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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Care for patients with rare diseases].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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A rare disease usually concerns only a handful of patients, but all patients with a rare disease combined represent a significant health burden. Due to limited knowledge and the absence of treatment guidelines, patients with rare diseases usually experience delayed diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. Historically, rare diseases have never been considered a major health problem. However, rare diseases have recently been receiving increased attention. In the Netherlands, a national plan for rare diseases was published in late 2013, with recommendations on how to improve the organisation of healthcare for people with rare diseases. Using the example of the rare disease Fanconi anemia, this paper describes the challenges and opportunities in organising healthcare for rare diseases. Two critical steps in optimising healthcare for rare diseases are developing multidisciplinary healthcare teams and stimulating patient empowerment. Optimal cooperation between patients, patient organisations, multidisciplinary healthcare teams and scientists is of great importance. In this respect, transition to adult healthcare requires special attention.
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High-resolution CT can differentiate between alloimmune and nonalloimmune lung disease early after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop a simple semiquantitative high-resolution CT (HRCT) scoring system to differentiate alloimmune-mediated lung syndromes (allo-LS) from other lung diseases early after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Allo-LS should be differentiated from other abnormalities, such as infections and toxicity, because they are life threatening and require prompt and specific treatment.
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Ribosomal protein mutations induce autophagy through S6 kinase inhibition of the insulin pathway.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies.
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Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program: Quality of Life in Motion.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation were investigated.
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A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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This study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) in intensification after receiving native E coli asparaginase in induction. In case of allergy to or silent inactivation of PEGasparaginase, Erwinia asparaginase (20?000 IU/m(2) 2-3 times weekly) was given. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in the PEGasparaginase study. Twenty (22%) of the PEGasparaginase-treated patients developed an allergy; 7 (8%) showed silent inactivation. The PEGasparaginase level was 0 in all allergic patients (grade 1-4). Patients without hypersensitivity to PEGasparaginase had serum mean trough levels of 899 U/L. Fifty-nine patients were included in the Erwinia asparaginase study; 2 (3%) developed an allergy and none silent inactivation. Ninety-six percent had at least 1 trough level ?100 U/L. The serum asparagine level was not always completely depleted with Erwinia asparaginase in contrast to PEGasparaginase. The presence of asparaginase antibodies was related to allergies and silent inactivation, but with low specificity (64%). Use of native E coli asparaginase in induction leads to high hypersensitivity rates to PEGasparaginase in intensification. Therefore, PEGasparaginase should be used upfront in induction, and we suggest that the dose could be lowered. Switching to Erwinia asparaginase leads to effective asparaginase levels in most patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been added to our ALL-11 protocol to individualize asparaginase therapy.
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Differential effects of nitrostyrene derivatives on myelopoiesis involve regulation of C/EBP? and p38MAPK activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bone marrow failure syndromes and MDS represent a heterogenous group of diseases, characterized by ineffective myelopoiesis, the risk of clonal evolution and a generally poor response to chemotherapy-based treatment regimen. Nitrostyrene derivatives have been studied as protein phosphatase inhibitors in various tumor models. Pharmacological studies have identified nitrostyrene as the structural core underlying a pro-apoptotic effect in tumor cells, yet their effects on normal cells, including those of the hematopoietic system, are largely unknown. In this study, utilizing umbilical cord blood-derived myeloid progenitor cells, patient-derived bone marrow cells, and a (BALB/c) mouse model; we investigated the effects of treatment with two nitrostyrene derivatives (NTS1 and NTS2) on myeloid development. We demonstrate that these compounds stimulate the expansion and differentiation of myeloid progenitors in vitro and improve myeloid reconstitution after chemotherapy-induced bone marrow depletion in vitro and in vivo. These effects were accompanied by increased C/EBP? expression and activity and inhibition of the p38MAPK signalling pathway. Together, our data suggest that nitrostyrenes improve myelopoiesis and represent potential new treatment strategies for patients suffering from bone marrow failure syndromes, hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome and chemotherapy-induced aplasia.
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Impact of thymoglobulin prior to pediatric unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation on immune reconstitution and clinical outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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In vivo T-cell depletion might contribute to the delayed immune reconstitution observed after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We studied the impact of early, late, and no antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on immune reconstitution and outcome. One hundred twenty seven children receiving UCBT in London or Utrecht were divided into 3 groups: early ATG (days -9 to -5; n = 33), late ATG (days -5 to 0; n = 48), and no ATG (n = 46). The no-ATG group received mycophenolate mofetile + cyclosporin A as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, while the ATG groups received cyclosporin A + prednisone. End points studied were survival, immune recovery, infections, and GVHD. The probability of survival was similar in all groups: no ATG, 71% ± 8%; early ATG, 68% ± 9%; and late ATG, 61% ± 7%. CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD4(+)-naive T-cell counts were significantly higher (P < .001) in the no-ATG group at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post-UCBT. In the no-ATG group, significantly fewer viral reactivations (P = .021) were noted. A higher probability of severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; 31%) was found in the no-ATG group compared with 18% (P = .018) for early-ATG and 5% (P < .001) for late-ATG groups. This was not associated with more chronic GVHD (cGVHD).
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Effects of exercise on immune function in patients with cancer: a systematic review.
Exerc Immunol Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The role of exercise therapy in the rehabilitation of cancer patients and survivors is becoming increasingly important as it is thought to modulate immunity and inflammation. More knowledge about the effects of exercise on immune function in these patients is needed. Our aim is to systematically review changes in immune parameters after acute and chronic exercise in cancer patients.
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Whole-body MRI vs. CT for staging lymphoma: Patient experience.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To assess and compare patient experience of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to that of computed tomography (CT) for staging newly diagnosed lymphoma.
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Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Efficacy and safety of recombinant E. coli-asparaginase in infants (less than one year of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of a new recombinant E. coli-asparaginase preparation were evaluated in infants (<1 year of age) with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Twelve patients were treated according to the INTERFANT-06 protocol and received up to 10,000 U/m(2) recombinant asparaginase as intravenous infusions on days 15, 18, 22, 25, 29 and 33 of remission induction treatment. The asparaginase dose was individually adjusted by protocol to 67% of the calculated dose for infants <6 months, and to 75% of the calculated dose for infants aged 6-12 months. The trough serum asparaginase activities observed were above 20, 50, and 100 U/L in 86%, 71%, and 51% of measured samples, respectively. Looking only at the data assessed 3 days after asparaginase infusion these percentages were 91%, 84%, and 74%, respectively. Asparagine was completely depleted in serum in all but one patient who was the youngest in the study. No anti-asparaginase antibodies were detected during this treatment phase. Observed adverse reactions are known to be possible and are labeled side effects of asparaginase treatment and chemotherapy. We conclude that the asparaginase dose regimen used in infants is safe and provides complete asparagine depletion for the desired time period in nearly all patients. Measured asparaginase trough serum levels justify the higher doses used in infants compared to in older children and show that 3-day intervals are preferred over 4-day intervals. (This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu as EudraCT number 2008-006300-27).
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Adequate endocrine and cardiovascular response to social stress in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Survivors of childhood ALL have been demonstrated to have increased morning cortisol levels compared to healthy controls. Information regarding the response of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system to stress in childhood ALL survivors is not available. The present study aimed at assessing the endocrine and cardiovascular stress response in childhood ALL survivors and healthy controls by evaluating perceived stress on visual analog scales, by determining saliva cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Fifty survivors who had completed their treatment for childhood ALL 57 (IQR 47.0-72.3) months before and 50 healthy age and sex matched controls were included. Exposure to the TSST-C induced a significant response of perceived stress, saliva cortisol and cardiovascular outcome variables in the total study group. These responses did not significantly differ between survivors of childhood ALL and healthy controls. We conclude that the endocrine and cardiovascular response to social stress are intact in survivors of childhood ALL.
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Hemorrhagic cystitis in a cohort of pediatric transplantations: incidence, treatment, outcome, and risk factors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) can be a severe complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To identify risk factors and etiology and to improve treatment, a number of factors were analyzed retrospectively in a cohort of 74 consecutive pediatric HSCTs between 2007 and 2009 in a single institution. The 74 transplantations were done in 67 children. Potential risk factors for HC were age, gender, underlying disease, ablative conditioning, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, unrelated donor, stem cell source, conditioning regime, acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus reactivation. Fourteen patients developed HC (19%). In all but 4 cases (71%), HC appeared after engraftment. Severity was assessed as grade 1 in 1, grade 2 in 8, and grade 3 in 5 cases. In 79% of the patients with HC, urine samples showed BK virus. This may provide guidance for future prevention policies. In 11 children, treatment included forced hydration, spasmolytics, and bladder irrigation. Three children required cystoscopy, intravesical therapy and/or antiviral therapy. Statistical analysis revealed age over six years to be a risk factor for the development of HC. We conclude that current conditioning regimens lead to a still considerable incidence of HC in pediatric HSCT, necessitating the evaluation of screening protocols and preventive measures.
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Antibody therapy of pediatric B-cell lymphoma.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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B-cell lymphoma in children accounts for about 10% of all pediatric malignancies. Chemotherapy has been very successful leading to an over-all 5-year survival between 80 and 90% depending on lymphoma type and extent of disease. Therapeutic toxicity remains high calling for better targeted and thus less toxic therapies. Therapeutic antibodies have become a standard element of B-cell lymphoma therapy in adults. Clinical experience in pediatric lymphoma patients is still very limited. This review outlines the rationale for antibody treatment of B-cell lymphomas in children and describes potential target structures on B-cell lymphoma cells. It summarizes the clinical experience of antibody therapy of B-cell lymphoma in children and gives an outlook on new developments and challenges for antibody therapy of pediatric B-cell lymphoma.
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Selection of perforin expressing CD4+ adenovirus-specific T-cells with artificial antigen presenting cells.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Adenoviruses (HAdV) can cause life threatening infections, especially in paediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Yet, no effective antiviral medication is available. One treatment option is adoptive transfer of HAdV-specific T-cells from the graft donor into the patient. Especially CD4+ T-cells are critical to control HAdV infection. To allow for applicability of CD4+ T-cells in adoptive therapy, sufficient numbers of HAdV-specific T-cells with low levels of residual alloreactive T-cells are required. In this study, we explored the possibility to selectively expand and isolate functional HAdV-specific T-cells from PBMCs in response to 15-mer peptides using artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs), composed of liposomes harbouring HAdV-peptide/HLA-Class-II complexes. HAdV-specific T-cells generated using this method produce mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines, express perforin and granzyme B, kill HAdV-infected cells effectively and are not alloreactive. Thus, the generation and isolation of HAdV-specific CD4+ T-cells seem a critical step towards specific adoptive therapy for HAdV infections after allogeneic SCT.
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Atypical timing and presentation of periventricular haemorrhagic infarction in preterm infants: the role of thrombophilia.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) is a complication of preterm birth associated with cardiorespiratory instability. To date, the role of thrombophilia as a possible additional risk factor in infants with atypical timing and presentation of PVHI has not been investigated.
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Pulmonary aspergillosis caused by a pan-azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in a 10-year-old boy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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A 10-year-old boy with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation developed pulmonary aspergillosis while receiving prophylactic voriconazole. A transpleural aspirate culture revealed a pan-azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B resulted in complete recovery. As the frequency of azole resistance in A. fumigatus increases, invasive procedures to isolate fungi for species identification and susceptibility testing becomes even more important.
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MRI for staging lymphoma: whole-body or less?
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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To assess whether whole-body MRI detects more clinically relevant lesions (i.e., leading to a change in Ann Arbor stage) than an MRI protocol that only includes the head/neck and trunk (i.e., from cranial vertex to groin, excluding the arms) in patients with lymphoma.
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Impact of treatment reduction for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on serum immunoglobulins and antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The consequences of current intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for immune defense are a matter of concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced compared with intensive (conventional) ALL chemotherapy on serum immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody concentrations against vaccine-preventable diseases.
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Impact of reduced chemotherapy treatment for good risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on infectious morbidity*.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Reducing infectious morbidity is an important goal to improve childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survival. To explore the impact of chemotherapy reduction on infectious morbidity, we compared outpatient and inpatient infectious morbidity of reduced versus intensive (conventional) chemotherapy. One hundred and seventy-one children newly diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2007 and treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol were prospectively followed during the 2-year treatment course. Stratified by minimal residual disease, 54 patients received reduced (standard risk; SR) and 117 patients received intensive (medium risk; MR) intensification/maintenance treatment. SR outpatients had a median of 1 febrile episode versus 4 in MR outpatients (P=0·002). SR patients had fewer hospitalizations for fever. They were admitted a median of 0 times, with a median of 0days of hospitalization, median 0days of fever, median 0 times chemotherapy interruption and median 0 times intravenous antibiotics. MR patients were admitted for fever median 2 times (P<0·001) with 10days of hospitalization (P<0·001), 2days of fever (P<0·001), one chemotherapy interruption (P<0·001) and two intravenous antibiotics administration (P<0·001). These data indicate that reduced intensification/maintenance compared to conventional intensive intensification/maintenance chemotherapy for good risk childhood ALL resulted in major decrease of infectious morbidity.
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Immune reconstitution in children following chemotherapy for haematological malignancies: a long-term follow-up.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2010
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Modern intensive chemotherapy for childhood haematological malignancies has led to high cure rates, but has detrimental effects on the immune system. There is little knowledge concerning long-term recovery of the adaptive immune system. Here we studied the long-term reconstitution of the adaptive immune system in 31 children treated for haematological malignancies between July 2000 and October 2006. We performed detailed phenotypical and functional analyses of the various B and T cell subpopulations until 5 years after chemotherapy. We show that recovery of newly-developed transitional B cells and naive B and T cells occurred rapidly, within months, whereas recovery of the different memory B and T cell subpopulations was slower and incomplete, even after 5 years post-chemotherapy. The speed of B and T cell recovery was age-independent, despite a significant contribution of the thymus to T cell recovery. Plasmablast B cell levels remained above normal and immunoglobulin levels normalised within 1 week. Functional T cell responses were normal, even within the first year post-chemotherapy. This study shows that after intensive chemotherapy for haematological malignancies in children, numbers of several memory B and T cell subpopulations were decreased on the long term, while functional T cell responses were not compromised.
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Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a childs physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a childs wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective.
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Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed.
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Protein kinase B (PKB/c-akt) regulates homing of hematopoietic progenitors through modulation of their adhesive and migratory properties.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Limited number of hematopoietic stem cells in umbilical cord blood (UCB) presents a problem when using UCB for stem cell transplantation. Improving their homing capacity could reduce the need for high initial cell numbers during transplantation procedures. Although it is evident that protein kinase B (PKB/c-Akt) plays an important role in regulation of migration of various cell types, a role for PKB in regulation of migration and homing of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remains to be determined. PKB activity was found to be required for induction of adhesion to bone marrow-derived stromal cells and detrimental for migration of UCB-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors. In addition, PKB activity was found to positively regulate integrin expression. CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors, and their capacity to form colonies in vitro, were not affected by transient inhibition of PKB. Finally, transplantation of ?2-microglobulin(-/-) nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice with CD34(+) cells ectopically expressing constitutively active PKB resulted in reduced migration to the bone marrow, whereas inhibition of PKB activity resulted in an induction in bone marrow homing and engraftment. These results indicate that transient inhibition of PKB activity may provide a means for ex vivo stem cell manipulation to improve bone marrow transplantation regimes.
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A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Survival of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved considerably over the past decades. Since 1985, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is widely recommended for patients who have a matched sibling donor. However, it remains controversial whether allo-SCT is superior to chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed AML. This review summarizes phase 3 clinical trials that compared allo-SCT with chemotherapy (including autologous SCT) in pediatric AML, excluding studies that did not use the intention-to-treat analysis or correct for time-to-transplantation. Although allo-SCT might prevent more relapses than chemotherapy, the number needed for transplantation (with allo-SCT) to prevent one relapse is in the order of 10 patients. Moreover, overall survival is similar with both methods in most recent studies, apparently because of increased salvagability of a relapse when initial therapy concerned chemotherapy only, and because of a higher treatment-related mortality with allo-SCT. Because allo-SCT also gives more severe side effects and results more often in secondary malignancies than chemotherapy, we do not recommend allo-SCT in first remission for pediatric AML in general. Further research should focus on the possibility that subgroups might benefit from allo-SCT, aiming at further improvements in the prognosis of pediatric AML.
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Reduced versus intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact on lymphocyte compartment composition.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia may cause severe immune damage. The lymphocyte compartment of 140 patients during and after a new strongly reduced (standard risk (SR), n=43) and intensive chemotherapy regimen (medium risk (MR), n=97) was studied between 2006 and 2009. Transitional and naive B cells and IgG(+)/A(+), IgM(+) and IgM only memory B cells were significantly reduced during chemotherapy; significantly more in MR group. One year after treatment CD27(+)IgG(+)/A(+), IgM(+) and IgM only memory B cells had still not fully recovered, but this was not confined to the MR group. The T cell compartment was less but also significantly affected during chemotherapy and recovered to normal levels. In the MR group, NK cells had not fully recovered to normal levels 1 year after treatment. Thus, intensive chemotherapy regimens cause severe, mainly B cell memory damage that persists even 1 year after treatment.
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ADC measurements in the evaluation of lymph nodes in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: feasibility study.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements allow discrimination of normal lymph nodes from lymphomatous lymph nodes, and indolent lymphomas from aggressive lymphomas in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
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Different cytokine signatures in children with localized and invasive adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2010
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HAdV infection is a dangerous complication after pediatric SCT. In this study, we aimed at determining the cytokine profile in plasma samples in case of HAdV infection after SCT to gain more knowledge about the HAdV-specific immune response. In this prospective study, 47 pediatric SCT recipients were included in three yr. By using particle-based MIA, 17 different cytokines were analyzed in 41 plasma samples of patients with a localized HAdV infection (presence of HAdV in feces, urine or throat detected by culture) and patients with invasive HAdV infection (HAdV viremia in blood, detected by PCR). In patients with invasive HAdV infection, but not in patients with localized HAdV infection, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1beta, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and also IL17, MIP1alpha, OSM, and IP10 were produced. The simultaneous release of the cytokines IL1beta, IL17, IL18, OSM, MIP1alpha, and IP10 was related to invasive HAdV infections. We also show that cytokine signatures can be helpful to differentiate invasive HAdV infection from GvHD and EBV infections. In conclusion, after SCT, children with invasive HAdV infection have a different cytokine profile compared with patients with a localized HAdV infection.
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Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates cell fate decisions during myeloid differentiation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The clinical use of chromatin-modulating drugs, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, for the treatment of bone marrow failure and hematopoietic malignancies has increased dramatically over the last few years. Nonetheless, little is currently known concerning their effects on myelopoiesis.
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Strong association between respiratory viral infection early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the development of life-threatening acute and chronic alloimmune lung syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Alloimmune lung syndromes (allo-LS), including idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, are severe complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In our cohort of 110 pediatric patients, 30 had allo-LS (27.3%), 18 with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and 12 with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory viral infection early after HSCT is an important predictor for the development of allo-LS (P <.0001). This was true for all viruses tested. In multivariate analysis, allo-LS was the only predictor for higher mortality (P = .04). Paradoxically, prolonged administration of immunosuppressive agents because of acute graft-versus-host disease had a protective effect on the development of allo-LS (P = .004). We hypothesize that early infection of the respiratory tract with a common cold virus makes the lungs a target for alloimmunity.
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Erythrocytosis associated with a novel missense mutation in the HIF2A gene.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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The ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene is regulated by the transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-alpha (HIF-alpha). In this pathway, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 2 (PHD2) hydroxylates two prolyl residues in HIF-alpha, which in turn promotes HIF-alpha degradation by the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein. Evidence that HIF-2alpha is the important isoform for EPO regulation in humans comes from the recent observation that mutations in the HIF2A gene are associated with cases of erythrocytosis. We report here a new erythrocytosis-associated mutation, p.Asp539Glu, in the HIF2A gene. Similar to all reported cases, the affected residue is in close vicinity and C-terminal to the primary hydroxylation site in HIF-2alpha, Pro531. This mutation, however, is notable in producing a rather subtle amino acid substitution. Nonetheless, we find that this mutation compromises binding of HIF-2alpha to both PHD2 and VHL, and we propose that this mutation is the cause of erythrocytosis in this individual.
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Adenovirus DNA positivity in nasopharyngeal aspirate preceding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a very strong risk factor for adenovirus DNAemia in pediatric patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Human adenovirus (HAdV)-positive nasopharyngeal aspirate preceding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was prospectively analyzed in 62 patients. By multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, HAdV-positive nasopharyngeal aspirate was the only predictor for HAdV DNAemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P < .001). HAdV DNAemia was a predictor for alloreactive disease. Early detection and intervention might help to prevent HAdV disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, for the initial staging of malignant lymphoma: comparison to computed tomography.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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To assess the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), for the initial staging of malignant lymphoma, compared with computed tomography (CT).
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p38 MAP kinase inhibits neutrophil development through phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha on serine 21.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Many extracellular stimuli regulate growth, survival, and differentiation responses through activation of the dual specificity mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase three (MKK3) and its downstream effector p38 MAPK. Using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, here we describe a novel role for MKK3-p38MAPK in the regulation of myelopoiesis. Inhibition of p38MAPK utilizing the pharmacological inhibitor SB203580, enhanced neutrophil development ex vivo, but conversely reduced eosinophil differentiation. In contrast, constitutive activation of MKK3 dramatically inhibited neutrophil differentiation. Transplantation of beta2-microglobulin(-/-) nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune deficient (NOD/SCID) mice with CD34+ cells ectopically expressing constitutively active MKK3 resulted in reduced neutrophil differentiation in vivo, whereas eosinophil development was enhanced. Inhibitory phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) on serine 21 was induced upon activation of p38MAPK. Moreover, ectopic expression of a non-phosphorylatable C/EBPalpha mutant was sufficient to abrogate MKK3-induced inhibition of neutrophil development. Furthermore, treatment of CD34+ progenitors from patients with severe congenital neutropenia with SB203580 restored neutrophil development. These results establish a novel role for MKK3-p38MAPK in the regulation of lineage choices during myelopoiesis through modulation of C/EBPalpha activity. This signaling module may thus provide an important therapeutic target in the treatment of bone marrow failure.
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Development, feasibility and efficacy of a community-based exercise training program in pediatric cancer survivors.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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The aim of this study was to develop a 12-week exercise training program (comprising aerobic and strength exercises), and to study the feasibility and efficacy of this exercise program in children who survived acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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Association between busulfan exposure and outcome in children receiving intravenous busulfan before hematologic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Busulfan, combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing, is associated with higher event-free survival (EFS) rates due to fewer graft failures/relapses and lower toxicity. The optimal target area under the curve (AUC) and dosing schedule of intravenous busulfan in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain unclear, however. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the association between busulfan exposure and clinical outcome in 102 children age 0.2 to 21 years who received busulfan 1 or 4 times daily before undergoing HSCT (46 malignant and 56 nonmalignant indications). EFS and overall survival after a median of 2 years of follow-up were 68% and 72%, respectively. EFS was optimal when the exposure of busulfan (AUC) was 78 mg x h/L (95% confidence interval=74 to 82 mg x h/L). Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II-IV occurred more frequently with greater busulfan exposure. The addition of melphalan was an independent risk factor; melphalan use combined with high busulfan exposure (AUC >74 mg x h/L) was associated with high incidences of aGVHD (58%), veno-occlusive disease (66%), and mucositis grade III-IV (26%). Dosing frequency (1 or 4 times daily) was not related to any outcome. In conclusion, dose targeting of busulfan to a narrow therapeutic range was found to increase EFS in children. Adding melphalan to optimal busulfan exposure is associated with a high incidence of toxicity.
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High incidence of symptomatic hyperammonemia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving pegylated asparaginase.
JIMD Rep
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Asparaginase is a mainstay of treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pegylation of asparaginase extends its biological half-life and has been introduced in the newest treatment protocols aiming to further increase treatment success. Hyperammonemia is a recognized side effect of asparaginase treatment, but little is known about its incidence and clinical relevance. Alerted by a patient with severe hyperammonemia after introduction of the new acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocol, we analyzed blood samples and clinical data of eight consecutive patients receiving pegylated asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) during their treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients showed hyperammonemia (>50 ?mol/L) and seven patients (88 %) showed ammonia concentrations > 100 ?mol/L. Maximum ammonia concentrations ranged from 89 to 400 ?mol/L. Symptoms varied from mild anorexia and nausea to headache, vomiting, dizziness, and lethargy and led to early interruption of PEG-asparaginase in three patients. No evidence of urea cycle malfunction was found, so overproduction of ammonia through hydrolysis of plasma asparagine and glutamine seems to be the main cause. Interestingly, ammonia concentrations correlated with triglyceride values (r = 0.68, p < 0.0001), suggesting increased overall toxicity.The prolonged half-life of PEG-asparaginase may be responsible for the high incidence of hyperammonemia and warrants future studies to define optimal dosing schedules based on ammonia concentrations and individual asparagine and asparaginase measurements.
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Valproic acid treatment is associated with altered leukocyte subset development.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
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Valproic acid (VPA) has been used for decades in the treatment of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, and the long-term use of VPA is regularly accompanied by hematological toxicity, including neutropenia. More recently, it has been demonstrated that VPA can be used as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) for the treatment of hematological malignancies. In order to determine the specific effects of VPA in both hematological malignancies and normal hematopoiesis, recent studies have demonstrated that VPA treatment affects the differentiation of normal myeloid progenitors in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that in a large patient population treated for neurological or psychiatric disorders, VPA treatment affects neutrophil as well as lymphocyte subset counts.
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Highly variable plasma concentrations of voriconazole in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Invasive fungal infections are of great concern in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Voriconazole is usually the drug of first choice for treating or preventing invasive aspergillosis. Optimum trough levels (C(trough)s) are between 1 and 5 mg/liter. It is unclear whether these levels are reached with currently advised pediatric dosing schedules. Between 2007 and 2011, 11 patients <2 years of age, 31 between 2 and 12 years, and 20 between 12 and 20 years were (prophylactically or therapeutically) treated with voriconazole in the HSCT unit of UMC Utrecht. For children <2 years of age, the dosage recommended for 2 to 12 years was used. In 34% of children who started with the recommended dose, an adequate C(trough) was reached irrespective of age or administration route. After therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-based dose adjustments, adequate C(trough)s were reached in 80% of the patients at median doses of 31.5 (age, <2 years), 16 (age, 2 to 12 years), and 9.4 mg/kg of body weight/day (age, >12 years) (P = 0.034). The intrapatient variability in C(trough) ranged between 1 and 238%. Voriconazole was discontinued in six patients due to toxicity. These patients had a median C(trough) of 0.5 mg/liter at the initial dose (ranging from 0.5 to 2.6 mg/liter), and a medium maximal concentration of 4 mg/liter was reached. Inter- and intrapatient variability is a major concern in voriconazole treatment and necessitates therapeutic drug monitoring of dosing, especially in young children.
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Predictive performance of a busulfan pharmacokinetic model in children and young adults.
Ther Drug Monit
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Recently a pediatric pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed for busulfan to explain the wide variability in PK of busulfan in children, as this variability is known to influence the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in terms of toxicity and event free survival. This study assesses the predictive performance of this busulfan PK model in a new, more diverse pediatric population, including data from patients with different underlying diseases, ethnicities, body weights, ages, and body mass indices, from 5 international pediatric transplant centers.
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Sleep, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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With the improved survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the effect of treatment on psychosocial well-being becomes increasingly relevant. Literature on sleep and fatigue during treatment is emerging. However, information on these subjects after treatment is sparse. This cross-sectional study examined sleep and fatigue in relation to depression and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for childhood ALL.
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Body weight-dependent pharmacokinetics of busulfan in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: towards individualized dosing.
Clin Pharmacokinet
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The wide variability in pharmacokinetics of busulfan in children is one factor influencing outcomes such as toxicity and event-free survival. A meta-analysis was conducted to describe the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in patients from 0.1 to 26 years of age, elucidate patient characteristics that explain the variability in exposure between patients and optimize dosing accordingly.
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Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and healthy controls.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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Of all malignancies in children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type. Since survival significantly improves over time, treatment-related side effects become increasingly important. Glucocorticoids play an important role in the treatment of ALL, but they may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The duration of HPA axis suppression is not yet well defined. The present study aimed at assessing the function of the HPA axis by determining the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test in children that were treated for childhood ALL, compared to a healthy age and sex matched reference group. In addition, questionnaires regarding sleep, fatigue, depression and quality of life were completed by the children and their parents. Fourty-three survivors who finished their treatment for childhood ALL 37 (interquartile range 22-75) months before and 57 healthy controls were included. No differences in CAR were observed between ALL survivors and the reference group, but survivors of ALL had higher morning cortisol levels and an increased cortisol suppression in response to oral dexamethasone. Higher cortisol levels in childhood ALL survivors were associated with more fatigue and poorer quality of life. We conclude that the experience of a stressful life event in the past may have caused a long-term dysregulation of the HPA axis in childhood ALL survivors, as reflected in an increased cortisol production and an enhanced negative feedback mechanism.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.