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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Family structure and eating behavior disorders.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Introduction. The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. Methodology. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Results. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. Conclusions. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs.
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Hypoxia Induces Pluripotency in Primordial Germ Cells by HIF1? Stabilization and Oct4 Deregulation.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Abstract Aims: To study the mechanisms of pluripotency induction, we compared gene expression in pluripotent embryonic germ cells (EGCs) and unipotent primordial germ cells (PGCs). Results: We found 11 genes ?1.5-fold overexpressed in EGCs. None of the genes identified was the Yamanaka genes but instead related to glycolytic metabolism. The prospect of pluripotency induction by cell metabolism manipulation was investigated by hypoxic culturing. Hypoxia induced a glycolytic program in PGCs in detriment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We demonstrate that hypoxia alone induces reprogramming in PGCs, giving rise to hypoxia-induced EGC-like cells (hiEGLs), which differentiate into cells of the three germ layers in vitro and contribute to the internal cell mass of the blastocyst in vivo, demonstrating pluripotency. The mechanism of hypoxia induction involves HIF1? stabilization and Oct4 deregulation. However, hiEGL cannot be passaged long term. Self-renewal capacity is not achieved by hypoxia likely due to the lack of upregulation of c-Myc and Klf4. Gene expression analysis of hypoxia signaling suggests that hiEGLs have not reached the stabilization phase of cell reprogramming. Innovation and Conclusion: Our data suggest that the two main properties of stemness, pluripotency and self-renewal, are differentially regulated in PGC reprogramming induced by hypoxia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Florid cystic mullerianosis of the testis: A new pathologic entity originating from a peculiar Müllerian differentiation of the testicular vaginal mesothelium.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To characterize the exceptional finding of multiple cysts in the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis of the testis in three patients.
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The safety and efficacy of the tetanus vaccine intramuscularly versus subcutaneously in anticoagulated patients: a randomized clinical trial.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In patients treated with oral anticoagulants, subcutaneous injections of anti-tetanus vaccine are usually recommended to reduce the risk of bleeding, although the effectiveness of the vaccine has only been proven for intramuscular injection. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of intramuscular and subcutaneous injections of tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in patients treated with oral anticoagulants.
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Arbutus unedo L.: chemical and biological properties.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya) and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies), jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed.
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Loading and protection of hydrophilic molecules into liposome-templated polyelectrolyte nanocapsules.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Compartmentalized systems produced via the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method have been produced by alternatively depositing alginate and chitosan layers onto cores of liposomes. The combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS), ? potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques provides detailed information on the stability, dimensions, charge, and wall thickness of these polyelectrolyte globules. TEM microphotographs demonstrate the presence of nanocapsules with an average diameter of below 300 nm and with a polyelectrolyte wall thickness of about 20 nm. The possibility of encapsulating and releasing molecules from this type of nanocapsule was demonstrated by loading FITC-dextrans of different molecular weights in the liposome system. The release of the loaded molecules from the nanocapsule was demonstrated after liposome core dissolution. Even at low molecular weight (20 kDa), the nanocapsules appear to be appropriate for prolonged molecule compartmentalization and protection. By means of the Ritger-Peppas model, non-Fickian transport behavior was detected for the diffusion of dextran through the polyelectrolyte wall. Values of the diffusion coefficient were calculated and yield useful information regarding chitosan/alginate hollow nanocapsules as drug-delivery systems. The influence of the pH on the release properties was also considered. The results indicate that vesicle-templated hollow polyelectrolyte nanocapsules show great potential as novel controllable drug-delivery devices for biomedical and biotechnological applications.
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Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial essential oils.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Essential oils (EO) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, among others. In the present work, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial EOs (Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated and compared with their main constituents. T. vulgaris EO showed the best free radicals scavenging capacity. This EO was also the most effective against lipid peroxidation along with C. limon and F. vulgare EOs. C. sempervirens EO was the most effective in scavenging NO free radicals, whereas C. limon EO showed the best chelating power. Not all of the major compounds of the EO were responsible for the whole activity of the EOs. T. vulgaris EO showed the best anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells in contrast to that of F. vulgare. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the EOs were plant species dependent and not always attributable to the EOs main components. Nevertheless, the EOs anti-proliferative activities were more related to their main components, as with T. vulgaris, C. limon, E. globulus and C. sempervirens.
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MicroRNA clusters: dysregulation in lung adenocarcinoma and COPD.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Lung adenocarcinoma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are pulmonary diseases that share common aetiological factors (tobacco smoking) and probable dysregulated pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating numerous physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this study was to assess global miRNA expression patterns in patients with COPD and/or adenocarcinoma to elucidate distinct regulatory networks involved in the pathogenesis of these two smoking-related diseases. Expression of 381 miRNAs was quantified by TaqMan Human MicroRNA A Array v2.0 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 87 patients classified into four groups: COPD, adenocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma with COPD, and control (neither COPD nor adenocarcinoma). 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were randomly selected for validation in an independent cohort of 40 patients. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were identified and validated for each pathological group, involving 66 differentially expressed miRNAs. Four miRNA clusters (the mir-17-92 cluster and its paralogues, mir-106a-363 and mir-106b-25; and the miR-192-194 cluster) were upregulated in patients with adenocarcinoma and one miRNA cluster (miR-132-212) was upregulated in patients with COPD. These results contribute to unravelling miRNA-controlled networks involved in the pathogenesis of adenocarcinoma and COPD, and provide new tools of potential use as biomarkers for diagnosis and/or therapeutic purposes.
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Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) expresses several nsLTP isoforms characterized by different immunoglobulin E-binding properties.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Pomegranate allergy is associated with sensitization to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). Our aim was to identify and characterize the non-specific nsLTPs expressed in pomegranate at the molecular level and to study their allergenic properties in terms of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding and cross-reactivity with peach nsLTP (Pru p 3).
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Characteristics and outcomes of advanced cancer patients who miss outpatient supportive care consult appointments.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Missed appointments (MA) are frequent, but there are no studies on the effects of the first MA at supportive care outpatient clinics on clinical outcomes.
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Delirium, agitation, and symptom distress within the final seven days of life among cancer patients receiving hospice care.
Palliat Support Care
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Objective: Knowledge of symptom prevalence and adequate assessment of such symptoms at the end of life is important in clinical practice. We determined the frequency and severity of symptom distress and delirium using the Edmonton Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and evaluated the clinical utility of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) as scored by a caregiver as a screening tool for delirium. Method: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from a previous randomized controlled trial on parenteral hydration at the end of life of patients admitted to home hospice. Only patients that had assessments within the last week of life were included. We collected the ESAS, MDAS, Nu-DESC, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) results. The sensitivity and specificity of the Nu-DESC were then calculated. Results: Some 78 of 261 patients were included in our study, 62 (80%) of which had moderate-to-severe symptoms corresponding to an ESAS score >4. These symptoms include: 73 (94%) anorexia, 63 (81%) fatigue, 56 (73%) drowsiness, 58 (75%) decreased well-being, and 39 (51%) pain. Delirium was diagnosed in 34 (44%) of patients using the MDAS. The Nu-DESC was found to have a sensitivity of 35%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 58%, and an negative predictive value (NPV) of 61% when used by caregivers. Significance of Results: Hospice patients at the end of life have a high rate of symptom distress and delirium. The Nu-DESC is not a reliable tool for screening delirium when scoring is conducted by a caregiver. Our study illustrates the need for routine use of assessment tools to improve care.
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[Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis at Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos (Madrid)].
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Neuroendocrine tumors are a group of neoplasms arising from the neural crest and endoderm and very heterogeneous as regards localization, clinical behavior, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Pancreas and gastrointestinal tract are the most common sites where neuroendocrine tumors can be found.
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Changes in Insulin Requirements From the Onset of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Until Optimization of Glycemic Control.
J Diabetes Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The aim was to evaluate changes in insulin requirements from onset of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) until glucose optimization in type 1 diabetes and to determine patient characteristics to be considered when CSII is implemented. We retrospectively analyzed 74 type 1 diabetic patients over a follow-up of 5 months after starting CSII. Patients without a decrease in HbA1c levels at the end of follow-up were excluded. We compared total daily doses (TDD), basal/bolus distribution, basal diurnal/nocturnal proportion, number of basal segments, and HbA1c levels in relation to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, and indication for CSII. At follow-up, HbA1c decreased by 0.75%, TDD decreased by 18%, basal rate was 60% of TDD, and diurnal basal rate was 60% of total basal rate. Insulin requirements were higher in males and in obese patients. Female patients and patients with longer diabetes duration showed a higher percentage of basal insulin. The number of basal segments was 4.9 ± 2.9. Basal requirements were higher in the second half of the nocturnal period. The dawn phenomenon was more relevant in men. Improvements in glycemic control were more marked in younger patients, in patients with higher HbA1c, in patients using more basal segments, and in patients initiating CSII for glucose control before pregnancy. Sex, diabetes duration, and BMI should be considered when initiating CSII. Our findings may help clinicians in clinical decision making regarding CSII therapy.
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No induction of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes during continuous exposure to eugenol and citral.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation response of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Listeria monocytogenes to the essential oil (EO), eugenol, and citral. The minimum inhibitory concentration of eugenol and citral was determined by agar dilution and microdilution. Adaptation to eugenol and citral was done by sequential exposure of the pathogens to increasing concentrations of the essential oils. The M2-A9 standard was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. The effect of eugenol and citral on the adherence ability was evaluated by the crystal violet assay. The impact of adaptation to eugenol on virulence was estimated using the Galleria mellonella model. No development of resistance to the components and antibiotics was observed in the adapted cells of S. aureus, MRSA, and L. monocytogenes. Eugenol and citral at subinhibitory concentration reduced the bacterial adherence. Adaptation to subinhibitory concentration of eugenol affected the virulence potential of S. aureus, MRSA, and L. monocytogenes. Eugenol and citral do not pose a risk of resistance development in a continuous mode of use. These EO components showed a high efficacy as antistaphylococcal and antilisterial biofilm agents. Adaptation at subinhibitory concentration of eugenol protected the larvae against listerial and staphylococcal infection.
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Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor.
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Persistence and detection of black truffle ectomycorrhizas in plantations: comparison between two field detection methods.
Mycorrhiza
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Owners of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations are concerned about the persistence of its mycorrhizas and mycelium in the soil, especially until the appearance of the "truffle burn" areas and the triggering of sporocarp production, at least 5-7 years after planting truffle-inoculated seedlings. During this period, the farmer does not know whether his management is promoting black truffle development. To study the presence and abundance of T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizas in plantations, two sampling methods, direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection, are compared by analyzing 48 evergreen oak trees (Quercus ilex) inoculated with truffle. Those trees are grouped by age (<6, 6-9, >9 years old) and presence or absence of truffle production. T. melanosporum was present in 46 out of the 48 studied trees, and its ectomycorrhizas appeared in 65% of the ectomycorrhizal tips. Its abundance is significantly higher with productive trees and young trees. Direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection were equally effective in detecting this species, although soil core collection proved a better method to also evaluate ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. To detect the presence of T. melanosporum in a given plantation, three samples suffice, with a single sample per random tree. Although the presence of mycorrhizas is not a sure sign of the future success of a black truffle plantation, its absence influences managers as to whether to continue culturing truffles in a plantation.
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Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of 17 commercial Moroccan honeys.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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In this study, 17 commercial honey samples from Morocco were analyzed. Four samples did not meet the international physicochemical standards due to high hydroxymethylfurfural content and low diastase activity. Phenol content varied from 163.82?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg in citrus honey to 923.70?mg (GAE)/kg in thyme honey from Rachidia; flavonoid content ranged from 4.26?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/kg in citrus honey to 139.62?mg QE/kg in black cumin honey. Black cumin honey had the highest peroxyl scavenging activity; oregano (from Zaraphyt) and thyme honeys (from Rachidia) had the highest ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) scavenging activity; and thyme honey (Saouira) had the highest NO scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Moroccan honeys was correlated with the phenol, flavonoid, and melanoidin contents. Dark honeys had higher antioxidant activity than light honeys. Samples with high sodium levels had lower free radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, calcium and magnesium increased the ABTS and peroxyl scavenging capacity, respectively, of honey samples. According to cluster and discriminant analyses, the honey samples were grouped in three clusters with respect to the phenol, flavonoid, melanoidin, proline, mineral and sugar contents, and free radical scavenging capacity.
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Biointegration of corneal macroporous membranes based on poly(ethyl acrylate) copolymers in an experimental animal model.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Currently available keratoprosthesis models (nonbiological corneal substitutes) have a less than 75% graft survival rate at 2 years. We aimed at developing a model for keratoprosthesis based on the use of poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA)-based copolymers, extracellular matrix-protein coating and colonization with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-ADASC) colonization efficiency of seven PEA-based copolymers in combination with four extracellular matrix coatings were evaluated in vitro. Then, macroporous membranes composed of the optimal PEA subtypes and coating proteins were implanted inside rabbit cornea. After a 3-month follow-up, the animals were euthanized, and the clinical and histological biointegration of the implanted material were assessed. h-ADASC adhered and survived when cultured in all PEA-based macroporous membranes. The addition of high hydrophilicity to PEA membranes decreased h-ADASC colonization in vitro. PEA-based copolymer containing 10% hydroxyethyl acrylate (PEA-HEA10) or 10% acrylic acid (PEA-AAc10) monomeric units showed the best cellular colonization rates. Collagen plus keratan sulfate-coated polymers demonstrated enhanced cellular colonization respect to fibronectin, collagen, or uncoated PEAs. In vivo implantation of membranes resulted in an extrusion rate of 72% for PEA, 50% for PEA-AAc10, but remarkably of 0% for PEA-HEA10. h-ADASC survival was demonstrated in all the membranes after 3 months follow-up. A slight reduction in the extrusion rate of h-ADASC colonized materials was observed. No significant differences between the groups with and without h-ADASC were detected respect to transparency or neovascularization. We propose PEA with low hydroxylation as a scaffold for the anchoring ring of future keratoprosthesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture.
Mycorrhiza
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Since the first truffle plantations were established in France, Italy and other parts in the world, many studies have been carried out to improve their productivity and sustainability. Success of plantations is clearly related to the mycorrhizal status of the host trees over the years, from inoculated seedlings to truffle-producing trees. The experience gained in monitoring the ectomycorrhizal fungus status in cultivated truffle grounds has allowed us to develop an extensive catalogue of the ectomycorrhizal fungi present in truffle plantations. Herein, we summarize fungal community data from 85 references that represent different truffle studies in natural habitats and plantations. Approximately 25% of the ectomycorrhizae reported in the 85 references are common to most of the studies. In general, more fungal species are detected in productive plantations than in the non-productive ones. Truffle plantations display a diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community, in which species of the genus Tuber are well represented. Tuber rufum and some members of Boletales are typically restricted to productive truffle plots. On the other hand, Hebeloma, Laccaria and Russula species are mostly associated with unproductive plots. Ectomycorrhizae belonging to Thelephoraceae are frequently found in mature truffle orchards but do not seem to affect sporocarp production. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the ectomycorrhizal fungus communities associated with truffle orchards. Among them are plantation age, host species and its growth, the surrounding environment (particularly the presence of other ectomycorrhizal hosts), and plantation management. Understanding the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities inhabiting different plantations may give us clues about the dynamics of the targeted truffles and the possibility of identifying mycorrhizal fungal species that are good indicators of successful truffle plantations.
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Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer and taxane-induced skin toxicity: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Taxanes have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in women. The toxicity profile of taxanes (including skin toxicities) induces dose adjustment, delay, or discontinuation, which prevents a sufficient dose intensity to achieve a response. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, a solvent-free form of paclitaxel, prevents toxicities and reduces the pharmacokinetic interferences between paclitaxel and other drugs.
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In Depth Analysis of the Quenching of Three Fluorene-Phenylene-Based Cationic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes by DNA and DNA Bases.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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The interaction of three cationic poly {9,9-bis[N,N-(trimethylammonium)hexyl]fluorene-co-1,4-phenylene} polymers with average chain lengths of ?6, 12, and 100 repeat units (PFP-NR36(I),12(Br),100(Br)) with both double and single stranded, short and long, DNA and DNA bases have been studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence of PFP-NR3 polymers is quenched with high efficiency by DNA (both double and single stranded) and DNA bases. The resulting quenching plots are sigmoidal and are not accurately described by using a Stern-Volmer quenching mechanism. Here, the quenching mechanism is well modeled in terms of an equilibrium in which a PFP-NR3/DNA aggregate complex is formed which brings polymer chains into close enough proximity to allow interchain excitation energy migration and quenching at aggregate or DNA base traps. Such an analysis gives equilibrium constants of 8.4 × 10(6) (±1.2 × 10(6)) M(-1) for short-dsDNA and 8.6 × 10(6) (±1.7 × 10(6)) M(-1) for short-ssDNA with PFP-NR36(I).
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Encapsulation of DNA in macroscopic and nanosized calcium alginate gel particles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Calcium alginate beads, which are biodegradable and biocompatible, have been widely employed as delivery matrices for biomacromolecules. In the present work, the feasibility of encapsulation of DNA (which is used as a model biomacromolecule) in calcium alginate nanobeads (sub-200 nm size), prepared using a recently developed protocol based on the phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification method [Machado et al. Langmuir 2012, 28, 4131-4141], was assessed. The properties of the nanobeads were compared to those of the corresponding macroscopic (millimeter sized) calcium alginate beads. It was found that DNA, representing a relatively stiff and highly charged polyanion (thus like-charged to alginate), could be efficiently encapsulated in both nanosized and macroscopic beads, with encapsulation yields in the range of 77-99%. Complete release of DNA from the beads could be accomplished on dissolution of the gel by addition of a calcium-chelating agent. Importantly, the DNA was not denatured or fragmented during the preparation and collection of the nanobeads, which are good indicators of the mildness of the preparation protocol used. The calcium alginate nanobeads prepared by the herein utilized protocol thus show good potential to be used as carriers of sensitive biomacromolecules.
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Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of Rocha pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.
Food Sci Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. Rocha treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312?nl?l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0? and 2.5? in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04?kPa O2+ 0.91?kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22? and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5?. Levels of conjugated trienols and ?-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5?. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5?. Pears in air at 2.5? were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0? under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated Rocha pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0? to 2.5?, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. Rocha pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0? in air or at 2.5? under CA.
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Reversible chemical restraint of free-range cattle with a concentrated combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and detomidine.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a concentrated combination of tiletamine-zolazepam [TZ, 0.53 mg/kg body weight (BW)], ketamine (Ket, 0.53 mg/kg BW), and detomidine (Det, 0.04 mg/kg BW) in the immobilization of free-range cattle for clinical procedures. The combination was administered intramuscularly to 53 animals. Anesthesia was reversed with the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Locoregional anesthesia was provided with lidocaine when required. The TZKD combination induced suitable immobilization for minor surgical procedures or medical treatments. Anesthetic onset was rapid, taking a mean of 6.1 min [standard deviation (SD) 2.8 min]. The duration of anesthesia depended on the time of administration of the antagonist; the animals recovered in the standing position in 12.9 ± 8.9 min after the administration of atipamezole. The quality of anesthesia and analgesia were satisfactory. In conclusion, this TZKD combination can be used for both immobilization and minor surgical procedures in free-range cattle.
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Impact of introduction of conjugate vaccines in the vaccination schedule on the incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease requiring hospitalization in Madrid 2007 to 2011.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Differences in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children are expected after a change from 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Universal vaccination with PCV7 started in Madrid in November 2006, and it switched to PCV13 in June 2010.
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Deletion of the GI-2 integrase and the wbkA flanking transposase improves the stability of Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is the best vaccine available for the prophylaxis of small ruminant brucellosis and, indirectly, for reducing human brucellosis. However, Rev 1 shows anomalously high rates of spontaneous dissociation from smooth (S) to rough (R) bacteria, the latter being inefficacious as vaccines. This S-R instability results from the loss of the O-polysaccharide. To overcome this problem, we investigated whether some recently described mechanisms promoting mutations in O-polysaccharide genes were involved in Rev 1 S-R dissociation. We found that a proportion of Rev 1 R mutants result from genome rearrangements affecting the wbo O-polysaccharide loci of genomic island GI-2 and the wbkA O-polysaccharide glycosyltransferase gene of the wbk region. Accordingly, we mutated the GI-2 int gene and the wbk IS transposase involved in those arrangements, and found that these Rev 1 mutants maintained the S phenotype and showed lower dissociation levels. Combining these two mutations resulted in a strain (Rev 2) displaying a 95% decrease in dissociation with respect to parental Rev 1 under conditions promoting dissociation. Rev 2 did not differ from Rev 1 in the characteristics used in Rev 1 typing (growth rate, colonial size, reactivity with O-polysaccharide antibodies, phage, dye and antibiotic susceptibility). Moreover, Rev 2 and Rev 1 showed similar attenuation and afforded similar protection in the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines. We conclude that mutations targeting genes and DNA sequences involved in spontaneous O-polysaccharide loss enhance the stability of a critical vaccine phenotype and complement the empirical stabilization precautions taken during S Brucella vaccine production.
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Developmental and tumoral vascularization is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Tumor vessel dysfunction is a pivotal event in cancer progression. Using an in vivo neovascularization model, we identified G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) as a key angiogenesis regulator. An impaired angiogenic response involving immature vessels was observed in mice hemizygous for Grk2 or in animals with endothelium-specific Grk2 silencing. ECs isolated from these animals displayed intrinsic alterations in migration, TGF-? signaling, and formation of tubular networks. Remarkably, an altered pattern of vessel growth and maturation was detected in postnatal retinas from endothelium-specific Grk2 knockout animals. Mouse embryos with systemic or endothelium-selective Grk2 ablation had marked vascular malformations involving impaired recruitment of mural cells. Moreover, decreased endothelial Grk2 dosage accelerated tumor growth in mice, along with reduced pericyte vessel coverage and enhanced macrophage infiltration, and this transformed environment promoted decreased GRK2 in ECs and human breast cancer vessels. Our study suggests that GRK2 downregulation is a relevant event in the tumoral angiogenic switch.
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Expansion of serotype coverage in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar: short-term effects on age- and serotype-dependent incidence of invasive pneumococcal clinical presentations in Madrid, Spain.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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In Madrid, Spain, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the pediatric universal vaccination calendar in June 2010. A prospective clinical surveillance that included all children hospitalized with culture- and/or PCR-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was performed in all Madrid hospitals. The incidence rates (IRs) (defined as the number of cases/100,000 inhabitants aged <15 years) in the PCV7 (May 2007 to April 2010) versus PCV13 (May 2011 to April 2012) periods were compared. There were 499 cases in the PCV7 period and 79 cases in the PCV13 period. Globally, the IR significantly decreased from 17.09 (PCV7 period) to 7.70 (PCV13 period), with significant decreases (PCV7 versus PCV13 periods) in all age groups for bacteremic pneumonia (5.51 versus 1.56), parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE) (5.72 versus 3.12), and meningitis (2.16 versus 0.97). In the PCV13 period, significant reductions (the IR in the PCV7 period versus the IR in the PCV13 period) were found in IPDs caused by PCV13 serotypes (13.49 versus 4.38), and specifically by serotypes 1 (globally [4.79 versus 2.53], for bacteremic pneumonia [2.23 versus 0.97], and for PPE [2.26 versus 1.17]), serotype 5 (globally [1.88 versus 0.00], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.89 versus 0.00], and for PPE [0.55 versus 0.00]), and serotype 19A (globally [3.77 versus 0.49], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.72 versus 0.00], for PPE [0.89 versus 0.00], and for meningitis [0.62 versus 0.00]). IPDs caused by non-PCV13 serotypes did not increase (IR, 3.60 in the PCV7 period versus 3.31 in the PCV13 period), regardless of age or presentation. No IPDs caused by the PCV13 serotypes were found in children who received 3 doses of PCV13. The number of hospitalization days and sanitary costs were significantly lower in the PCV13 period. The switch from PCV7 to PCV13 in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar provided sanitary and economical benefits without a replacement by non-PCV13 serotypes.
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Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Admitted to the Acute Palliative Care Unit From the Emergency Center.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Most patients admitted to acute palliative care units (APCUs) are transferred from inpatient oncology units. We hypothesized that patients admitted to APCUs from emergency centers (ECs) have symptom burdens and outcomes that differ from those of transferred inpatients.
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Switching to basal-bolus insulin therapy is effective and safe in long-term type 2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled with other insulin regimens.
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To assess in standard clinical practice the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of switching patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and poor or unstable blood glucose control to basal-bolus insulin therapy.
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Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.
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[Long-term effects of a cardiac rehabilitation program in the control of cardiovascular risk factors].
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Cardiac rehabilitation programs are designed to improve patients functional capacity, as well as to educate them and to monitor their cardiovascular risk factors.
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First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and B. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. However, both Besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of Besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia spp. in wild ruminants in Spain. A wide panel of sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) (n=734), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n=124), chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) (n=170) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) (n=20) collected from different locations of Spain was analyzed. Beef cattle were present in all sampled areas and, interestingly, bovine besnoitiosis has been widely reported in some of them (e.g., Pyrenees and Central Spain). Sera samples were first examined with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). For red deer and roe deer, the ELISA was standardized with positive and negative control sera from several Cervidae species (100% Se and 98% Sp). Chamois and mouflon sera samples were tested with a previously reported ELISA validated for bovine sera (97% Se and 95% Sp) using protein G as a conjugate. Positive results by ELISA were confirmed a posteriori with a tachyzoite-based Western blot. Sixty-one sera samples from red deer and 17 sera samples from roe-deer were seropositive or doubtful by ELISA. All samples from mouflon were seronegative and 15 sera samples from chamois were considered doubtful. B. besnoiti exposure was only confirmed clearly by Western blot in one red deer and one roe deer from the Spanish Pyrenees where the disease is traditionally endemic. This is the first serological report of Besnoitia spp. infection carried out in European wild ruminants and the results show that specific antibodies are present at least in red deer and roe-deer. Thus, wild ruminants from endemic regions of bovine besnoitiosis should be further studied because they may be putative reservoirs of the parasite.
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Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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"Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments amount than with phenols content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Q? bacteriophage.
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Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.
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Interictal estimation of intracranial seizure onset in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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To evaluate the lateralizing and localizing values of interictal focal slow activity (IFSA), single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) and (18)FDG PET, in order to estimate their potential to complement ictal intracranial recordings and reduce prolonged monitoring in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
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The use of Streptomyces for immunization against mycobacterial infections.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of mortality produced by an infectious agent. Different strategies including bioinformatics are currently being tested to identify and improve vaccines against tuberculosis. Comparative genome analysis between Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggest that both descend from a common Actinomycete ancestor. In this work, we suggest the use of Streptomyces as a live vector and explore the capacity of Streptomyces immunization to induce a protective response against mycobacterial infection. First, we compared the theoretical proteomes of S. coelicolor A3(2) with those of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. This study showed a high similarity at the level of individual genes sequences with both bacteria sharing several membrane proteins. Then, we administered Streptomyces intraperitoneally to mice and determined its distribution by histopathology and culture; we did not find systemic dissemination. After administration of Streptomyces through different routes, we identified the most immunogenic, inducing strong humoral response, as denoted by the high serum antibody titers against this organism with cross reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Finally, we evaluated the level of protection elicited by the inoculation of Streptomyces in Balb/c mice challenged with BCG. In these animals, lung bacillary loads were significantly lower than the control non-sensitized group.. These observations, along with Streptomyces potential for expressing foreign proteins, suggest that Streptomyces could be an advantageous vector in the design of new tuberculosis vaccines.
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Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of some commercial essential oils and their major compounds.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene.
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[Diabetes and pregnancy. Health education].
Rev Enferm
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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The usual scenario of treatment of pregnant women with diabetes, either gestational or pregestational is the coincidence of: 1) the difficulty that entails changing insulin sensitivity, 2) the importance of glycemic control that resembles as much as possible to that of healthy pregnant women, and 3) the willingness of the mother The latter circumstance makes it common that patients with type 1 diabetes and poor glycemic control have impeccable glycemic records during pregnancy and that women with gestational diabetes and unhealthy eating patterns, change them substantially during pregnancy. But the first two assumptions imply a major difficulty
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Inhibin bodies: a new marker for immature Sertoli cells.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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To provide a marker for immature and dysgenetic Sertoli cells which allows easy identification in patients in which Sertoli cell maturation does not take place properly, such as those consulting for cryptorchidism, testicular tumours and infertility.
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Value of patch tests in clindamycin-related drug eruptions.
Contact Derm.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Patch tests help to confirm the aetiology of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions involving delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms, but the results vary with the pattern of skin reaction and the culprit drug.
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Protein phosphorylation analysis in archival clinical cancer samples by shotgun and targeted proteomics approaches.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Protein phosphorylation affects most eukaryotic cellular processes and its deregulation is considered a hallmark of cancer and other diseases. Phosphoproteomics may enable monitoring of altered signaling pathways as a means of stratifying tumors and facilitating the discovery of new drugs. Unfortunately, the development of molecular tests for clinical use is constrained by the limited availability of fresh frozen, clinically annotated samples. Here we report phosphopeptide analysis in human archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring techniques. Our results indicate the equivalence of detectable phosphorylation rates in archival FFPE and fresh frozen tissues. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of targeted assays for phosphopeptide analysis in clinical archival FFPE samples, using an experimental workflow suitable for processing and analyzing large sample series. This work paves the way for the application of shotgun and targeted phosphoproteomics approaches in clinically relevant studies using archival clinical samples.
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Effect of aggregation on the photophysical properties of three fluorene-phenylene-based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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The effect of aggregation on the photophysical properties of three cationic poly{9,9-bis[N,N-(trimethylammonium)hexyl] fluorene-co-l,4-phenylene} polymers with average chain lengths of ?6, 12, and 100 repeat units (PFP-NR3(6(I),12(Br),100(Br))) has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Conjugated polyelectrolytes are known to aggregate in solution and for these PFP-NR3 polymers this causes a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yield. The use of acetonitrile as a cosolvent leads to the breakup of aggregates of PFP-NR3 in water; for PFP-NR3(6(I)), this results in an ?10-fold increase in fluorescence quantum yield, a ca. 2-fold increase in the molar extinction coefficient at 380 nm, and an increase in the emission lifetime, as compared with polymer behavior in water. Fluorescence anisotropy also decreases with increasing aggregation, and this is attributed to increased fluorescence depolarization by interchain energy transfer in aggregate PFP-NR3 clusters. Fo?rster resonance energy transfer along the polymer chain is expected to be very fast, with a calculated FRET rate constant of 7.3 × 10(12) s(-1) and a Fo?rster distance of 2.83 nm (cf. the polymer repeat unit separation of 0.840 nm) for PFP-NR3(100(Br)). The complex polymer excited-state decay kinetics in aggregated PFP-NR3 systems have been successfully modeled in terms of intrachain energy transfer via migration and trapping at interchain aggregate trap sites, with model parameters in good agreement with data from picosecond time-resolved studies and the calculated theoretical Fo?rster energy-transfer rates.
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Is propolis safe as an alternative medicine?
J Pharm Bioallied Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees as defense against intruders. It has relevant therapeutic properties that have been used since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis is of increasing importance as a therapeutic, alone or included in many medicines and homeopathic products or in cosmetics. Propolis is produced worldwide and honeybees use the flora surrounding their beehives for its production. Therefore its chemical composition may change according to the flora. The phenolic and volatile fractions of propolis have been revised in the present study, as well as some of the biological properties attributed to this natural product. An alert is given about the need to standardize this product, with quality control. This has already been initiated by some authors, mainly in the propolis from the poplar-type. Only this product can constitute a good complementary and alternative medicine under internationally acceptable quality control.
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[How does one manage patients with rheumatoid arthritis and positive serology to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus?].
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Chronic viral infections in rheumatic patients are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Some of the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, are hepatotoxic. With biological therapy, which is now widely used in patients refractory to these and other DMARD, some cases of reactivation of hepatitis B, even fulminant cases, have been reported, especially when employing TNF antagonists and rituximab, so their use must be carefully assessed and usually accompanied by antiviral therapy. However, there have not been reports of reactivation of hepatitis C after immunosuppressive therapy. In patients with HIV infection, administration of immunosuppressive therapy carries a high risk of opportunistic infections, although the new highly active antiviral therapy allows the use of some drugs in selected cases.
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Depth-profiling by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM): data correction by numerical techniques.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The data obtained in confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) depth profiling experiments with dry optics are subjected to significant distortions, including an artificial compression of the depth scale, due to the combined influence of diffraction, refraction, and instrumental effects that operate on the measurement. This work explores the use of (1) regularized deconvolution and (2) the application of simple rescaling of the depth scale as methodologies to obtain an improved, more precise, confocal response. The deconvolution scheme is based on a simple predictive model for depth resolution and the use of regularization techniques to minimize the dramatic oscillations in the recovered response typical of problem inversion. That scheme is first evaluated using computer simulations on situations that reproduce smooth and sharp sample transitions between two materials and finally it is applied to correct genuine experimental data, obtained in this case from a sharp transition (planar interface) between two polymeric materials. It is shown that the methodology recovers very well most of the lost profile features in all the analyzed situations. The use of simple rescaling appears to be only useful for correcting smooth transitions, particularly those extended over distances larger than those spanned by the operative depth resolution, which limits the strategy to the study of profiles near the sample surface. However, through computer simulations, it is shown that the use of water immersion objectives may help to reduce optical distortions and to expand the application window of this simple methodology, which could be useful, for instance, to safely monitor Fickean sorption/desorption of penetrants in polymer films/coatings in a nearly noninvasive way.
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New Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR assay for the biovar typing of Brucella suis and the discrimination of Brucella suis and Brucella canis.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Rapid and specific identification of Brucella suis at the biovar level is necessary because some of the biovars that infect animals are pathogenic for humans. None of the molecular typing methods described so far are able to discriminate B. suis biovars in a single test and differentiation of B. suis from Brucella canis by molecular approaches can be difficult. This article describes a new multiplex PCR assay, Suis-ladder, for fast and accurate identification of B. suis at the biovar level and the differentiation of B. suis, B. canis and Brucella microti. An advancement of the original Bruce-ladder PCR protocol which allows the correct discrimination of all known Brucella species is also described.
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Adverse events analysis as an educational tool to improve patient safety culture in primary care: a randomized trial.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Patient safety is a leading item on the policy agenda of both major international health organizations and advanced countries generally. The quantitative description of the phenomena has given rise to intense concern with the issue in institutions and organizations, leading to a number of initiatives and research projects and the promotion of patient safety culture, with training becoming a priority both in Spain and internationally. To date, most studies have been conducted in a hospital setting, even though primary care is the type most commonly used by the public, in our experience. Our study aims to achieve the following:--Assess the registry of adverse events as an education tool to improve patient safety culture in the Family and Community Teaching Units of Galicia.--Find and analyze educational tools to improve patient safety culture in primary care.--Evaluate the applicability of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Spanish version, in the context of primary health care.
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Aurora B kinase expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its prognostic implications.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Aurora B in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC).
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Protein unfolding strongly modulates the allergenicity and immunogenicity of Pru p 3, the major peach allergen.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergies, including peach allergy, has not been established. Use of allergens with reduced allergenic potential and preserved immunogenicity could improve the safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.
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Short and long term fate of human AMSC subcutaneously injected in mice.
World J Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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To study the ability of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) to survive over the short and long term, their biodistribution and their biosafety in vivo in tumor-prone environments.
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Inclusion of a single-tail amino acid-based amphiphile in a lipoplex formulation: effects on transfection efficiency and physicochemical properties.
Mol. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Effects of the addition of a cationic amino acid-based synthetic amphiphile, arginine N-lauroyl amide dihydrochloride (ALA), to a lipid-based transfection formulation have been investigated. It is shown that the inclusion of ALA results in a substantial enhancement of the transfection capability of lipoplexes prepared with liposomes of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine and cholesterol, which themselves mediate highly efficient transfection. A possible explanation for the increased biological activity is that ALA adsorbed to the surface of the DNA-lipid complexes is involved in triggering internalization. However, in order to identify possible additional factors underlying the enhanced transfection efficiency, the physical properties of formulations with and without ALA were characterized using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and an ethidium bromide intercalation assay. ALA seems to have limited influence on the initial internal structure of the complexes and the protection of DNA, but its presence is found to decrease the average effective size of the dispersed particles; this change in size may be important in improving the biological activity. Furthermore, ALA can act to influence the transfection efficiency of the formulation by promoting the release of DNA following internalization in the transfected cells.
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Brucella abortus ornithine lipids are dispensable outer membrane components devoid of a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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The brucellae are ?-Proteobacteria facultative intracellular parasites that cause an important zoonosis. These bacteria escape early detection by innate immunity, an ability associated to the absence of marked pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the cell envelope lipopolysaccharide, lipoproteins and flagellin. We show here that, in contrast to the outer membrane ornithine lipids (OL) of other Gram negative bacteria, Brucella abortus OL lack a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern activity. We identified two OL genes (olsB and olsA) and by generating the corresponding mutants found that olsB deficient B. abortus did not synthesize OL or their lyso-OL precursors. Liposomes constructed with B. abortus OL did not trigger IL-6 or TNF-? release by macrophages whereas those constructed with Bordetella pertussis OL and the olsB mutant lipids as carriers were highly active. The OL deficiency in the olsB mutant did not promote proinflammatory responses or generated attenuation in mice. In addition, OL deficiency did not increase sensitivity to polymyxins, normal serum or complement consumption, or alter the permeability to antibiotics and dyes. Taken together, these observations indicate that OL have become dispensable in the extant brucellae and are consistent within the trend observed in ?-Proteobacteria animal pathogens to reduce and eventually eliminate the envelope components susceptible of recognition by innate immunity.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.
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[Effect of ingroup membership on organizational meta-representation].
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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The present study considers the importance of analyzing what very powerful or influential people think about their employees. We assumed that belonging to a specific category has a differential effect on the perception of others thoughts in the organization ("meta-representation"). Therefore, experts in organization and human resources from diverse organizations and institutions assessed seven dimensions which structure the organizational image (context, structure, organizational processes, working climate, culture, satisfaction and efficacy). The results showed that belonging to a group (managers or leaders, academicians, consultants, technicians or employees representatives) modulated the meta-representation, as the experts opinion about what they think that the employees consider important was related to their group. This was specifically the case for the managers and leaders representations, which differed from the other groups and especially from that of the technicians and employees representatives. The implications of the present findings are discussed.
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Size and morphology of assemblies formed by DNA and lysozyme in dilute aqueous mixtures.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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Assemblies formed by a well-defined quality of DNA (4331 bp T7 DNA) and the small net-cationic protein lysozyme in dilute aqueous solutions have been characterized using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as the main techniques. In a wide range of different DNA to lysozyme ratios in solutions of low ionic strength, dispersions of aggregates with the same general morphology and a practically constant hydrodynamic size are formed. The basic structure formed in the dispersions is that of rather flexible worm-like assemblies with a diameter of 10-20 nm, which are suggested to be made up by bundles of on the order of 10 DNA chains with an intervening matrix of lysozyme. With increased ionic strength, the worm-like appearance of the assemblies is lost and they adopt a less well-defined shape. The results suggest that the formation of the DNA-lysozyme aggregates is strongly influenced by cooperative assembly of the components and that, in addition to the electrostatic attraction between DNA and lysozyme, attractive interactions between the protein units are important in governing the behavior of the system.
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Reduced spermatogonial proliferation and decreased fertility in mice overexpressing cyclin E in spermatogonia.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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Cyclin E is a key component of the cell cycle regulatory machinery, contributing to the activation of Cdk2 and the control of cell cycle progression at several stages. Cyclin E expression is tightly regulated, by periodic transcription and ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Overexpression of cyclin E has been associated with tumor development and poor prognosis in several tumor types, including germ cell tumors and both cyclin E and its partner Cdk2 are required for normal spermatogenesis. Here we have generated and characterized transgenic mice overexpressing a cyclin E mutant protein, resistant to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, in testicular germ cells, under the control of the human EF-1alpha promoter. The transgenic mice develop normally and live a normal life span, with no signs of testicular tumor development. The transgenic mice display however reduced fertility and testicular atrophy, due to reduced spermatogonial proliferation as a consequence of deregulated cyclin E levels. Overall our results show that deregulation of cyclin E expression contribute to infertility, due to inability of the spermatogonial cells to start the mitotic cycles prior to entering meiosis.
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Polymorphic DNA repair and metabolic genes: a multigenic study on gastric cancer.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) include inter-individual variability in the inflammatory response to Helicobacter pylori infection, in the ability of detoxifying DNA reactive species and repairing DNA damage generated by oxidative stress and dietary carcinogens. To evaluate the association between polymorphic DNA repair genes and GC risk, a case-control study including 314 histologically confirmed GC patients and 548 healthy controls was conducted in a GC high-risk area in Tuscany, Italy. Polymorphic variants of base excision repair (APE1-D148E, XRCC1-R194W, XRCC1-R399Q and OGG1-S326C), nucleotide excision repair (XPC-PAT, XPA-23G>A, ERCC1-19007T>C and XPD-L751Q), recombination (XRCC3-T241M) and alkylation damage reversal (MGMT-L84F) were tested for their potential role in the development of GC by using logistic regression models. The same population was also characterised for GSTT1 and GSTM1 variant alleles to search for possible functional interactions between metabolic and DNA repair genotypes by two-way interactions using multivariate logistic models. No significant association between any single DNA repair genotype and GC risk was detected with a borderline association with the XPC-PAT homozygous genotype [odds ratio (OR)?=1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-2.17]. Gene-gene interaction analysis revealed combinations of unfavourable genotypes involving either multiple DNA repair polymorphisms or DNA repair and GST-specific genotypes. The combination of the XPC-PAT and the XPA variant alleles significantly increased GC risk (OR=2.15; 95% CI 1.17-3.93, P=0.0092). A significant interaction was also found between the APE1 wild-type genotype and either the single GSTT1 (OR=4.90; 95% CI 2.38-10.11, P=0.0079) or double GSTM1-GSTT1 null (OR=7.84; 95% CI 3.19-19.22, P=0.0169) genotypes or the XPA-mutant allele (OR=3.56; 95% CI 1.53-8.25, P=0.0012). These findings indicate that a complex interaction between host factors such as oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and efficiency of multiple DNA repair pathways underlies the inter-individual variability in GC risk.
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Interactions between DNA and nonionic ethylene oxide surfactants are predominantly repulsive.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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In the present work, the interactions between double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA and nonionic ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants, with special attention to the possible contributions from hydrophobic interactions, have been investigated using a multitechnique approach. It was found that the presence of ss as well as dsDNA induces a slight decrease of the cloud point of pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C(12)E(5)). Assessment of the partitioning of DNA between the surfactant-rich and surfactant-poor phases formed above the cloud point showed that the polymer was preferably located in the surfactant-poor phase. Surface tensiometry experiments revealed that neither of the DNA forms induced surfactant micellization. Finally, it was shown by DNA melting measurements that another EO surfactant (C(12)E(8)) did not affect the relative stabilities of ss and dsDNA. To summarize, all experiments suggest that the net interaction between DNA and nonionic surfactants of the EO type is weakly repulsive, which can be attributed mainly to steric effects. In general, the results were practically identical for the ds and ss forms of DNA, except those from the cloud point experiments, where the decrease of the cloud point was less pronounced with ssDNA. This finding indicates the presence of an attractive component in the interaction, which can reasonably be ascribed to hydrophobic effects.
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Pluripotent stem cells: origin, maintenance and induction.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Pluripotency is defined as the potential of a cell to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. In vivo, the presence of pluripotent stem cells is transient during the very early embryo. However, immortal cell lines with the same properties can be obtained in vitro and grown indefinitely in laboratories under specific conditions. These cells can be induced to differentiate into all the cell types of the organism through different assays, thereby proving their functional pluripotency. This review focuses on the pluripotent stem cells of mammals, giving special attention to the comparison between mouse and human. In particular, embryonic stem cells, epiblast-derived stem cells, primordial germ cells, embryonic germ cells, very small embryonic-like cells and induced pluripotent stem cells will be compared in terms of the following: in vivo specification and location; surface and intracellular markers; in vitro dependence on growth factors; signal transduction pathways; epigenetic characteristics; and pluripotency genes and functional assays.
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Interactions between cationic lipid bilayers and model chromatin.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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Complexes formed in mixtures of cationic liposomes of varying charge density and nucleosome core particles (NCPs) or nucleosome arrays have been characterized. Under most of the conditions studied, the lipids and NCPs or arrays formed lamellar structures similar to those obtained with the liposomes and pure DNA. Thus, the dissociation of DNA from the NCP or nucleosome array and the formation of a DNA-lipid complex is thermodynamically favored, which can likely be ascribed mainly to the gain in entropy on release of the small counterions. Only at very low liposome charge densities are there indications that the NCPs/arrays do not dissociate upon interaction with the lipid bilayers. The reported results can serve as a valuable reference point in investigations of biologically more relevant systems.
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Photoallergic contact dermatitis from benzydamine presenting mainly as lip dermatitis.
Contact Derm.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Benzydamine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in use for more than four decades, has been reported to cause photosensitivity.
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Fibrous histiocytomas: histopathologic review of 95 cases.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is a heterogeneous tumor composed of fibroblasts, histiocytes, and blood vessels. We conducted a retrospective histopathologic analysis of 95 biopsies, performed over the last 3.5 years, of fibrous histiocytomas to analyze the location, delimitation, epithelial changes, induction of folliculo-sebaceous structures, cellularity, vascularity, collagen pattern, and types of composite cells of the FH. In the majority of the biopsies, we confirmed the classical histopathologic features of fibrous histiocytomas. The presence of lymphoid nodules, mast cells, and sparse infiltrate of inflammatory cells was an interesting finding observed in our study.
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Are birth weight predictors in diabetic pregnancy the same in boys and girls?
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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To study the predictors of abnormal fetal growth in diabetic pregnancy, analyzing the role of fetal sex.
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Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal. Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol. In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter. Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone. Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples.
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Influence of preexisting hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Preexisting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is implicated in diminished patient and graft survivals in renal transplant recipients. The impact of HCV infection on patient and graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations is unclear. We evaluated the effect of preexisting HCV infection on patient and graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPKT) recipients in the United States.
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Gene expression changes in spleens of the wildlife reservoir species, Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), naturally infected with Brucella suis biovar 2.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Brucella suis is responsible for swine brucellosis worldwide. Of the five different B. suis biovars (bv.), bv. 2 appears restricted to Europe where it is frequently isolated from wild boar and hares, can infect pigs and can cause human brucellosis. In this study, the differential gene expression profile was characterized in spleens of Eurasian wild boar naturally infected with B. suis bv. 2. Of the 20,201 genes analyzed in the microarray, 633 and 1,373 were significantly (fold change > 1.8; P < 0.01) upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in infected wild boar. The analysis was focused on genes that were over represented after conditional test for biological process gene ontology. Upregulated genes suggested that B. suis bv. 2 infection induced cell maturation, migration and/or proliferation in infected animals. The genes downregulated in infected wild boar impaired the activity of several important cellular metabolic pathways such as metabolism, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, immune response and lysosomal function and vesicle-mediated transport. In addition, the response to stress, sperm fertility, muscle development and apoptosis seemed to be also impaired in infected animals. These results suggested that B. suis bv. 2 may use strategies similar to other smooth brucellae to facilitate intracellular multiplication and the development of chronic infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of gene expression profile in hosts infected with B. suis bv. 2, which is important to understand the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface in the main reservoir species with possible implications in the zoonotic cycle of the pathogen.
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[Thyroid dysfunction in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib: a multifactorial issue].
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Several studies have reported the substantial prevalence of sunitinib-induced thyroid dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism and the benefit of thyroid hormone replacement therapy remain to be determined. To evaluate the effect of sunitinib on thyroid function, we carried out a descriptive study in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
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EEG latency analysis for hemispheric lateralisation in Landau-Kleffner syndrome.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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To determine the reliability of latency analysis in lateralising the origin of epileptiform discharges in pre-surgical assessment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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