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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.
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Comparison on the fatty acid profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and muscle from feedlot steers finished on diets supplemented with or without cinnamaldehyde or monensin.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) is the main active component of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) oil and has been tested as alternative feed additive in cattle production. Little information was available on the effect of dietary CIN in comparison to monensin (MO) on beef fatty acid (FA) profile. This study analyzed FA profiles of liver, subcutaneous fat and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) muscle obtained from steers (n = 70) finished on diets: control, a barley grain-silage feedlot diet; 330?mg/head.day MO; and 400, 800 or 1600?mg/head.day CIN treatments.
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Ablation of Akt2 protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac dysfunction: role of Akt ubiquitination E3 ligase TRAF6.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in myocardial anomalies in sepsis. Recent evidence has depicted a role of Akt in LPS-induced cardiac sequelae although little information is available with regard to the contribution of Akt isoforms in the endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction. This study examined the effect of Akt2 knockout on LPS-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Echocardiographic properties and cardiomyocyte contractile function [peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, time-to-PS, time-to-90% relengthening] were examined in wild-type and Akt2 knockout mice following LPS challenge (4mg/kg, 4h). LPS challenge enlarged LV end systolic diameter, reduced fractional shortening and cardiomyocyte contractile capacity, prolonged TR90, promoted apoptosis, upregulated caspase-3/-12, ubiquitin, and the ubiquitination E3 ligase TRAF6 as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential without affecting the levels of TNF-?, toll-like receptor 4 and the mitochondrial protein ALDH2. Although Akt2 knockout failed to affect myocardial function, apoptosis, and ubiquitination, it significantly attenuated or mitigated LPS-induced changes in cardiac contractile and mitochondrial function, apoptosis and ubiquitination but not TRAF6. LPS facilitated ubiquitination, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3? and p38, the effect of which with the exception of p38 was ablated by Akt2 knockout. TRAF6 inhibitory peptide or RNA silencing significantly attenuated LPS-induced Akt2 ubiquitination, cardiac contractile anomalies and apoptosis. These data collectively suggested that TRAF6 may play a pivotal role in mediating LPS-induced cardiac injury via Akt2 ubiquitination.
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Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cardiac contractile dysfunction in an Akt2-knockout murine model of insulin resistance: role of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas now being recognized as an endogenous signaling molecule in multiple organ systems, in particular, the cardiovascular system. H2S is known to regulate cardiac function and protect against ischemic injury. However, little information is available regarding the effect of H2S on cardiac function in insulin resistance. This study was designed to examine the impact of H2S supplementation on cardiac function using an Akt2 knockout model of insulin resistance. Wild-type and Akt2 knockout mice were treated with NaHS (50 ?M·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip for 10 days) prior to evaluation of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile, and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, apoptosis, and mitochondrial damage. Our results revealed that Akt2 ablation led to overtly enlarged ventricular end-systolic diameter, reduced myocardial and cardiomyocyte contractile function, and disrupted intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and apoptosis, the effects of which were ameliorated by H2S. Furthermore, Akt2 knockout displayed upregulated apoptotic protein markers (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspace-12) and mitochondrial damage (reduced aconitase activity and NAD(+), elevated cytochrome-c release from mitochondria) along with reduced phosphorylation of PTEN, Akt, and GSK3? in the absence of changes in pan protein expression, the effects of which were abolished or significantly ameliorated by H2S treatment. In vitro data revealed that H2S-induced beneficial effect against Akt2 ablation was obliterated by mitochondrial uncoupling. Taken together, our findings suggest the H2S may reconcile Akt2 knockout-induced myocardial contractile defect and intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling, possibly via attenuation of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis.
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MicroRNAs in bovine adipogenesis: genomic context, expression and function.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs found to regulate several biological processes including adipogenesis. Understanding adipose tissue regulation is critical for beef cattle as fat is an important determinant of beef quality and nutrient value. This study analyzed the association between genomic context characteristics of miRNAs with their expression and function in bovine adipose tissue. Twenty-four subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from eight British-continental crossbred steers at 3 different time points. Total RNA was extracted and miRNAs were profiled using a miRNA microarray with expression further validated by qRT-PCR.
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Predicting transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy outcomes using Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The aim of this study was to use Fourier domain optical coherence tomography to predict transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy outcomes.
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Negative pressure wound therapy decreases mortality in a murine model of burn-wound sepsis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The colonization of burn wounds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can lead to septic shock, organ injuries, and high mortality rates. We hypothesized that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) would decrease invasion and proliferation of P. aeruginosa within the burn wound and reduce mortality.
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Optical coherence tomography-based corneal power measurement and intraocular lens power calculation following laser vision correction (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and improve the selection of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction.
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Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Schwalbes Line With High-resolution Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the angle opening distance at Schwalbes line (AOD-SL) and determine its value in anterior chamber angle assessment.
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Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 by cariporide alleviates burn-induced multiple organ injury.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Severe burns initiate an inflammatory response characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine, which contributes to multiple organ injury. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) plays a significant role in several inflammatory processes. This study was designed to investigate the role of NHE1 in burn-induced inflammation and multiple organ injury.
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Evaluating DSAEK graft deturgescence in preservation medium after microkeratome cut with optical coherence tomography.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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To evaluate the Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) graft deturgescence in preservation medium after microkeratome cut using Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injuries in rats.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Inflammation and oxidative stress exert important roles in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have shown effective antioxidative and immunomodulatory functions in different models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential mechanisms of LBPs in intestinal IRI. Several free radical-generating and lipid peroxidation models were used to assess the antioxidant activities of LBPs in vitro. A common IRI model was used to induce intestinal injury by clamping and unclamping the superior mesenteric artery in rats. Changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, activated nuclear factor (NF)-?B, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, E-selectin, and related antioxidant enzyme levels, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation, intestinal permeability, and intestinal histology were examined. We found that LBPs exhibited marked inhibitory action against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in vitro. LBPs increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced intestinal oxidative injury in animal models of intestinal IRI. In addition, LBPs inhibited PMN accumulation and ICAM-1 expression and ameliorated changes in the TNF-? level, NF-?B activation, intestinal permeability, and histology. Our results indicate that LBPs treatment may protect against IRI-induced intestinal damage, possibly by inhibiting IRI-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
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Beveled femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy for the treatment of high astigmatism post-penetrating keratoplasty.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To use beveled femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (FLAK) incisions to treat high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.
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Use of fourier-domain optical coherence tomography to evaluate anterior stromal opacities in donor corneas.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Purpose. To evaluate Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) as an adjunct to traditional slit lamp examination of donor corneas with suspected Anterior Stromal Opacities. Methods. Seven corneas suspected of having anterior stromal opacities by slit lamp examination were evaluated with FD-OCT. Each cornea was evaluated to confirm the presence of opacity and, if present, the depth of opacity was measured. Results. The opacity depth ranged from 82? ? m to 624? ? m. The initial slit lamp impressions of five of the seven corneas were confirmed by OCT. In two corneas, the OCT findings were different from the initial slit lamp impressions. Slit lamp examination of the first cornea gave the impression of anterior stromal scarring, but OCT showed that the opacity was limited to the epithelium. Slit lamp examination of the second cornea suggested opacity limited to the epithelium, but OCT identified significant sub-Bowmans scarring. In all cases, the Eye Bank Technicians reported that the location and depth of corneal opacity were more sharply defined by OCT than by slit lamp. Conclusion. The high resolution of OCT makes it easier to determine the location of corneal opacities compared to slit lamp examinations. This enhanced visualization can improve decisions regarding transplant suitability of donor corneas.
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Chronic Akt activation attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac dysfunction via Akt/GSK3?-dependent inhibition of apoptosis and ER stress.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Sepsis is characterized by systematic inflammation and contributes to cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to examine the effect of protein kinase B (Akt) activation on lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanism(s) involved. Mechanical and intracellular Ca²? properties were examined in myocardium from wild-type and transgenic mice with cardiac-specific chronic Akt overexpression following LPS (4 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge. Akt signaling cascade (Akt, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta), stress signal (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38), apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspase-3/-9), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78, growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene-153, eukaryotic initiation factor 2?), inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6) and autophagic markers (Beclin-1, light chain 3B, autophagy-related gene 7 and sequestosome 1) were evaluated. Our results revealed that LPS induced marked decrease in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity with dampened intracellular Ca²? release and clearance, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio, increased ERK, JNK, p38, GRP78, Gadd153, eIF2?, BAX, caspase-3 and -9, downregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the effects of which were significantly attenuated or obliterated by Akt activation. Akt activation itself did not affect cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca²? properties, ROS production, oxidative stress, apoptosis and ER stress. In addition, LPS upregulated levels of Beclin-1, LC3B and Atg7, while suppressing p62 accumulation. Akt activation did not affect Beclin-1, LC3B, Atg7 and p62 in the presence or absence of LPS. Akt overexpression promoted phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3?. In vitro study using the GSK3? inhibitor SB216763 mimicked the response elicited by chronic Akt activation. Taken together, these data showed that Akt activation ameliorated LPS-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca²? anomalies through inhibition of apoptosis and ER stress, possibly involving an Akt/GSK3?-dependent mechanism.
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Deletion of regulatory T cells supports the development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the intestine is associated with high morbidity and mortality in surgical and trauma patients. T cells participate in the pathogenesis of intestinal IRI, and T-cell depletion has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses and diminish intestinal damage. However, the mechanism by which T cells contribute to intestinal IRI is not completely understood. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specific subset of T cells that suppress immune responses and protect against tissue injuries. We hypothesized that Tregs might be involved in intestinal IRI.
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Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of endothelin receptor A rescues aging-associated cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Cardiac aging is manifested as cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction although precise mechanisms remain elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in aging-associated myocardial morphological and contractile defects. Echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile properties were evaluated in young (5-6 months) and old (26-28 months) C57BL/6 wild-type and cardiomyocyte-specific ET(A) receptor knockout (ETAKO) mice. Cardiac ROS production and histology were examined. Our data revealed that ETAKO mice displayed an improved survival. Aging increased plasma levels of ET-1 and Ang II, compromised cardiac function (fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening and prolonged relengthening) and intracellular Ca(2+) handling (reduced intracellular Ca(2+) release and decay), the effects of which with the exception of ET-1 and Ang II levels was improved by ETAKO. Histological examination displayed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis associated with cardiac remodeling in aged C57 mice, which were alleviated in ETAKO mice. Aging promoted ROS generation, protein damage, ER stress, upregulated GATA4, ANP, NFATc3 and the autophagosome cargo protein p62, downregulated intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins SERCA2a and phospholamban as well as the autophagic markers Beclin-1, Atg7, Atg5 and LC3BII, which were ablated by ETAKO. ET-1 triggered a decrease in autophagy and increased hypertrophic markers in vitro, the effect of which were reversed by the ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ123 and the autophagy inducer rapamycin. Antagonism of ET(A), but not ET(B) receptor, rescued cardiac aging, which was negated by autophagy inhibition. Taken together, our data suggest that cardiac ET(A) receptor ablation protects against aging-associated myocardial remodeling and contractile dysfunction possibly through autophagy regulation.
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Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in cattle.
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Inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from various potatoes on the proliferation of human colon and liver cancer cells.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Antioxidant extracts from 5 potato lines were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total phenolics, chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin content, and in vitro anticancer capacity. Analysis showed that Mexican wild species S. pinnatisectum had the highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and chlorogenic acid content. The proliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells was significantly inhibited by potato antioxidant extracts. The highest antiproliferative activity was observed in extracts of S. pinnatisectum and the lowest in Northstar. An inverse correlation was found between total phenolics and the EC(50) of colon cancer cell (R(2) = 0.9303), as well as liver cancer cell proliferation (R(2) = 0.8992). The relationship between antioxidant activity and EC(50) of colon cancer/liver cancer cell proliferation was significant (R(2) = 0.8144; R(2) = 0.956, respectively). A significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells.
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Repeatability of laser in situ keratomileusis flap thickness measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To evaluate the repeatability of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of the thickness of femtosecond laser-created laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps.
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Investigation of femtosecond laser--enabled keratoplasty wound geometry using optical coherence tomography.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To measure the wound geometry after femtosecond laser-enabled keratoplasty (FLEK) using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis involving 23,998 subjects.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Cyclin D1 (CCND1) plays an essential role in tumor development and progression through regulating the cell transition from G1 to the proliferative S phase. The CCND1 G870A polymorphism has been associated with an increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, bladder, prostate, and gastric cardiac cancers. There are a number of studies that explored the relationship between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and breast cancer risk, with inconsistent conclusions. In order to better define the predictive value of CCND1 G870A polymorphism in breast cancer, we searched PubMed and EBSCO for relevant publications. A total of 13 studies were indentified, which included 11,235 cases and 12,763 controls. We calculated the summary odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. Our meta-analysis showed that carriers of AA genotype have a significantly higher risk in developing breast cancer compared with that of GG genotype (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17, p > = 0.03) in overall population. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis, CCND1 G870A polymorphism was associated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer for Chinese compared to Caucasian populations with an OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.00-1.20, p-trend = 0.06 for AA + GA versus GG, if the controls were hospital-based population with an OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.99-1.47, p = 0.06 for AA versus GG and if the distributions of genotypes in control groups were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) with an OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04 for AA versus GA + GG. Our meta-analysis represents the largest study to date indicating that the G870A polymorphism in CCND1 confers an increased risk for breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore the preventive measures to detect and manage the breast cancers attributable to the G870A polymorphism.
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Protection of mice against enterotoxigenic E. coli by immunization with a polyvalent enterotoxin comprising a combination of LTB, STa, and STb.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Currently available enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccines are based on colonization factors and/or the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB). However, the induction of antitoxic responses against heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa) and b (STb) has merit as these two poorly immunogenic toxins are frequently associated with ETEC strains. In this study, we genetically constructed a trivalent enterotoxin fusion protein (STa-LTB-STb, abbreviated to SLS) in an effort to develop a single toxoid containing these three enterotoxins for vaccination against ETEC. Mutagenesis at one disulfide-bridge-forming cysteine in STa led to a dramatic reduction in the STa toxicity of SLS; however, the fusion peptide retained the STb-associated toxicity. Immunization of mice with SLS protein elicited significant antibody responses to LTB, STa, and STb. Significantly, the mice antisera were able to neutralize the biological activity of both STa and STb. In the experiment to assess the protective effect of SLS immunization, the mortality of mice receiving SLS was significantly lower than their control cohorts (P < 0.01) after intraperitoneal challenge with ETEC. These results show that the trivalent fusion enterotoxin SLS has the potential to serve as a useful toxin-based vaccine against ETEC-induced diarrheal disease via a single immunogen.
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Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of microbial communities in the rumens of cattle fed different diets.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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At present there is little quantitative information on the identity and composition of bacterial populations in the rumen microbial community. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using newly designed oligonucleotide probes was applied to identify the microbial populations in liquid and solid fractions of rumen digesta from cows fed barley silage or grass hay diets with or without flaxseed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were abundant in both fractions, constituting 31.8 to 87.3% of the total cell numbers. They belong mainly to the order Bacteroidales (0.1 to 19.2%), hybridizing with probe BAC1080; the families Lachnospiraceae (9.3 to 25.5%) and Ruminococcaceae (5.5 to 23.8%), hybridizing with LAC435 and RUM831, respectively; and the classes Deltaproteobacteria (5.8 to 28.3%) and Gammaproteobacteria (1.2 to 8.2%). All were more abundant in the rumen communities of cows fed diets containing silage (75.2 to 87.3%) than in those of cows fed diets containing hay (31.8 to 49.5%). The addition of flaxseed reduced their abundance in the rumens of cows fed silage-based diets (to 45.2 to 58.7%) but did not change markedly their abundance in the rumens of cows fed hay-based diets (31.8 to 49.5%). Fibrolytic species, including Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus spp., and archaeal methanogens accounted for only a small proportion (0.4 to 2.1% and 0.2 to 0.6%, respectively) of total cell numbers. Depending on diet, between 37.0 and 91.6% of microbial cells specifically hybridized with the probes used in this study, allowing them to be identified in situ. The identities of other microbial populations (8.4 to 63.0%) remain unknown.
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An intraocular lens power calculation formula based on optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.
J Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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To develop an intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formula based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) that would not be biased by previous laser vision correction.
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Pachymetric mapping with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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To evaluate the repeatability of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) pachymetric mapping and compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by OCT, ultrasound pachymetry, and scanning-slit tomography.
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Corneal power measurement with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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To study the accuracy and repeatability of anterior, posterior, and net corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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To study the reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement with high-speed high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT).
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Pilot Study for OCT Guided Design and Fit of a Prosthetic Device for Treatment of Corneal Disease.
J Ophthalmol
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Purpose. To assess optical coherence tomography (OCT) for guiding design and fit of a prosthetic device for corneal disease. Methods. A prototype time domain OCT scanner was used to image the anterior segment of patients fitted with large diameter (18.5-20?mm) prosthetic devices for corneal disease. OCT images were processed and analyzed to characterize corneal diameter, corneal sagittal height, scleral sagittal height, scleral toricity, and alignment of device. Within-subject variance of OCT-measured parameters was evaluated. OCT-measured parameters were compared with device parameters for each eye fitted. OCT image correspondence with ocular alignment and clinical fit was assessed. Results. Six eyes in 5 patients were studied. OCT measurement of corneal diameter (coefficient of variation, CV = 0.76%), cornea sagittal height (CV = 2.06%), and scleral sagittal height (CV = 3.39%) is highly repeatable within each subject. OCT image-derived measurements reveal strong correlation between corneal sagittal height and device corneal height (r = 0.975) and modest correlation between scleral and on-eye device toricity (r = 0.581). Qualitative assessment of a fitted device on OCT montages reveals correspondence with slit lamp images and clinical assessment of fit. Conclusions. OCT imaging of the anterior segment is suitable for custom design and fit of large diameter (18.5-20?mm) prosthetic devices used in the treatment of corneal disease.
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Maternal obesity, lipotoxicity and cardiovascular diseases in offspring.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
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Maternal obesity has risen dramatically over the past 20 years, by nearly 42% in African-Americans and 29% in Caucasians. Maternal obesity is afflicted with many maternal obstetric complications in the offspring including high blood pressure, obesity, gestational diabetes and increased perinatal morbidity. Maternal nutritional environment plays a rather important role in the programming of the health set-points in the offspring such as glucose and insulin metabolism, energy balance and predisposition to metabolic disorders. In particular, maternal obesity is associated with elevated prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. Evidence from human and experimental studies including rodents and nonhuman primates has indicated that maternal obesity or overnutrition programs offspring for an increased risk of adult obesity. Maternal obesity or fat diet exposure predisposes the onset and development of obesity, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial contractile anomalies in the offspring. A number of mechanisms including elevated hormones (leptin, insulin), nutrients (fatty acids, triglycerides and glucose) and inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to play a key role in maternal obesity-induced postnatal cardiovascular sequelae. In addition, lipotoxicity (accumulation of lipid metabolites) resulting from maternal obesity is capable of activating a number of stress signaling cascades including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress to exacerbate maternal obesity-induced cardiovascular complications later on in adult life. This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge with regard to the role of lipotoxicity in maternal obesity-induced change in cardiovascular function in the offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism".
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Altered microRNA expression in bovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from cattle under different diet.
PLoS ONE
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of molecular regulators found to participate in numerous biological processes, including adipogenesis in mammals. This study aimed to evaluate the differences of miRNA expression between bovine subcutaneous (backfat) and visceral fat depots (perirenal fat) and the dietary effect on miRNA expression in these fat tissues.
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[Chemical-genetics based screening for furanonaphthoquinone producing endophytic actinomycetes from seeds of Trewia nudiflora].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
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The seeds of Trewia nudiflora containing maytansine (an anticancer agent), was investigated to explore the endophytic actinomycetes diversity and screen for naphthoquinones producing strain.
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Effects of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and cinnamaldehyde on in vitro fermentation and protein degradation using the Rusitec technique.
Arch Anim Nutr
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) on in vitro fermentation and microbial profiles using the rumen simulation technique. The control substrate (10% barley silage, 85% barley grain and 5% supplement, on dry matter basis) and the wheat DDGS substrate (30% wheat DDGS replaced an equal portion of barley grain) were combined with 0 and 300 mg CIN/l of culture fluid. The inclusion of DDGS increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate. Dry matter disappearance (p = 0.03) and production of bacterial protein (p < 0.01) were greater, whereas the disappearances of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre were less (p < 0.01) for the DDGS than for the control substrate. With addition of CIN, concentration of total VFA decreased and fermentation pattern changed to greater acetate and less propionate proportions (p < 0.01). The CIN reduced (p < 0.01) methane production and CP degradability. The copy numbers of Fibrobacter, Prevotella and Archaea were not affected by DDGS but were reduced (p < 0.05) by CIN. The results indicate that replacing barley grain by DDGS increased nutrient fermentability and potentially increase protein flows to the intestine. Supplementation of high-grain substrates with CIN reduced methane production and potentially increased the true protein reaching the small intestine; however, overall reduction of feed fermentation may lower the feeding value of a high-grain diet.
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Short-term lenalidomide (Revlimid) administration ameliorates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in ob/ob obese mice.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
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Lenalidomide is a potent immunomodulatory agent capable of downregulating proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lenalidomide has been shown to elicit cardiovascular effects, although its impact on cardiac function remains obscure. This study was designed to examine the effect of lenalidomide on cardiac contractile function in ob/ob obese mice. C57BL lean and ob/ob obese mice were given lenalidomide (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 days. Body fat composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated. Expression of TNF-?, interleukin-6 (IL-6), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR41, the NF?B regulator I?B, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the apoptotic protein markers Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-8, tBid, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase-12; and the stress signaling molecules p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were evaluated by western blot. ob/ob mice displayed elevated serum TNF-? and IL-6 levels, fat composition and glucose intolerance, the effects of which except glucose intolerance and fat composition were attenuated by lenalidomide. Cardiomyocytes from ob/ob mice exhibited depressed peak shortening (PS) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged time-to-PS and time-to-90% relengthening as well as intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling, which were ablated by lenalidomide. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of TNF-?, IL-6, Fas, Bip, Bax, caspase-8, tBid, cleaved caspase-3 caspase-12, cytochrome C, phosphorylation of p38, and ERK in ob/ob mouse hearts, the effects of which with the exception of Bip, Bax, and caspase-12 were alleviated by lenalidomide. Taken together, these data suggest that lenalidomide is protective against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy possibly through antagonism of cytokine/Fas-induced activation of stress signaling and apoptosis.
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Intraocular lens power calculation after previous myopic laser vision correction based on corneal power measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
J Cataract Refract Surg
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To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and calculate intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction.
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Dual laser-assisted lamellar anterior keratoplasty with top hat graft: a laboratory study.
Cornea
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To develop a dual laser-assisted lamellar anterior keratoplasty (LALAK) technique, using excimer and femtosecond lasers to perform surgery on eye bank eyes.
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Excimer laser smoothing of endothelial keratoplasty grafts.
Cornea
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To use excimer laser smoothing passes to reshape Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) endothelial grafts and to evaluate the effect on the donor endothelium.
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Anterior segment dimensions in Asian and Caucasian eyes measured by optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
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To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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In situ identification of carboxymethyl cellulose-digesting bacteria in the rumen of cattle fed alfalfa or triticale.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
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A method was developed and used to arrest and stain reducing sugars (glucose) produced by bacteria with cell-surface-associated carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and endoglucanase activities (CMC bacteria) in the rumen of cows fed alfalfa or triticale. Precipitation of silver oxide on the surface of individual cells was observed using cellulolytic bacterial pure cultures with known CMCase activity and rumen mixed cultures. The CMC bacteria in the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen digesta were identified using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with currently available and newly designed oligonucleotide probes. The CMC bacteria contributed between 8.2% and 10.1% to the total bacterial cell numbers. Most of the CMC bacteria (75.2-78.5%) could be identified by FISH probing. The known cellulolytic populations Ruminococcus flavefaciens, R. albus, and Fibrobacter succinogenes constituted 44.5-53.1% of the total. Other CMC bacteria identified hybridized with the probe Clo549 (11.2-23.0%) targeting members of an uncharacterized genus in Clostridia, the probe Inc852 (8.9-10.7%) targeting members of the family Incertae Sedis III and unclassified Clostridiales, and the probe But1243 (< 1%) designed against members of genus Butyrivibrio. Different forage feeds had no marked effects on the percentage abundances of these identified CMC bacteria. All appeared to be involved in cellulose degradation in the rumen of cows fed either alfalfa or triticale.
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What Fans the Fire: Insights Into Mechanisms of Leptin in Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Heart Diseases.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
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Obesity and metabolic syndrome are one of the most devastating risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The obesity gene product leptin plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of leptin in cardiovascular system have been investigated extensively since its discovery in 1994. In addition to its well-established metabolic effects, more recent evidence have depicted a rather pivotal role of leptin in inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and tissue remodeling en route to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Under physiological condition, leptin is known to reduce appetite, promote energy expenditure, increase sympathetic activity, facilitate glucose utilization and improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, leptin may regulate cardiac and vascular function through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. However, hyperleptinemia usually occurs with progressively increased body weight and metabolic syndrome development, leading to a state of global or selective leptin resistance. Both central and peripheral leptin resistance may be present under pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and a cadre of other cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In this review, we will discuss cardiovascular actions of leptin related to various components of metabolic syndrome. Particular emphasis will be given to insights derived from therapeutic interventions with lifestyle modification, cardiovascular drugs, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drugs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.