JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).
Bone
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3?tk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is similar to suppressed bone turnover in human. This data confirms successful replication of the adynamic bone condition in a mouse without the complication of renal ablation. Our approach is the first model of ABD that uses pharmacological manipulation in a transgenic mouse to mimic the bone cellular dynamics observed in the human ABD condition. We plan to use our mouse model to investigate the adynamic bone condition in aging and to study changes to bone quality and fracture risk as a consequence of over-suppressed bone turnover.
Related JoVE Video
Novel EP4 receptor agonist-bisphosphonate conjugate drug (C1) promotes bone formation and improves vertebral mechanical properties in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis aim to either promote bone formation or inhibit bone resorption. The C1 conjugate drug represents a new treatment approach by chemically linking the anti-resorptive compound alendronate (ALN) with the anabolic agent prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (EP4a) through a linker molecule (LK) to form a conjugate compound. This enables the bone-targeting ability of ALN to deliver EP4a to bone sites and mitigate the systemic side effects of EP4a, while also facilitating dual anti-resorptive and anabolic effects. In vivo hydrolysis is required to release the EP4a and ALN components for pharmacological activity. Our study investigated the in vivo efficacy of this drug in treating established bone loss using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteopenia. In a curative experiment, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX, allowed to lose bone for 7 weeks, then treated for 6 weeks. Treatment groups consisted of C1 conjugate at low and high doses, vehicle-treated OVX and sham, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and mixture of unconjugated ALN-LK and EP4a to assess the effect of conjugation. Results showed that weekly administration of C1 conjugate dose-dependently increased bone volume in trabecular bone, which partially or completely reversed OVX-induced bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and improved vertebral mechanical strength. The conjugate also dose-dependently stimulated endocortical woven bone formation and intracortical resorption in cortical bone, with high dose treatment increasing the mechanical strength but compromising the material properties. Conjugation between the EP4a and ALN-LK components was crucial to the drug's anabolic efficacy. To our knowledge, the C1 conjugate represents the first time that a combined therapy using an anabolic agent and the anti-resorptive compound ALN has shown significant anabolic effects which reversed established osteopenia. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Related JoVE Video
Collagen modifications in postmenopausal osteoporosis: advanced glycation endproducts may affect bone volume, structure and quality.
Curr Osteoporos Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The classic model of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PM-OP) starts with the depletion of estrogen, which in turn stimulates imbalanced bone remodeling, resulting in loss of bone mass/volume. Clinically, this leads to fractures because of structural weakness. Recent work has begun to provide a more complete picture of the mechanisms of PM-OP involving oxidative stress and collagen modifications known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). On one hand, AGEs may drive imbalanced bone remodeling through signaling mediated by the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), stimulating resorption and inhibiting formation. On the other hand, AGEs are associated with degraded bone material quality. Oxidative stress promotes the formation of AGEs, inhibits normal enzymatically derived crosslinking and can degrade collagen structure, thereby reducing fracture resistance. Notably, there are multiple positive feedback loops that can exacerbate the mechanisms of PM-OP associated with oxidative stress and AGEs. Anti-oxidant therapies may have the potential to inhibit the oxidative stress based mechanisms of this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Can OP-1 stimulate union in a rat model of pathological fracture post treatment for soft tissue sarcoma?
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of soft tissue sarcoma management in the extremities is limb preservation, often combining surgery and external beam radiation. In patients who have undergone this therapy in the thigh, pathologic fracture is a serious, late complication. Non-union rates of 80-90% persist. No reliable biologic solution exists. A rat model combining one 18?Gy dose of radiation and diaphyseal periosteal excision reliably generates atrophic non-union of femoral fractures. We hypothesized that augmentation with OP-1 would increase union rate. Female Sprague-Dawley retired breeder rats were randomized to Control, Disease (external beam radiotherapy and periosteal stripping), Control?+?OP-1 (80?µg) and Disease?+?OP-1 groups. Animals underwent prophylactic fixation and controlled left femur fracture. Twenty-eight, 35, and 42 days post-fracture were end-points. Femora were analyzed using MicroCT, Back Scattered Electron Microscopy, and Histomorphometry. We observed a 2% union rate in the Disease groups (±OP-1 treatment). The union rate in Control groups was 97%. MicroCT demonstrated a lack of callus volume in Disease groups. Heterotopic ossification was observed in some OP-1 treated animals. The ineffectiveness of OP-1 in stimulating fracture union in this model suggests the endogenous repair mechanism has been compromised beyond the capabilities of osteoinductive biologics.
Related JoVE Video
First mouse model for combined osteogenesis imperfecta and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By using a genome-wide N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced dominant mutagenesis screen in mice, a founder with low bone mineral density (BMD) was identified. Mapping and sequencing revealed a T to C transition in a splice donor of the collagen alpha1 type I (Col1a1) gene, resulting in the skipping of exon 9 and a predicted 18-amino acid deletion within the N-terminal region of the triple helical domain of Col1a1. Col1a1(Jrt) /+ mice were smaller in size, had lower BMD associated with decreased bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and reduced trabecular number, and furthermore exhibited mechanically weak, brittle, fracture-prone bones, a hallmark of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Several markers of osteoblast differentiation were upregulated in mutant bone, and histomorphometry showed that the proportion of trabecular bone surfaces covered by activated osteoblasts (Ob.S/BS and N.Ob/BS) was elevated, but bone surfaces undergoing resorption (Oc.S/BS and N.Oc/BS) were not. The number of bone marrow stromal osteoprogenitors (CFU-ALP) was unaffected, but mineralization was decreased in cultures from young Col1a1(Jrt) /+ versus +/+ mice. Total collagen and type I collagen content of matrices deposited by Col1a1(Jrt) /+ dermal fibroblasts in culture was ?40% and 30%, respectively, that of +/+ cells, suggesting that mutant collagen chains exerted a dominant negative effect on type I collagen biosynthesis. Mutant collagen fibrils were also markedly smaller in diameter than +/+ fibrils in bone, tendon, and extracellular matrices deposited by dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Col1a1(Jrt) /+ mice also exhibited traits associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): Their skin had reduced tensile properties, tail tendon appeared more frayed, and a third of the young adult mice had noticeable curvature of the spine. Col1a1(Jrt) /+ is the first reported model of combined OI/EDS and will be useful for exploring aspects of OI and EDS pathophysiology and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Bone embrittlement and collagen modifications due to high-dose gamma-irradiation sterilization.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone allografts are often used in orthopedic reconstruction of skeletal defects resulting from trauma, bone cancer or revision of joint arthroplasty. ?-Irradiation sterilization is a widely-used biological safety measure; however it is known to embrittle bone. Irradiation has been shown to affect the post-yield properties, which are attributed to the collagen component of bone. In order to find a solution to the loss of toughness in irradiated bone allografts, it is important to fully understand the effects of irradiation on bone collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the structure and integrity of bone collagen as a result of ?-irradiation, with the hypothesis that irradiation fragments collagen molecules leading to a loss of collagen network connectivity and therefore loss of toughness. Using cortical bone from bovine tibiae, sample beams irradiated at 33kGy on dry ice were compared to native bone beams (paired controls). All beams were subjected to three-point bend testing to failure followed by characterization of the decalcified bone collagen, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hydrothermal isometric tension testing (HIT), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The carbonyl content of demineralized bone collagen was also measured chemically to assess oxidative damage. Barium sulfate staining after single edge notch bending (SEN(B)) fracture testing was also performed on bovine tibia bone beams with a machined and sharpened notch to evaluate the fracture toughness and ability of irradiated bone to form micro-damage during fracture. Irradiation resulted in a 62% loss of work-to-fracture (p?0.001). There was significantly less micro-damage formed during fracture propagation in the irradiated bone. HPLC showed no significant effect on pentosidine, pyridinoline, or hydroxypyridinoline levels suggesting that the loss of toughness is not due to changes in these stable crosslinks. For DSC, there was a 20% decrease in thermal stability (p<0.001) with a 100% increase (p<0.001) in enthalpy of denaturation (melting). HIT testing also showed a decrease in thermal stability (20% lower denaturation temperature, p<0.001) and greatly reduced measures of collagen network connectivity (p<0.001). Interestingly, the increase in enthalpy of denaturation suggests that irradiated collagen requires more energy to denature (melt), perhaps a result of alterations in the hydrogen bonding sites (increased carbonyl content detected in the insoluble collagen) on the irradiated bone collagen. Altogether, this new data strongly indicates that a large loss of overall collagen connectivity due to collagen fragmentation resulting from ?-irradiation sterilization leads to inferior cortical bone toughness. In addition, notable changes in the thermal denaturation of the bone collagen along with chemical indicators of oxidative modification of the bone collagen indicate that the embrittlement may be a function not only of collagen fragmentation but also of changes in bonding.
Related JoVE Video
1,25(OH)?D? induces a mineralization defect and loss of bone mineral density in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats, bred to maximize urine (u) calcium (Ca) excretion, demonstrate increased intestinal Ca absorption, increased bone Ca resorption, and reduced renal Ca reabsorption, all leading to elevated uCa compared to the parental Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. GHS rats have increased numbers of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) at each site, with normal levels of 1,25(OH)?D? (1,25D), suggesting their VDR is undersaturated with 1,25D. We have shown that 1,25D induces a greater increase in uCa in GHS than SD rats. To examine the effect of the increased VDR on the osseous response to 1,25D, we fed GHS and SD rats an ample Ca diet and injected either 1,25D [low dose (LD) 12.5 or high dose (HD) 25 ng/100 g body weight/day] or vehicle (veh) daily for 16 days. Femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD, by DEXA) was decreased in GHS+LD and GHS+HD relative to GHS+veh, while there was no effect on SD. Vertebral aBMD was lower in GHS compared to SD and further decreased in GHS+HD. Both femoral and L6 vertebral volumetric BMD (by ?CT) were lower in GHS and further reduced by HD. Histomorphometry indicated a decreased osteoclast number in GHS+HD compared to GHS+veh or SD+HD. In tibiae, GHS+HD trabecular thickness and number increased, with a 12-fold increase in osteoid volume but only a threefold increase in bone volume. Bone formation rate was decreased in GHS+HD relative to GHS+veh, confirming the mineralization defect. The loss of BMD and the mineralization defect in GHS rats contribute to increased hypercalciuria; if these effects persist, they would result in decreased bone strength, making these bones more fracture-prone. The enhanced effect of 1,25D in GHS rats indicates that the increased VDRs are biologically active.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced trabecular bone mass and strength in mice overexpressing G?11 protein in cells of the osteoblast lineage.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) require G proteins for intracellular signaling to regulate a variety of growth and maintenance processes, including osteogenesis and bone turnover. Bone maintenance events may be altered by changes in the activity or level of G proteins, which then modify signaling in bone cells such as osteoblasts. We have previously reported increased levels of G?11 protein and signaling to phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathways in response to dexamethasone in osteoblastic UMR 106-01 cells. Here we generated pOBCol3.6-GNA11 transgenic mice that overexpress G?11 protein in cells of the osteoblast lineage (G11-Tg mice). G11-Tg mice exhibit an osteopenic phenotype characterized by significant reductions in trabecular bone mineral density, thickness, number and strength. The numbers of osteoblasts and osteocytes were unchanged in G11-Tg bone, but early markers of osteoblast differentiation, Alp and Bsp, were increased while the late stage differentiation marker Ocn was not changed suggesting reduced osteoblast maturation in G11-Tg trabecular bone which was accompanied by a decreased bone formation rate. Furthermore, in vitro cultures of G11-Tg primary osteoblasts show delayed osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Histological analyses also revealed increased osteoclast parameters, accompanied by elevated mRNA expression of Trap and Ctsk. mRNA levels of Rankl and M-csf were elevated in vitro in bone marrow stromal cells undergoing osteogenesis and in trabecular bone in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that increasing G?11 protein expression in osteoblasts can alter gene expression and result in a dual mechanism of trabecular bone loss.
Related JoVE Video
N-acylated glucosamines for bone and joint disorders: effects of N-butyryl glucosamine on ovariectomized rat bone.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefit of glucosamine (GlcN) in bone and joint disorders remains controversial. N-acetylation and other N-acylations of GlcN alter its biological properties fundamentally. We have shown previously that N-butyryl glucosamine (GlcNBu) preserved strikingly the subchondral bone structure in a destructive arthritis rat model. Here, we examine whether GlcNBu preserves bone in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat, a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rats were randomized into 4 groups: group 1, sham OVX glucose (Glc) fed; group 2, sham OVX GlcNBu fed; group 3, OVX Glc fed; and group 4, OVX GlcNBu fed. A single, oral, 200-mg/kg dose of GlcNBu or Glc was administered daily for 6 months. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density, and biomechanical properties of the femurs and spines were determined by standardized techniques. Two-way analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Ovariectomy in group 3 resulted either in significant or highly significant effects in a number of the tests. For spinal BMCs the interaction between GlcNBu and OVX was significant. For the femurs, this interaction was also seen in energy to failure, and ultimate displacement and ultimate strain tests. In general, ovariectomy was necessary to show significant preventive effects of GlcNBu on mineral content and some biomechanical properties. We conclude that GlcNBu feeding in the OVX rat preserves bone mineral and some biomechanical properties. Translationally, GlcNBu can be positioned between nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Advantages include low production costs and a favorable safety profile.
Related JoVE Video
The G60S connexin 43 mutation activates the osteoblast lineage and results in a resorption-stimulating bone matrix and abrogation of old-age-related bone loss.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously isolated a low bone mass mouse, Gja1(Jrt) /?+?, with a mutation in the gap junction protein, alpha 1 gene (Gja1), encoding for a dominant negative G60S Connexin 43 (Cx43) mutant protein. Similar to other Cx43 mutant mouse models described, including a global Cx43 deletion, four skeletal cell conditional-deletion mutants, and a Cx43 missense mutant (G138R/?+), a reduction in Cx43 gap junction formation and/or function resulted in mice with early onset osteopenia. In contrast to other Cx43 mutants, however, we found that Gja1(Jrt) /+ mice have both higher bone marrow stromal osteoprogenitor numbers and increased appendicular skeleton osteoblast activity, leading to cell autonomous upregulation of both matrix bone sialoprotein (BSP) and membrane-bound receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (mbRANKL). In younger Gja1(Jrt) /+ mice, these contributed to increased osteoclast number and activity resulting in early onset osteopenia. In older animals, however, this effect was abrogated by increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) so that differences in mutant and wild-type (WT) bone parameters and mechanical properties lessened or disappeared with age. Our study is the first to describe a Cx43 mutation in which osteopenia is caused by increased rather than decreased osteoblast function and where activation of osteoclasts occurs not only through increased mbRANKL but an increase in a matrix protein that affects bone resorption, which together abrogate age-related bone loss in older animals.
Related JoVE Video
Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: Additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-Effect on structure and mechanical properties.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (?1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ?1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming ?-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ? 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of radiation and surgery on healing of femoral fractures in a rat model.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Management of soft tissue sarcoma involves multimodality treatment, including surgery and radiotherapy. Pathologic fracture of the femur after such treatment in the thigh is one serious, late complication and nonunion rates of 80-90% are reported. We hypothesize that the combination of radiotherapy and periosteal stripping (during tumor resection) leads to greater impairment of the fracture repair process than either intervention alone. Female Wistar retired breeder rats were randomized into four treatment groups (control, radiotherapy, surgery, and combination of radiotherapy and surgery) and three end-points (21, 28, and 35 days post-fracture). Designated animals first underwent radiotherapy, followed by surgical stripping of the periosteum 3 weeks later and femoral fracture with fixation after another 3 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and fractures examined using microCT and histomorphometry. Simple transverse or short oblique femoral fractures were produced. By 35 days, control animals formed unions, periosteum-stripped animals formed hypertrophic non-unions and irradiated animals formed atrophic non-unions. Histomorphometry revealed an absence of chondroid and osteoid production in animals undergoing radiotherapy. The relative contribution of periosteal stripping to occurrence of non-union was statistically insignificant. Radiation prior to fracture reliably resulted in atrophic non-union in our model. The contribution of periosteal stripping was negligible.
Related JoVE Video
A review of phosphate mineral nucleation in biology and geobiology.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Relationships between geological phosphorite deposition and biological apatite nucleation have often been overlooked. However, similarities in biological apatite and phosphorite mineralogy suggest that their chemical formation mechanisms may be similar. This review serves to draw parallels between two newly described phosphorite mineralization processes, and proposes a similar novel mechanism for biologically controlled apatite mineral nucleation. This mechanism integrates polyphosphate biochemistry with crystal nucleation theory. Recently, the roles of polyphosphates in the nucleation of marine phosphorites were discovered. Marine bacteria and diatoms have been shown to store and concentrate inorganic phosphate (Pi) as amorphous, polyphosphate granules. Subsequent release of these P reserves into the local marine environment as Pi results in biologically induced phosphorite nucleation. Pi storage and release through an intracellular polyphosphate intermediate may also occur in mineralizing oral bacteria. Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates. Historically, biological apatite nucleation has been attributed to either a biochemical increase in local Pi concentration or matrix-mediated apatite nucleation control. This review proposes a mechanism that integrates both theories. Intracellular and extracellular amorphous granules, rich in both calcium and phosphorus, have been observed in apatite-biomineralizing vertebrates, protists, and atremate brachiopods. These granules may represent stores of calcium-polyphosphate. Not unlike phosphorite nucleation by bacteria and diatoms, polyphosphate depolymerization to Pi would be controlled by phosphatase activity. Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation.
Related JoVE Video
Solid freeform fabrication of porous calcium polyphosphate structures for bone substitute applications: in vivo studies.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures with 30 volume percent porosity and made by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) were implanted in rabbit femoral condyle sites for 6-wk periods. Two forms of SFF implants with different stacked layer orientation were made in view of prior studies reporting on anisotropic/orthotropic mechanical properties of structures so formed. In addition, porous CPP implants of equal volume percent porosity made by conventional sintering and machining methods were prepared. Bone ingrowth and in vivo degradation of the three different implant types were compared using back-scattered scanning electron microscopy (BS-SEM) of implant samples and quantitative analysis of the images. The results indicated bone ingrowth with all samples resulting in 30-40% fill of available porosity by bone within the 6-wk period. In the 6-wk in vivo period, approximately 7-9% loss of CPP by degradation had occurred.
Related JoVE Video
Annulus fibrosus cells can induce mineralization: an in vitro study.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is still no consensus as to whether the calcification observed in degenerate intervertebral discs (IVDs) is a cause or a consequence of disc degeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of rosiglitazone on bone quality in a rat model of insulin resistance and osteoporosis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rosiglitazone (RSG) is an insulin-sensitizing drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT) shows that women taking RSG experienced more fractures than patients taking other type 2 diabetes drugs. These were not osteoporotic vertebral fractures but, rather, occurred in the limbs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how RSG treatment alters bone quality, which leads to fracture risk, using the Zucker fatty rat as a model.
Related JoVE Video
The incorporation of a zone of calcified cartilage improves the interfacial shear strength between in vitro-formed cartilage and the underlying substrate.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major challenge for cartilage tissue engineering remains the proper integration of constructs with surrounding tissues in the joint. Biphasic osteochondral constructs that can be anchored in a joint through bone ingrowth partially address this requirement. In this study, a methodology was devised to generate a cell-mediated zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) between the in vitro-formed cartilage and a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute in an attempt to improve the mechanical integrity of that interface. To do so, a calcium phosphate (CaP) film was deposited on CPP by a sol-gel process to prevent the accumulation of polyphosphates and associated inhibition of mineralization as the substrate degrades. Cartilage formed in vitro on the top surface of CaP-coated CPP by deep-zone chondrocytes was histologically and biochemically comparable to that formed on uncoated CPP. Furthermore, the mineral in the ZCC was similar in crystal structure, morphology and length to that formed on uncoated CPP and native articular cartilage. The generation of a ZCC at the cartilage-CPP interface led to a 3.3-fold increase in the interfacial shear strength of biphasic constructs. Improved interfacial strength of these constructs may be critical to their clinical success for the repair of large cartilage defects.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluating the effects of mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic metastasis on vertebral bone quality in a new rat model.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spinal metastases often show mixed areas of enhanced (osteoblastic) bone growth adjacent to areas of thinning (osteolytic) bone. This study aims to quantitatively characterize bone quality and tumor burden within a new rat model of mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic spinal metastases. Mixed vertebral metastases were analyzed in nude rats 21-days post intracardiac injection of Ace-1 canine prostate cancer cells. Vertebral micro-architecture was assessed in µCT images. Histologic processing quantified tumor burden (PTHrP), osteoclast activity (TRAP), and osteoid formation (Goldners Trichrome) in ½ of all samples. Remaining samples were mechanically tested to failure in compression. Metastatically involved vertebrae exhibited extreme osteolysis, evident through an increase in osteoclasts leading to significantly reduced trabecular bone volume. Metastatically involved vertebrae also exhibited increased osteoid characteristic of osteoblastic lesions. While mechanical properties in tumor-bearing vertebrae were not significantly decreased compared to controls, a strong correlation was found between trabecular volumetric BMD and ultimate force. The highly aggressive Ace-1 skeletal metastases demonstrated predominant osteolysis with some areas of immature, new osteoblastic bone formation. Bone quality resulting from these lesions consisted of decreased structural properties, but without a significant impact on mechanical integrity.
Related JoVE Video
3BP2-deficient mice are osteoporotic with impaired osteoblast and osteoclast functions.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A fine balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts maintains bone homeostasis. In patients with cherubism, gain-of-function mutations in 3BP2, which is encoded by SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2), cause cystic lesions with activated osteoclasts that lead to craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the function of wild-type 3BP2 in regulating bone homeostasis. Here we have shown that 3BP2 is required for the normal function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Initial analysis showed that Sh3bp2-/-mice developed osteoporosis as a result of reduced bone formation despite the fact that bone resorption was impaired. We demonstrated using reciprocal bone marrow chimeras, a cell-intrinsic defect of the osteoblast and osteoclast compartments in vivo. Further, Sh3bp2-/- osteoblasts failed to mature and form mineralized nodules in vitro, while Sh3bp2-/- osteoclasts spread poorly and were unable to effectively degrade dentine matrix in vitro. Finally, we showed that 3BP2 was required for Abl activation in osteoblasts and Src activation in osteoclasts, and demonstrated that the in vitro defect of each cell type was restored by the respective expression of activated forms of these kinases. These findings reveal an unanticipated role for the 3BP2 adapter protein in osteoblast function and in coordinating bone homeostatic signals in both osteoclast and osteoblast lineages.
Related JoVE Video
Polyphosphates affect biological apatite nucleation.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While biological apatite (bone mineral) resorption is understood, from the perspective of crystallization theory, nucleation is not. The degree of saturation (?) describes the chemical driving force for mineral dissolution (? <1) or formation (? > 1). ? is the ratio of the ion activity product (IAP) of free apatite (available for reaction) component ion concentrations (predominately [Ca²?] and [PO¾?)] for apatite) and its solubility product (K(sp)). Free ion concentrations can be less than total ion concentrations if the ions form complexes, or if the ion speciation changes. Within the acidic bone resorption pit, free [PO¾?] is reduced due to speciation into H?PO??. This reduces IAP(bio-Ap), and ?(bio-Ap); at ?(bio-Ap) <1, apatite dissolves. Apatite nucleation requires ?(bio-Ap) >1, and bioaccumulation of molar total [Ca²?] and [PO¾?] to form the 60-70 weight percent mineral in bone tissue. This is possible with the polymerization of PO¾? into polyphosphate [polyP: (PO??)(n)] which reduces free [PO¾?] while leaving total [P] unchanged. polyP forms neutral complexes by chelation with Ca²?, which further reduces free [Ca²?] and ?(bio-Ap), yet total [Ca²?] is unchanged. In vitro experiments demonstrate reduction in free [Ca²?], free [PO¾?], and ?(bio-Ap) by Ca-polyP formation, while total [Ca²?] and total [P] are constant. polyP depolymerization restores free [Ca²?] and [PO¾?] to total [Ca] and [P], and increases ?(bio-Ap), favouring apatite nucleation.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic variation of fluoride responses between inbred strains of mice.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride (F) can lead to disturbances in bone homeostasis and dental enamel development. We have previously shown strain-specific responses to F in the development of dental fluorosis (DF) and in bone formation/mineralization. The current study was undertaken to further investigate F responsive variations in bone metabolism and to determine possible relationships with DF susceptibility. Seven-week-old male mice from FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ inbred strains were exposed to NaF (0 or 50 ppm as F(-)) in drinking water for 60 days. Sera were collected for F, Ca, Mg, PO(4), iPTH, sRANKL, and ALP levels. Bone marrow cells were subjected to ex vivo cell culture for osteoclast potential and CFU colony assays (CFU-fibroblast, CFU-osteoblast, CFU-erythrocyte/granulocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte, CFU-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte). Femurs and vertebrae were subjected to micro-CT analyses, biomechanical testing, and F, Mg, and Ca content assays. DF was evaluated using quantitative fluorescence and clinical criteria. Strain-specific responses to F were observed for DF, serum studies, ex vivo cell culture studies, and bone quality. Among the strains, there were no patterns or significant correlations between DF severity and the actions of F on bone homeostasis (serum studies, ex vivo assays, or bone quality parameters). The genetic background continues to play a role in the actions of F on tooth enamel development and bone homeostasis. F exposure led to variable phenotypic responses between strains involving dental enamel development and bone metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of candidate gene regions in the rat by co-localization of QTLs for bone density, size, structure and strength.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Susceptibility to osteoporotic fracture is influenced by genetic factors that can be dissected by whole-genome linkage analysis in experimental animal crosses. The aim of this study was to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for biomechanical and two-dimensional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) phenotypes in reciprocal F2 crosses between diabetic GK and normo-glycemic F344 rat strains and to identify possible co-localization with previously reported QTLs for bone size and structure. The biomechanical measurements of rat tibia included ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure while DXA was used to characterize tibial area, bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). F2 progeny (108 males, 98 females) were genotyped with 192 genome-wide markers followed by sex- and reciprocal cross-separated whole-genome QTL analyses. Significant QTLs were identified on chromosome 8 (tibial area; logarithm of odds (LOD)?=?4.7 and BMC; LOD?=?4.1) in males and on chromosome 1 (stiffness; LOD?=?5.5) in females. No QTLs showed significant sex-specific interactions. In contrast, significant cross-specific interactions were identified on chromosome 2 (aBMD; LOD?=?4.7) and chromosome 6 (BMC; LOD?=?4.8) for males carrying F344mtDNA, and on chromosome 15 (ultimate force; LOD?=?3.9) for males carrying GKmtDNA, confirming the effect of reciprocal cross on osteoporosis-related phenotypes. By combining identified QTLs for biomechanical-, size- and qualitative phenotypes (pQCT and 3D CT) from the same population, overlapping regions were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10. These are strong candidate regions in the search for genetic risk factors for osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
Chlorthalidone improves vertebral bone quality in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have bred a strain of rats to maximize urine (u) calcium (Ca) excretion and model hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. These genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats excrete more uCa than control Sprague-Dawley rats, uniformly form kidney stones, and similar to patients, demonstrate lower bone mineral density. Clinically, thiazide diuretics reduce uCa and prevent stone formation; however, whether they benefit bone is not clear. We used GHS rats to test the hypothesis that the thiazide diuretic chlorthalidone (CTD) would have a favorable effect on bone density and quality. Twenty GHS rats received a fixed amount of a 1.2% Ca diet, and half also were fed CTD (4 to 5 mg/kg/d). Rats fed CTD had a marked reduction in uCa. The axial and appendicular skeletons were studied. An increase in trabecular mineralization was observed with CTD compared with controls. CTD also improved the architecture of trabecular bone. Using micro-computed tomography (µCT), trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were increased with CTD. A significant increase in trabecular thickness with CTD was confirmed by static histomorphometry. CTD also improved the connectivity of trabecular bone. Significant improvements in vertebral strength and stiffness were measured by vertebral compression. Conversely, a slight loss of bending strength was detected in the femoral diaphysis with CTD. Thus results obtained in hypercalciuric rats suggest that CTD can favorably influence vertebral fracture risk. CTD did not alter formation parameters, suggesting that the improved vertebral bone strength was due to decreased bone resorption and retention of bone structure.
Related JoVE Video
Differential effects of PPAR-{gamma} activation versus chemical or genetic reduction of DPP-4 activity on bone quality in mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of fracture that can be further exacerbated by thiazolidinediones. A new class of antidiabetic agents control glucose through reduction of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity; however the importance of DPP-4 for the control of bone quality has not been extensively characterized. We compared the effects of the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone and the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on bone quality in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice. In complementary studies, we examined bone quality in Dpp4(+/+) vs. Dpp4(-/-) mice. Pioglitazone produced yellow bones with greater bone marrow adiposity and significantly reduced vertebral bone mechanics in male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) HFD fed female mice. Pioglitazone negatively affected vertebral volumetric bone mineral density, trabecular architecture, and mineral apposition rate in male mice. Sitagliptin treatment of HFD-fed wild-type mice significantly improved vertebral volumetric bone mineral density and trabecular architecture in female mice, but these improvements were lost in females after OVX. Genetic inactivation of Dpp4 did not produce a major bone phenotype in male and female Dpp4(-/-) mice; however, OVX Dpp4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced femoral size and mechanics. These findings delineate the skeletal consequences of pharmacological and genetic reduction of DPP-4 activity and reveal significant differences in the effects of pioglitazone vs. sitagliptin vs. genetic Dpp4 inactivation on bone mechanics in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Fracture surface analysis to understand the failure mechanisms of collagen degraded bone.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fracture surface analysis is a powerful technique to investigate bone failure mechanisms. Previously, emu tibiae were endocortically treated with 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution for 14 days. This treatment caused in situ collagen degradation rather than removal, with no differences in geometrical parameters, but with significant changes in mechanical properties. KOH-treated tibiae showed significant decreases in failure stress and increased failure strain and toughness. The fracture surfaces of untreated and 14-day KOH-treated failed specimens were examined to further identify differences in the failure process to explain the previously observed increase in toughness. Areas of tension, compression, and transition were identified using digital images of the fracture surfaces. Within these areas, the degree of roughness and smoothness was identified and estimated, using an optical profiler and SEM images. The fracture surfaces of 14-day KOH-treated bones showed a significantly higher roughness compared to untreated bones. Furthermore, additional toughening mechanisms, which are important features for dissipating energy during the failure process, were observed in KOH-treated samples, but were absent in untreated samples. These results indicate that the significant increase in toughness of KOH treated bones is the result of structural alterations that enhance the ability of the microstructure to dissipate energy during the failure process, thereby slowing crack propagation. Fracture surface analysis has helped explain why KOH-treated bones have increased toughness compared to untreated bones, namely via toughening mechanisms on the compressive failure side.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in bone fatigue resistance due to collagen degradation.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical tools for evaluating fracture risk, such as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS), focus on bone mineral and cannot detect changes in the collagen matrix that affect bone mechanical properties. However, the mechanical response tissue analyzer (MRTA) directly measures a whole bone mechanical property. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes in fatigue resistance after collagen degradation and to determine if clinical tools can detect changes in bone mechanical properties due to fatigue. Male and female emu tibiae were endocortically treated with 1?M KOH for 1-14 days and then either fatigued to failure or fatigued to induce stiffness loss without fracture. Partial fatigue testing caused a decrease in modulus measured by mechanical testing even when not treated with KOH, which was detected by MRTA. At high stresses, only KOH-treated samples had a lower fatigue resistance compared to untreated bones for both sexes. No differences were observed in fatigue behavior at low stresses for all groups. KOH treatment is hypothesized to have changed the collagen structure in situ and adversely affected the bone. Cyclic creep may be an important mechanism in the fast deterioration rate of KOH-treated bones, as creep is the major cause of fatigue failure for bones loaded at high stresses. Therefore, collagen degradation caused by KOH treatment may be responsible for the observed altered fatigue behavior at high stresses, since collagen is responsible for the creep behavior in bone.
Related JoVE Video
Calcification of cartilage formed in vitro on calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes is regulated by inorganic polyphosphate.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major challenge to the successful clinical application of bioengineered cartilage remains its integration to surrounding tissues upon implantation. One way to address this consists of generating biphasic constructs composed of articular cartilage formed in vitro on the top surface and integrated with the porous sub-surface of a bone substitute material - in the case of this study, calcium polyphosphate (CPP). To improve the mechanical integrity of the cartilage-bone substitute interface, attempts have been made to generate a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) within the CPP-cartilage interface, thereby mimicking the native joint architecture. The purpose of this work was to establish the effects of the degradation products of CPP on cartilage calcification in order to explain the observed positioning of a ZCC away from the interface junction. It was determined that polyphosphate released from the CPP accumulates within in vitro-grown cartilage and inhibits cartilage calcification in a concentration and chain length (i.e. molecular weight) dependent manner. It was found that this effect is transient as chondrocytes express exopolyphosphatases which hydrolyze polyphosphate to release orthophosphate. Hence, the generation of biphasic constructs with a properly located ZCC will require tailoring of CPP substrates with lower degradation rates or the upregulation of exopolyphosphatases by chondrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Control of vertebrate skeletal mineralization by polyphosphates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO(3)(-))(n)) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats have a primary decrease in BMD and strength.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kidney stone patients often have a decrease in BMD. It is unclear if reduced BMD is caused by a primary disorder of bone or dietary factors. To study the independent effects of hypercalciuria on bone, we used genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. GHS and control (Ctl) rats were fed a low Ca (0.02% Ca, LCD) or a high Ca (1.2% Ca, HCD) diet for 6 wk in metabolic cages. All comparisons are to Ctl rats. Urine Ca was greater in the GHS rats on both diets. GHS fed HCD had reduced cortical (humerus) and trabecular (L(1)-L(5) vertebrae) BMD, whereas GHS rats fed LCD had a reduction in BMD similar to Ctl. GHS rats fed HCD had a decrease in trabecular volume and thickness, whereas LCD led to a approximately 20-fold increase in both osteoid surface and volume. GHS rats fed HCD had no change in vertebral strength (failure stress), ductibility (failure strain), stiffness (modulus), or toughness, whereas in the humerus, there was reduced ductibility and toughness and an increase in modulus, indicating that the defect in mechanical properties is mainly manifested in cortical, rather than trabecular, bone. GHS rat cortical bone is more mineralized than trabecular bone and LCD led to a decrease in the mineralization profile. Thus, the GHS rats, fed an ample Ca diet, have reduced BMD with reduced trabecular volume, mineralized volume, and thickness, and their bones are more brittle and fracture prone, indicating that GHS rats have an intrinsic disorder of bone that is not secondary to diet.
Related JoVE Video
Measuring and interpreting age-related loss of vertebral bone mineral density in a medieval population.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates the age- and sex-related patterns in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and the relationship between BMD and vertebral osteophytosis (VO), using a specialized peripheral densitometer in a skeletal sample excavated from the British medieval village Wharram Percy. A total of 58 individuals were divided by sex into three broad age categories (18-29, 30-49, 50+ years.). Each fourth intact vertebral centra was scored for VO and 5-mm thick coronal sections scanned in a specialized peripheral densitometer (GE Lunar Piximus DXA). Changes in BMD associated with age, sex, and VO severity were examined in the whole vertebral section, a strictly trabecular region, and a primarily cortical region of bone separately. Significant change in vertebral BMD was found to occur by middle age with little or no statistical change in BMD between middle and old age. Females appear to suffer greater bone loss at an earlier age with no change in BMD between middle and old age, whereas males show a more steady loss of BMD across the age groups. The bone mineral content and BMD of the cortical region is higher in individuals with pronounced/severe osteophytosis. The unusual age- and sex-related patterns of change in vertebral BMD at Wharram Percy are compared with the patterns of age-related change from recent longitudinal population-based studies. The results emphasize the different pattern of bone loss in young adulthood seen in trabecular regions of the skeleton and highlight the importance of consideration of degenerative joint disease in BMD studies. The influence of lifestyle factors on vertebral BMD in this medieval population is also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Parental diabetes: the Akita mouse as a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maternal diabetes and high-fat feeding during pregnancy have been linked to later life outcomes in offspring. To investigate the effects of both maternal and paternal hyperglycemia on offspring phenotypes, we utilized an autosomal dominant mouse model of diabetes (hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia in Akita mice). We determined metabolic and skeletal phenotypes in wildtype offspring of Akita mothers and fathers.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro non-enzymatic ribation reduces post-yield strain accommodation in cortical bone.
Bone
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to bone fragility in various diseases, ageing, and other conditions by modifying bone collagen and causing degraded mechanical properties. In this study, we sought to further understand how collagen modification in an in vitro non-enzymatic ribation model leads to loss of cortical bone toughness. Previous in vitro studies using non-enzymatic ribation reported loss of ductility in the cortical bone. Increased crosslinking is most commonly blamed for these changes; however, some studies report positive correlations between measures of total collagen crosslinking and work-to-fracture/toughness measurements whilst correlations between general NEG and measures of ductility are often negative. Fifteen bone beam triplets were cut from bovine metatarsi. Each provided one native non-incubated control, one incubated control and one ribated specimen. Incubation involved simulated body fluid±ribose for fourteen days at 37°C. Pentosidine and pyridinoline crosslinks were measured using HPLC. Three-point bending tests quantified mechanical properties. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of ribation on bone collagen molecular stability and intermolecular connectivity were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and hydrothermal isometric tension testing. Ribation caused increased non-enzymatic collagen modification and pentosidine content (16mmol/mol collagen) and inferior post-yield mechanical behaviour, especially post-yield strain and flexural toughness. Fracture surfaces were smoother with less collagen fibril deformation or tearing than observed in controls. In the ribated group only, pentosidine content and thermomechanical measures of crosslinking were positively correlated with measures of strain accommodation and energy absorption before failure. Non-enzymatic ribation and the resulting modifications reduce cortical bone pseudo-plasticity through a reduced capacity for post-yield strain accommodation. However, the positive correlations we have found suggest that increased crosslinking may not provide a complete explanation for this embrittlement.
Related JoVE Video
Porous calcium polyphosphate as load-bearing bone substitutes: in vivo study.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) is being investigated for fabrication of novel biodegradable bone substitutes. In this study, porous CPP implants formed by conventional CPP powder packing and using a two-step sinter/anneal process was used to form 20 and 30 vol % porous samples displaying relatively high strength. These were implanted in rabbit femoral condyle sites to study their ability for secure fixation in prepared sites through bone ingrowth. Porous implants of 20 and 30 vol % porosity and displaying compressive strengths ~80 and 35 MPa, respectively, were used. Bone ingrowth sufficient to allow secure implant fixation was observed by 6 weeks (~19% bone ingrowth per available pore space for the 30 vol % and 13% for the 20 vol % porous implants). The results of the in vivo study suggest the potential usefulness of porous CPP as biodegradable bone substitutes/augments in high load-bearing skeletal regions.
Related JoVE Video
A 3D scanning confocal imaging method measures pit volume and captures the role of Rac in osteoclast function.
Bone
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Modulation of Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 impacts bone development, remodeling, and disease. In addition, GTPases are considered treatment targets for dysplastic and erosive bone diseases including Neurofibromatosis type 1. While it is important to understand the effects of Rac modulation on osteoclast function, two-dimensional resorption pit area measurements fall short in elucidating the volume aspect of bone resorption activity. Bone marrow from wild-type, Rac1 and Rac2 null mice was isolated from femora. Osteoclastogenesis was induced by adding M-CSF and RANKL in culture plates containing dentin slices and later stained with Picro Sirius Red to image resorption lacunae. Osteoclasts were also plated on glass cover slips and stained with phalloidin and DAPI to measure their surface area and the number of nuclei. Volumetric images were collected on a laser-scanning confocal system. Sirius Red confocal imaging provided an unambiguous, continuous definition of the pit boundary compared to reflected and transmitted light imaging. Rac1- and Rac2-deficient osteoclasts had fewer nuclei in comparison to wild-type counterparts. Rac1-deficient osteoclasts showed reduced resorption pit volume and surface area. Lacunae made by single Rac2 null osteoclasts had reduced volume but surprisingly surface area was unaffected. Surface area measures are deceiving since volume changed independently in resorption pits made by individual Rac2 null osteoclasts. Our innovative confocal imaging technique allows us to derive novel conclusions about Rac1 and Rac2 in osteoclast function. The data and method can be applied to study effects of genes and drugs including Rho GTPase modulators on osteoclast function and to develop pharmacotherapeutics to treat bone lytic disorders.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.