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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The interaction effect between BDNF val66met polymorphism and obesity on executive functions and frontal structure.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Previous research has shown a relationship between obesity and both executive functioning alterations and frontal cortex volume reductions. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met polymorphism, involved in eating behavior, has also been associated with executive functions and prefrontal cortex volume, but to date it has not been studied in relation to obesity. Our aim is to elucidate whether the interaction between the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met polymorphism and obesity status influences executive performance and frontal-subcortical brain structure. Sixty-one volunteers, 34 obese and 27 controls, age range 12-40, participated in the study. Participants were assigned to one of two genotype groups (met allele carriers, n?=?16, or non-carriers, n?=?45). Neuropsychological assessment comprised the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, all tasks that require response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a Siemens TIM TRIO 3T scanner and images were analyzed using the FreeSurfer software. Analyses of covariance controlling for age and intelligence showed an effect of the obesity-by-genotype interaction on perseverative responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as well as on precentral and caudal middle frontal cortical thickness: obese met allele carriers showed more perseverations on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and lower frontal thickness than obese non-carriers and controls. In conclusion, the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor may play an important role in executive functioning and frontal brain structure in obesity.
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Frontal cortical thinning and subcortical volume reductions in early adulthood obesity.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Obesity depends on homeostatic and hedonic food intake behavior, mediated by brain plasticity changes in cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical thickness and subcortical volumes of regions related to food intake behavior in a healthy young adult sample with obesity. Thirty-seven volunteers, 19 with obesity (age=33.7±5.7 (20-39) years body-mass index (BMI)=36.08±5.92 (30.10-49.69)kg/m(2)) and 18 controls (age=32.3±5.9 (21-40) years; BMI=22.54±1.94 (19.53-24.97)kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Patients with neuropsychiatric or biomedical disorders were excluded. We used FreeSurfer software to analyze structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) and obtain global brain measures, cortical thickness and subcortical volume estimations. Finally, correlation analyses were performed for brain structure data and obesity measures. There were no between-group differences in age, gender, intelligence or education. Results showed cortical thickness reductions in obesity in the left superior frontal and right medial orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, the obesity group had lower ventral diencephalon and brainstem volumes than controls, while there were no differences in any other subcortical structure. There were no statistically significant correlations between brain structure and obesity measures. Overall, our work provides evidence of the structural brain characteristics associated with metabolically normal obesity. We found reductions in cortical thickness, ventral diencephalon and brainstem volumes in areas that have been implicated in food intake behavior.
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Availability of vitamin D photoconversion weighted UV radiation in southern South America.
Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) plays a key role in several biological functions, including human health. Skin exposure to UVR is the main factor in vitamin D photoconversion. There is also evidence relating low levels of vitamin D with certain internal cancers, mainly colon, breast and prostate, as well as other diseases. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between the above-mentioned diseases and latitude, in accordance with the ultraviolet radiation latitudinal gradient. The aim of this study is to determine whether UV irradiance levels in the southern South America are sufficient to produce suitable levels of vitamin D year around. For this purpose, vitamin D photoconversion weighted-irradiance was analyzed between S.S. de Jujuy (24.17°S, 65.02°W) and Ushuaia (54° 50S, 68° 18W). In addition to irradiance, skin type and area of body exposed to sunlight are critical factors in vitamin D epidemiology. Due to a broad ethnic variability, it was assumed that the skin type in this region varies between II and V (from the most to the less sensitive). All sites except South Patagonia indicate that skin II under any condition of body area exposure and skin V when exposing head, hands, arms and legs, would produce suitable levels of vitamin D year round (except for some days in winter at North Patagonian sites). At South Patagonian sites, minimum healthy levels of vitamin D year round can be reached only by the more sensitive skin II type, if exposing head, hands, arms and legs, which is not a realistic scenario during winter. At these southern latitudes, healthy vitamin D levels would not be obtained between mid May and beginning of August if exposing only the head. Skin V with head exposure is the most critical situation; with the exception of the tropics, sun exposure would not produce suitable levels of vitamin D around winter, during a time period that varies with latitude. Analyzing the best exposure time during the day in order to obtain a suitable level of vitamin D without risk of sunburn, it was concluded that noon is best during winter, as determined previously. For skin type II when exposing head, exposure period in winter varies between 30 and 130 min, according to latitude, except for South Patagonian sites. During summer, noon seems to be a good time of day for short periods of exposure, while during leisure times, longer periods of exposure without risk of sunburn are possible at mid-morning and mid-afternoon. At 3 h from noon, solar zenith angles are almost the same for sites between the tropics and North Patagonia, and at 4 h from noon, for all sites. Then, in these cases, the necessary exposure periods varied slightly between sites, only due to meteorological differences.
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Spatial characterization of the meltwater field from icebergs in the Weddell Sea.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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We describe the results from a spatial cyberinfrastructure developed to characterize the meltwater field around individual icebergs and integrate the results with regional- and global-scale data. During the course of the cyberinfrastructure development, it became clear that we were also building an integrated sampling planning capability across multidisciplinary teams that provided greater agility in allocating expedition resources resulting in new scientific insights. The cyberinfrastructure-enabled method is a complement to the conventional methods of hydrographic sampling in which the ship provides a static platform on a station-by-station basis. We adapted a sea-floor mapping method to more rapidly characterize the sea surface geophysically and biologically. By jointly analyzing the multisource, continuously sampled biological, chemical, and physical parameters, using Global Positioning System time as the data fusion key, this surface-mapping method enables us to examine the relationship between the meltwater field of the iceberg to the larger-scale marine ecosystem of the Southern Ocean. Through geospatial data fusion, we are able to combine very fine-scale maps of dynamic processes with more synoptic but lower-resolution data from satellite systems. Our results illustrate the importance of spatial cyberinfrastructure in the overall scientific enterprise and identify key interfaces and sources of error that require improved controls for the development of future Earth observing systems as we move into an era of peta- and exascale, data-intensive computing.
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Factors affecting surgical margins in nonpalpable breast tumors excised with the radioguided occult lesion localization approach.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Most breast surgeons generally assume that obtaining negative margins in nonpalpable tumors is a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to examine whether it is easier to obtain negative margins in palpable tumors than in nonpalpable tumors excised with the radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) technique.
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[New surgery for complicated renal anomalies].
An R Acad Nac Med (Madr)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The indications for "ex vivo" surgery and autotransplantation have been broadened o complicated renal anomalies; particularly in the cases of the horseshoe kikney and kidney malrotation. This position is justified as conventional techniques do not correct the multiple causes that are responsible for these complications. These complications requiere a surgical strategy that simultaneously deals with the pathology of the renal anomaly itself and that of its excretory tract. The aforementioned means that the abnormal kidney orientation and position must be retified to permit a large resectioning of the dysplasic or dystrophic excretory conduct in order to achieve normal urinary drainage while conserving all the renal parenchyma. It has been achieved in thirteen out of the 14 cases operated on that correspond to distinct types of complicated anomalies. The excellent results demonstrate that this new and innovative surgery has resolved the complex and difficult issue of kidney malformations. The surgical method and long-therm results in the adult and child, the first in the literature, are presented here.
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Orthotopic kidney transplantation: an alternative surgical technique in selected patients.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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A renal transplant is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease due to its superior short- and long-term survival benefits compared with dialysis treatment. A common trend for kidney transplantation in developed countries is an increasing acceptance of older patients, patients with comorbidities, and patients with vascular problems (eg, atheromatosis, venous thrombosis). For those patients, an orthotopic kidney transplant (OKT) is an option.
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[Ophthalmic disease in diabetes mellitus: management from primary health care].
Aten Primaria
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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To study the feasibility of a basic ophthalmological examination for the eye disease in diabetic patients by Primary Health Care (PHC).
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Quality of UVR exposure for different biological systems along a latitudinal gradient.
Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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The exposure of organisms to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is characterized by the climatology (annual cycle) and the variance (anomalies) of biologically-weighted irradiances at eight geographical locations in austral South America, from 1995-2002. The net effect of UVR on biological systems is a result of the balance of damage and repair which depends on intensity and duration of irradiance and is modulated by its variability. The emphasis in this study is on day-to-day variability, a time scale of importance to adaptive strategies that counteract UVR damage. The irradiances were weighted with DNA- and phytoplankton photosynthesis-action spectra. Low latitude sites show high average UVR. For all sites, the frequency of days with above average irradiances is higher than below average irradiances. Persistence in anomalies is generally low (
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Trends in hormone therapy use before and after publication of the Womens Health Initiative trial: 10 years of follow-up.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the scientific evidence reported by Womens Health Initiative (WHI) trial on hormone therapy (HT) use in a 10-year follow-up retrospective cohort of women participating in a breast cancer screening program.
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[Cardiovascular risk factors: a follow up study in a non-diabetic population].
Aten Primaria
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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To evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), their relationship with insulin resistance (IR) and pancreatic beta-cell (PBC) function in a known non-diabetic population, and to follow its progress over a period of 5 years.
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Dopamine genes (DRD2/ANKK1-TaqA1 and DRD4-7R) and executive function: their interaction with obesity.
PLoS ONE
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Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction between genotype and environment, and it is considered to be a type of addictive alteration. The A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA gene has been associated with addictive disorders, with obesity and with the performance in executive functions. The 7 repeat allele of the DRD4 gene has likewise been associated with the performance in executive functions, as well as with addictive behaviors and impulsivity. Participants were included in the obesity group (N?=?42) if their body mass index (BMI) was equal to or above 30, and in the lean group (N?=?42) if their BMI was below 25. The DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA and DRD4 VNTR polymorphisms were obtained. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment. Eating behavior traits were evaluated. The DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA A1-allele status had a significant effect on almost all the executive variables, but no significant DRD4 7R-allele status effects were observed for any of the executive variables analyzed. There was a significant group x DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA A1-allele status interaction effect on LN and group x DRD4 7R-allele status interaction effect on TMT B-A score. Being obese and a carrier of the A1 allele of DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA or the 7R allele of DRD4 VNTR polymorphisms could confer a weakness as regards the performance of executive functions.
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Effect of intrarectal povidone-iodine in the incidence of infectious complications after transrectal prostatic biopsy.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
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To assess the incidence of genitourinary infections associated with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-BX) using endorectal povidone-iodine gel as a bactericidal agent.
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Alterations of the salience network in obesity: a resting-state fMRI study.
Hum Brain Mapp
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Obesity is a major health problem in modern societies. It has been related to abnormal functional organization of brain networks believed to process homeostatic (internal) and/or salience (external) information. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis to delineate possible functional changes in brain networks related to obesity. A group of 18 healthy adult participants with obesity were compared with a group of 16 lean participants while performing a resting-state task, with the data being evaluated by independent component analysis. Participants also completed a neuropsychological assessment. Results showed that the functional connectivity strength of the putamen nucleus in the salience network was increased in the obese group. We speculate that this abnormal activation may contribute to overeating through an imbalance between autonomic processing and reward processing of food stimuli. A correlation was also observed in obesity between activation of the putamen nucleus in the salience network and mental slowness, which is consistent with the notion that basal ganglia circuits modulate rapid processing of information.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.