to iron chelation in human adipocytes.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In human and mice adipose tissue, lactoferrin (LTF) has been found to be associated with increased adipogenesis and decreased inflammatory markers. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of LTF knockdown (KD) in human adipocyte differentiation. In addition, the effects of exogenous LTF administration and iron chelation [using deferoxamine (DFO, 10 ?M)] were tested. In both subcutaneous and visceral pre-adipocytes, LTF KD led to decrease significantly adipogenic, lipogenic and insulin signalling-related gene expression and a significant increase in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators. Human lactoferrin (hLf, 1 ?M) administration led to recover adipocyte differentiation in LTF KD pre-adipocytes. Interestingly, iron chelation triggered similar effects to LTF KD, decreasing significantly adipogenic gene expressions. Of note, DFO (10 ?M) and hLf (1 and 10 ?M) co-administration led to a dose-dependent recovery of adipocyte differentiation. These new data reveal that endogenous LTF biosynthesis during human adipocyte differentiation is essential to achieve this process, possibly, modulating adipocyte iron homoeostasis. hLf administration might be a useful therapeutic target in obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.
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Recent onset disequilibrium mimicking acute vestibulopathy in early multiple sclerosis.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The differential diagnosis of patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy rests in the proper clinical assessment and use of selected tests of vestibular function. In case of a central nervous system lesion as in Multiple Sclerosis, the case shown here, it is of particular importance to observe congruency between severity of symptoms and signs and, of topographic diagnosis. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with recent onset disequilibrium that after careful analysis of the different test results several incongruences were found; this prompted a radiological study that provided the clue to diagnosis. After treatment the patient recovered completely not only clinically but also in vestibular deficit.
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[Hepatitis B virus reactivation in rituximab-treated patients: incidence and risk factors.]
Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after chemotherapy regimens is a well-known complication. The incidence and risk factors for HBV reactivation remain to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for HBV reactivation in patients receiving rituximab, and the potential role of the cumulative rituximab dose in HBV reactivation. We retrospectively reviewed 320 patients receiving rituximab in our hospital. Of these, 42 (13.12%) had serological markers of hepatitis B. During follow-up, 21% (9/42) had HBV reactivation. Risk factors for reactivation were HBsAg positivity (p<0.05), isolated anti-HBc positivity (p<0.05), marginal zone lymphoma, and Mantle cell lymphoma (p<0.05). The median rituximab dose tended to be higher in patients with reactivation (p=0.06).
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Insulin resistance modulates iron-related proteins in adipose tissue.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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OBJECTIVE Circulating markers of iron overload are associated with insulin resistance. Less is known about the impact of iron overload on adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesized that gene expression markers of iron metabolism in AT could be associated with insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The AT expression of ferroportin (SLC40A1), transferrin (TF), TF receptor (TFRC), ferritin (FT) heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1), and FT light polypeptide (FTL) was analyzed cross-sectionally in three independent cohorts and also after weight loss-induced changes in insulin sensitivity (clamp M value) in an independent fourth cohort. RESULTS In human AT, TF mRNA and protein levels were decreased with obesity and insulin resistance in the three cohorts and were positively associated with adipogenic mRNAs and insulin action. Otherwise, FTL mRNA and protein and SLC40A1 transcripts were positively associated with BMI and negatively linked to adipogenic genes and insulin action. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss led to increased TF and decreased TFRC, FTH1, FTL, and SLC40A1 in subcutaneous AT in parallel to improved insulin action. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that iron overload impacts on AT in association with insulin resistance.
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Functional diversification within bacterial lineages promotes wide functional overlapping between taxonomic groups in a Mediterranean forest soil.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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We investigated the relationship between taxonomy and functioning of soil bacterial communities in soils from a Mediterranean holm oak forest using a high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing technique. We used nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test) to evaluate the sensitivity of each single bacterial genus within the community to the fluctuations of plant physiological and environmental abiotic variables, as well as to fluctuations in soil microbial respiration. Within-lineage (phylum/class) functional similarities were evaluated by the distribution of the Mann-Whitney U-test standardized coefficients (z) obtained for all genera within a given lineage. We further defined different ecological niches and within-lineage degree of functional diversification based on multivariate analyses (principal component analyses, PCA). Our results indicate that strong within-lineage functional diversification causes extensive functional overlapping between lineages, which hinders the translation of taxonomic diversity into a meaningful functional classification of bacteria. Our results further suggest a widespread colonization of possible ecological niches as taxonomic diversity increases. While no strong functional differentiation could be drawn from the analyses at the phylum/class level, our results suggest a strong ecological niche differentiation of bacteria based mainly on the distinct response of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to fluctuations in soil moisture.
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Nonlinearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Direct application of Padé approximant for solving nonlinear differential equations.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This work presents a direct procedure to apply Padé method to find approximate solutions for nonlinear differential equations. Moreover, we present some cases study showing the strength of the method to generate highly accurate rational approximate solutions compared to other semi-analytical methods. The type of tested nonlinear equations are: a highly nonlinear boundary value problem, a differential-algebraic oscillator problem, and an asymptotic problem. The high accurate handy approximations obtained by the direct application of Padé method shows the high potential if the proposed scheme to approximate a wide variety of problems. What is more, the direct application of the Padé approximant aids to avoid the previous application of an approximative method like Taylor series method, homotopy perturbation method, Adomian Decomposition method, homotopy analysis method, variational iteration method, among others, as tools to obtain a power series solutions to post-treat with the Padé approximant.
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Circulating tryptase as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in obese subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mast cells participate in atherogenesis by releasing cytokines to induce vascular cell protease expression. Tryptase is expressed highly in human atherosclerotic lesions and the inhibition of tryptase activity hampers its capacity to maintain cholesterol inside macrophague foam cells. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating tryptase levels and subclinical atherosclerosis through estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) as surrogate marker for increased cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese subjects.
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Modified Taylor series method for solving nonlinear differential equations with mixed boundary conditions defined on finite intervals.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this article, we propose the application of a modified Taylor series method (MTSM) for the approximation of nonlinear problems described on finite intervals. The issue of Taylor series method with mixed boundary conditions is circumvented using shooting constants and extra derivatives of the problem. In order to show the benefits of this proposal, three different kinds of problems are solved: three-point boundary valued problem (BVP) of third-order with a hyperbolic sine nonlinearity, two-point BVP for a second-order nonlinear differential equation with an exponential nonlinearity, and a two-point BVP for a third-order nonlinear differential equation with a radical nonlinearity. The result shows that the MTSM method is capable to generate easily computable and highly accurate approximations for nonlinear equations.
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A handy approximation for a mediated bioelectrocatalysis process, related to Michaelis-Menten equation.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this article, Perturbation Method (PM) is employed to obtain a handy approximate solution to the steady state nonlinear reaction diffusion equation containing a nonlinear term related to Michaelis-Menten of the enzymatic reaction. Comparing graphics between the approximate and exact solutions, it will be shown that the PM method is quite efficient.
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Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased ?-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (?56%) and cholesterol epoxide (?34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and ?-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.-Jové, M., Moreno-Navarrete, J. M., Pamplona, R., Ricart, W., Portero-Otín, M., Fernández-Real, J. M. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.
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Aquatic therapy improves pain, disability, quality of life, body composition and fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain. A controlled clinical trial.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Objective:To determine the effects of a two-month intensive aquatic therapy programme on back pain, disability, quality of life, body composition and health-related fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain.Design:Controlled clinical trial.Setting:Community.Subjects:Forty-nine sedentary patients with chronic low back pain.Interventions:Patients were allocated into active group (n = 24, two months, five times/week) or waiting list, control group (n = 25) according to space on the programme.Main measures:Outcomes variables were pain (visual analogue scale), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), quality of life (Quality Short-Form Health Survey 36), body composition (weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass) and health-related fitness (sit-and-reach, handgrip strength, curl-up, Rockport 1-mile test).Results:The active group significantly improved low back pain (-3.83 ± 0.35 mm on the visual analogue scale ), disability (-12.7 ± 1.3 points for the Oswestry Disability Index) and the standardized physical component (10.3 ± 1.4 points for the Quality Short-Form Health Survey 36) of quality-of-life domains (P < 0.001), with no significant changes on the standardized mental component (P = 0.114). In relation to body composition and fitness, the active group showed significant improvements (all P-values < 0.01). The control group presented no significant change in any parameter.Conclusions:A two-month intensive aquatic therapy programme of high-frequency (five times/week) decreases levels of back pain and disability, increases quality of life, and improves body composition and health-related fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain.
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[Irisin: A messenger from the gods?]
Clin Investig Arterioscler
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Due to the need to understand the basis of the metabolic benefits of exercise, irisin was discovered a few years ago. This cytokine, secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, should have positive effects on energetic metabolism. In particular, it could act as a messenger on white adipose tissue, modifying its phenotype into the beige adipocyte, and increasing its thermogenic capacity. Since it was described, there have been numerous studies led to depict its function, with the aim of determining if irisin could become a therapeutic target in the context of diseases associated with a caloric excess, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, the irisin discovery is summarized, along with its in vitro and in vivo effects described up until now.
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Regioselective synthesis of oxepinones and azepinones by gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of functionalyzed cyclopropyl alkynes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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A regioselective synthesis of oxepinones and azepinones in good to excellent yields from alkynylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid derivatives is described. This novel cycloisomerization cascade process consists of a nucleophilic addition followed by a cyclopropane ring-opening, where both donor and acceptor groups are required as substituents of the cyclopropane ring.
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Comparison of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with a multi-sensor armband accelerometer in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To compare levels of physical activity (PA) assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with PA measured with the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) in women with fibromyalgia, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the IPAQ.
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Organ-focused mutual information for nonrigid multimodal registration of liver CT and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI.
Med Image Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Accurate detection of liver lesions is of great importance in hepatic surgery planning. Recent studies have shown that the detection rate of liver lesions is significantly higher in gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI) than in contrast-enhanced portal-phase computed tomography (CT); however, the latter remains essential because of its high specificity, good performance in estimating liver volumes and better vessel visibility. To characterize liver lesions using both the above image modalities, we propose a multimodal nonrigid registration framework using organ-focused mutual information (OF-MI). This proposal tries to improve mutual information (MI) based registration by adding spatial information, benefiting from the availability of expert liver segmentation in clinical protocols. The incorporation of an additional information channel containing liver segmentation information was studied. A dataset of real clinical images and simulated images was used in the validation process. A Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI simulation framework is presented. To evaluate results, warping index errors were calculated for the simulated data, and landmark-based and surface-based errors were calculated for the real data. An improvement of the registration accuracy for OF-MI as compared with MI was found for both simulated and real datasets. Statistical significance of the difference was tested and confirmed in the simulated dataset (p<0.01).
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Adaptive changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 set point help adipose tissue to cope with increased storage demands of obesity.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress.
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Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Abstract This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3±8.4 kg; stature 179.8±7.1 cm; body fat 24.0±3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3±2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1±0.7; 3.4±0.9; 3.1±0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.
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The endemic Genista versicolor from Sierra Nevada National Park in Spain is nodulated by putative new Bradyrhizobium species and a novel symbiovar (sierranevadense).
Syst. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Genista versicolor is an endemic legume from Sierra Nevada National Park which constitutes one of the UNESCO-recognized Biosphere Reserves. In the present study, a collection of strains nodulating this legume was analysed in characteristic soils of this ecosystem. Most strains nodulating G. versicolor belonged to rrs group I within the genus Bradyrhizobium and only one strain, named GV137, belonged to rrs group II from which only a single species, B. retamae, has been described in Europe to date. Strain GV137, and some strains from rrs group I, belonged to putative new species of Bradyrhizobium, although most strains from group I belonged to B. canariense, according to the ITS fragment and atpD gene analysis. This result contrasted with those obtained in Genista tinctoria in Northeast Europe whose endosymbionts were identified as B. japonicum. The analysis of the symbiotic nodC and nifH genes carried by G. versicolor-nodulating strains showed that most of them belonged to symbiovar genistearum, as did those isolated from G. tinctoria. Nevertheless, strain GV137, belonging to rrs group II, formed a divergent lineage that constituted a novel symbiovar within the genus Bradyrhizobium for which the name sierranevadense is proposed. This finding showed that the Genisteae are not restrictive legumes only nodulated by symbiovar genistearum, since Genista is a promiscuous legume nodulated by at least two symbiovars of Bradyrhizobium, as occurs in Retama species.
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[Family factors influence active commuting to school in Spanish children].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Active commuting to school is associated to higher levels of physical activity among children. Family factors may influence on this behaviour.
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Second-line therapy with levofloxacin after failure of treatment to eradicate helicobacter pylori infection: time trends in a Spanish Multicenter Study of 1000 patients.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is complex and frequently induces adverse effects. A triple rescue regimen containing levofloxacin is a potential alternative; however, resistance to quinolones is rapidly increasing.
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Six-Year Trend in Active Commuting to School in Spanish Adolescents : The AVENA and AFINOS Studies.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Promoting daily routine activities, such as active commuting to school, may have important health implications for young people.
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Crystal structure and charge transport properties of poly(arylene-ethynylene) derivatives: a DFT approach.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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In the present study, a series of crystalline poly(arylene-ethynylene) copolymers containing phenylethynylene and 2,5-dialkoxy-phenylethynylene units together with 1,3,4-thiadiazole rings has been modeled by means of periodic calculations. Optimized three-dimensional polymeric structures show interchain distances that are consistent with the experimental values reported for a related polymer. It has also been observed that the presence of pendant alkoxy chains brings on both a further flattening and a separation of the coplanar chains. This fact is linked to a decrease of the interchain cofacial distance. The electron transport character of the polymer crystal structures was assessed through Marcus theory. Electronic coupling between neighboring polymer chains is most influenced by the presence of alkoxy chains giving rise to an expectable enhancement of the electron hopping mobility.
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Global climate changes drive ecological specialization of mammal faunas: trends in rodent assemblages from the Iberian Plio-Pleistocene.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Several macroevolutionary hypotheses propose a synchrony between climatic changes and variations in the structure of faunal communities. Some of them focus on the importance of the species ecological specialization because of its effects on evolutionary processes and the resultant patterns. Particularly, Vrbas turnover pulse hypothesis and resource-use hypothesis revolve around the importance of biome inhabitation. In order to test these hypotheses, we used the Biomic Specialization Index, which is based on the number of biomes occupied by each species, and evaluated the changes in the relative importance of generalist and specialist rodents in more than forty fossil sites from the Iberian Plio-Pleistocene.
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Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein as a marker of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Recently, serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been closely associated with coronary artery disease. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible relationship between serum LBP and markers of atherosclerosis.
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Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Recently irisin (encoded by Fndc5 gene) has been reported to stimulate browning and uncoupling protein 1 expression in sc adipose tissue of mice.
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The endometrial receptivity array for diagnosis and personalized embryo transfer as a treatment for patients with repeated implantation failure.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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To demonstrate the clinical value of the endometrial receptivity array (ERA) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF), for guiding their personalized embryo transfer (pET) as a novel therapeutic strategy.
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Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.
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Targeting the circulating microRNA signature of obesity.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Genomic studies have yielded important insights into the pathogenesis of obesity. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarkers of systemic diseases and potential therapeutic targets. We sought to define the circulating pattern of miRNAs in obesity and examine changes after weight loss.
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Spanish adaptation and psychometric properties of the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire for fibromyalgia patients: the al-Andalus study.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviours are considered as risk factors for global mortality and primary contributors to the obesity epidemic. We assessed the psychometric properties and transcultural adaptation into Spanish of the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire in fibromyalgia patients.
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Study of lactoferrin gene expression in human and mouse adipose tissue, human preadipocytes and mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. Association with adipogenic and inflammatory markers.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Lactoferrin is considered an epithelial protein present in different gland secretions. Administration of exogenous lactoferrin is also known to modulate adipogenesis and insulin action in human adipocytes. Here, we aimed to investigate lactoferrin gene expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) levels in human (n=143) and mice adipose tissue samples, in adipose tissue fractions and during human preadipocyte and 3T3-L1 cell line differentiation, evaluating the effects of inducers (rosiglitazone) and disruptors (inflammatory factors) of adipocyte differentiation. Lactoferrin (LTF) gene and protein were detectable at relatively high levels in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes in direct association with low-density lipoprotein-related protein 1 (LRP1, its putative receptor). Obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and increased triglycerides had the lowest levels of LTF gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Specifically, LTF gene expression was significantly increased in adipocytes, mainly from lean subjects, increasing during differentiation in parallel to adipogenic genes and gene markers of lipid droplets. The induction or disruption of adipogenesis led to concomitant changes (increase and decrease, respectively) of lactoferrin levels during adipocyte differentiation also in parallel to gene markers of adipogenesis and lipid droplet development. The administration of lactoferrin led to autopotentiated increased expression of the LTF gene. The decreased lactoferrin mRNA levels in association with obesity and diabetes were replicated in mice adipose tissue. In conclusion, this is the first observation, to our knowledge, of lactoferrin gene expression in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes, increasing during adipogenesis and suggesting a possible contribution in adipose tissue physiology through LRP1.
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Decreased RB1 mRNA, protein, and activity reflect obesity-induced altered adipogenic capacity in human adipose tissue.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPAR? and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic phenotype. In conclusion, Rb1 seems to play a permissive role for human adipose tissue function, being downregulated in obesity and increased during differentiation of human adipocytes. Rb1 knockdown findings further implicate Rb1 as necessary for maintenance of adipogenic characteristics in fully differentiated adipocytes.
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Dietary ecology of murinae (muridae, rodentia): a geometric morphometric approach.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.