Controlled fusion events between natural membranes composed of phospholipids with synthetic unnatural membranes will yield valuable fundamental information on the mechanism of membrane fusion. Here, fusion between vastly different phospholipid liposomes and cyclodextrin amphiphile based vesicles (CDVs) controlled by a pair of coiled coil forming lipidated peptides was investigated. Fusion events were characterized using lipid and content mixing assays and the resulting hybrid assemblies were characterized with cryo-TEM imaging. The secondary/quaternary structure of the lipidated peptides at the membrane interface was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This is the first example of targeted fusion between natural and non-natural bilayer membranes and the in situ formation of hybrid CDV-liposome structures is of interest as it yields fundamental information about the mechanism through which fusion proceeds.
We report a short synthetic route for the preparation of a peptidic Au(i)-metalloamphiphile which, in buffered environments of physiological ionic strength, self-assembles into luminescent micellar nanostructures of 14 nm in diameter.
Dithienylethene photochromic switching units have been incorporated into a hydrogelating system based on a tripeptide motif. The resulting hybrid system provided both a photochromic response and the ability to gelate water under acidic and neutral conditions. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the dithienylethene units are in sufficient proximity to each other to stack in gel fibers, with the tripeptide unit determining solubility. TEM measurements provided insight into the microscopic structure of the fibers formed.
The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The molecules co-assemble into helical fibers through hydrogen bonding and the handedness of the fibers is biased by the chiral, ring-closed diarylethene. Photochemical ring closure of the open diarylethene yields the ring-closed product, which is enriched in the template enantiomer.
Following our previous investigation on the effect of molecular architecture on the rheology of Polystyrene-b-Poly(sodium methacrylate) copolymers (PS-b-PMAA), we consider here diblock PS-b-PMAA copolymers characterized by a different length of either the hydrophilic or the hydrophobic block. Various copolymers characterized by different PS or PMAA block length have been prepared by ATRP (kinetics is also discussed) and studied from the point of view of their rheological behaviour in water. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic investigation concerning the effect of block length on the rheology of diblock polyelectrolytes. We found that the hydrophobic block length has small influence on the rheology. Surprisingly, the polymers with shortest PMAA blocks yield the strongest gels at high concentration. A simple model based on the classical theories of self-assembly and percolation of amphiphilic polymers has been here developed in order to explain the observed data.
A new responsive material composed of an amphiphilic light-switchable dithienylethene unit functionalized with a hydrophobic cholesterol unit and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol)-modified pyridinium group has been designed. This unique single-molecule system shows responsive light-switchable self-assembly in both water and organic solvents. Light-triggered reversible vesicle formation in aqueous solutions is reported. The molecule shows a different behavior in apolar aromatic solvents, in which light-controlled formation of organogel fibers is observed. The light-triggered aggregation behavior of this molecule demonstrates that control of a supramolecular structure with light can be achieved in both aqueous and organic media and that this ability can be present in a single molecule. This opens the way toward the effective development of new strategies in soft nanotechnology for applications in controlled chemical release systems.
A family of self-replicating macrocycles was developed using dynamic combinatorial chemistry. Replication is driven by self-assembly of the replicators into fibrils and relies critically on mechanically induced fibril fragmentation. Analysis of separate dynamic combinatorial libraries made from one of six peptide-functionalized building blocks of different hydrophobicity revealed two selection criteria that govern the emergence of replicators from these systems. First, the replicators need to have a critical macrocycle size that endows them with sufficient multivalency to enable their self-assembly into fibrils. Second, efficient replication occurs only for library members that are of low abundance in the absence of a replication pathway. This work has led to spontaneous emergence of replicators with unrivalled structural complexity, being built from up to eight identical subunits and reaching a MW of up to 5.6 kDa. The insights obtained in this work provide valuable guidance that should facilitate future discovery of new complex self-replicating molecules. They may also assist in the development of new self-synthesizing materials, where self-assembly drives the synthesis of the very molecules that self-assemble. To illustrate the potential of this concept, the present system enables access to self-assembling materials made from self-synthesizing macrocycles with tunable ring size ranging from trimers to octamers.
Dimerization and inactivation of ribosomes in Escherichia coli is a two-step process that involves the binding of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promotion factor (HPF). Lactococcus lactis?MG1363 expresses a protein, YfiA(L) (l) , which associates with ribosomes in the stationary phase of growth and is responsible for dimerization of ribosomes. We show that full-length YfiA(L) (l) is necessary and sufficient for ribosome dimerization in L.?lactis but also functions heterologously in vitro with E.?coli ribosomes. Deletion of the yfiA gene has no effect on the growth rate but diminishes the survival of L.?lactis under energy-starving conditions. The N-terminal domain of YfiA(L) (l) is homologous to HPF from E.?coli, whereas the C-terminal domain has no counterpart in E.?coli. By assembling ribosome dimers in vitro, we could dissect the roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of YfiA(L) (l) . It is concluded that the dimerization and inactivation of ribosomes in L.?lactis and E.?coli differ in several cellular and molecular aspects. In addition, two-dimensional maps of dimeric ribosomes from L.?lactis obtained by single particle electron microscopy show a marked structural difference in monomer association in comparison to the ribosome dimers in E.?coli.
In this study we designed a new class of symmetrical facial oligothiophene amphiphiles, which could be obtained in fewer steps than for previously reported analogues, but still possess the specific substituent sequence to control their backbone curvature. This novel design allows the late-stage introduction of hydrophilic groups, aiding both purification and ease of structure variation. Following the new synthetic scheme, symmetrical ter- and sexi-thiophenes were synthesized, analysed and their properties were compared to their non-symmetrical analogues. Surprisingly, the self-assembly behaviour in water, aggregate morphologies and photo-physical properties turned out to be significantly different despite the same ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substituents. The new substitution pattern resulted in a drastic decrease of the critical aggregation concentration and an increase of the aggregate size. The symmetrical positioning of the substituents also heavily influenced the photo-physical properties. The changes were observed as large blue shifts in the absorption and emission spectra in water when compared to similar regio-regular oligothiophene amphiphiles.
Cells control their volume through the accumulation of compatible solutes. The bacterial ATP-binding cassette transporter OpuA couples compatible solute uptake to ATP hydrolysis. Here, we study the gating mechanism and energy coupling of OpuA reconstituted in lipid nanodiscs. We show that anionic lipids are essential both for the gating and the energy coupling. The tight coupling between substrate binding on extracellular domains and ATP hydrolysis by cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains allows the study of transmembrane signaling in nanodiscs. From the tight coupling between processes at opposite sides of the membrane, we infer that the ATPase activity of OpuA in nanodiscs reflects solute translocation. Intriguingly, the substrate-dependent, ionic strength-gated ATPase activity of OpuA in nanodiscs is at least an order of magnitude higher than in lipid vesicles (i.e. with identical membrane lipid composition, ionic strength, and nucleotide and substrate concentrations). Even with the chemical components the same, the lateral pressure (profile) of the nanodiscs will differ from that of the vesicles. We thus propose that membrane tension limits translocation in vesicular systems. Increased macromolecular crowding does not activate OpuA but acts synergistically with ionic strength, presumably by favoring gating interactions of like-charged surfaces via excluded volume effects.
Mechanical triggering of gelation of an organic solution by a carbazole-based bisurea organogelator is described. Both the duration of the mechanical stimulation and the gelator concentration control the gelation process and the characteristics of the gel obtained.
External control over self-assembling structures is achieved by incorporating an azobenzene photoswitch into the structure of a dichromonyl compound. The self-assembly of dichromonyl compounds into fibers leads to the formation of a hydrogel and can be triggered with visible light.
We have synthesized a series of new fluorescent boron systems 1a-c and 2a-d based on nitrogen (NNN) or nitrogen and oxygen (ONO)-containing tridentate ligands. These novel dyes are characterized by high thermal and chemical stability. They show large Stokes shifts (mostly above 3200 cm(-1)) and quantum yields in solution and in the solid state up to 40%. The easy, modular synthesis facilitates the convenient variation of the axial substituent on the central boron atom, allowing the functionalization of this dye for biochemical use. Introducing a long alkyl chain with a phenyl spacer at this axial position enables the self-assembly of the boron compound 2d to form a fluorescent vesicle, which is able to encapsulate small molecules such as sulforhodamine. Additionally, boron compound 2d was found to serve as a dye for cell imaging since it has the capability of binding to the nuclear membranes of HeLa cells. With phospholipids such as DOPC, giant unilamelar vesicles (GUV) are formed. These results demonstrate the wide applicability of this new boron system in supramolecular and medicinal chemistry.
Collagen is a widely used biomaterial in cardiac tissue engineering studies. However, as a natural material, it suffers from variability between batches that can complicate the standardization of culture conditions. In contrast, synthetic materials are modifiable, have well-defined structures and more homogeneous batches can be produced. In this study, several collagen-like synthetic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels were examined for their suitability for cardiomyocyte culture in 2D and 3D. Six different nanofiber coatings were used in the 2D format with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs) and human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). The viability, growth, and functionality of the 2D-cultured cardiomyocytes were evaluated. The best-performing nanofiber coatings were selected for 3D experiments. Hydrophilic pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogel coassembled with hyaluronic acid performed best with both NRCs and hESC-CMs. Hydrophilic non-pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogels supported the growth of NRCs; however, their ability to promote attachment and growth of hESC-CMs was limited. NRCs also grew on hydrophobic nanofiber hydrogels; however, the cell-supporting capacity of these hydrogels was inferior to that of the hydrophilic hydrogel materials. This is the first study demonstrating that hydrophilic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels support the culture of both NRCs and hESC-CMs, which suggests that these biomaterials hold promise for cardiac tissue engineering.
In this article, we describe the introduction of amphiphilic ?-cyclodextrins into liposomes to act as artificial receptor units. Using dynamic light scattering, dye encapsulation, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, we show that amphiphilic ?-cyclodextrins can be mixed in any proportion with a typical mixture of phospholipids and cholesterol to provide stable, spherical, and unilamellar mixed vesicles. It is also possible to form giant unilamellar vesicles with mixtures of lipids and cyclodextrin. The permeability of the mixed vesicles increases with the percentage of cyclodextrin. The cyclodextrins can act as host molecules for hydrophobic guest molecules, even when they are dispersed at a low percentage in the vesicle membrane. It is shown that mixed vesicles can be decorated with carbohydrate-functionalized guest molecules, with photoresponsive guest molecules, and with dye-functionalized guest molecules. Taken together, it is demonstrated that the host-guest chemistry of amphiphilic cyclodextrins is fully compatible with a liposomal bilayer membrane and the advantages of each can be combined to give superior nanocontainers.
Membrane active peptides can perturb the lipid bilayer in several ways, such as poration and fusion of the target cell membrane, and thereby efficiently kill bacterial cells. We probe here the mechanistic basis of membrane poration and fusion caused by membrane-active, antimicrobial peptides. We show that the cyclic antimicrobial peptide, BPC194, inhibits growth of Gram-negative bacteria and ruptures the outer and inner membrane at the onset of killing, suggesting that not just poration is taking place at the cell envelope. To simplify the system and to better understand the mechanism of action, we performed Förster resonance energy transfer and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy studies in model membranes and show that the BPC194 causes fusion of vesicles. The fusogenic action is accompanied by leakage as probed by dual-color fluorescence burst analysis at a single liposome level. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal how the peptides are able to simultaneously perturb the membrane towards porated and fused states. We show that the cyclic antimicrobial peptides trigger both fusion and pore formation and that such large membrane perturbations have a similar mechanistic basis.
Molecular self-assembly is the basis for the formation of numerous artificial nanostructures. The self-organization of peptides, amphiphilic molecules composed of fused benzene rings and other functional molecules into nanotubes is of particular interest. However, the design of dynamic, complex self-organized systems that are responsive to external stimuli remains a significant challenge. Here, we report self-assembled, vesicle-capped nanotubes that can be selectively disassembled by irradiation. The walls of the nanotubes are 3-nm-thick bilayers and are made from amphiphilic molecules with two hydrophobic legs that interdigitate when the molecules self-assemble into bilayers. In the presence of phospholipids, a phase separation between the phospholipids and the amphiphilic molecules creates nanotubes, which are end-capped by vesicles that can be chemically altered or removed and reattached without affecting the nanotubes. The presence of a photoswitchable and fluorescent core in the amphiphilic molecules allows fast and highly controlled disassembly of the nanotubes on irradiation, and distinct disassembly processes can be observed in real time using fluorescence microscopy.
Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N. gonorrhoeae showed a double ring structure with a 14-15-fold symmetry in the central ring, and a 14-fold symmetry of the peripheral ring with 7 spikes protruding. In secretin complexes of N. meningitidis, the spikes were absent and the peripheral ring was partly or completely lacking. When present, it had a 19-fold symmetry. The structures of the complexes in several pil mutants were determined. Structures obtained from the pilC1/C2 adhesin and the pilW minor pilin deletion strains were similar to wild-type, whereas deletion of the homologue of N. meningitidis PilW resulted in the absence of secretin structures. Remarkably, the pilE pilin subunit and pilP lipoprotein deletion mutants showed a change in the symmetry of the peripheral ring from 14 to 19 and loss of spikes. The pilF ATPase mutant also lost the spikes, but maintained 14-fold symmetry. These results show that secretin complexes contain previously unidentified large and flexible extra domains with a probable role in stabilization or assembly of type IV pili.
In this study the possibility to control the size and shape of self-assembled structures through the local curvature of their molecular building blocks has been investigated. To this end a series of amphipathic conjugated oligothiophenes with a well-defined curvature of their backbone has been designed and synthesized. The molecular (local) curvature of these oligothiophenes resulted from a preference for cis instead of trans conformations at specific positions along the oligothiophene backbone, which can be controlled by the sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, while their ratio was kept constant. The self-assembly of ter-, sexi-, and dodecathiophenes appeared to be a low-cooperative process, involving the formation of premicellar aggregates at sub-millimolar concentrations, which at concentrations in the millimolar regime transformed into micelles and cylindrical micelles. The aggregates display fine structures with dimensions reminiscent of the thiophene molecules. The structure-morphology relationship of the ter- and sexithiophenes could be described by conventional packing theory. However, with the dodecathiophene, the backbone curvature governed the formation of cylindrical aggregates with a well-defined diameter. These results demonstrate that it is possible to control the aggregation morphology of simple amphipathic oligothiophenes by implementation of an additional structural motif namely, the curvature.
The aggregation of beta-cyclodextrin vesicles can be induced by an adamantyl-substituted zwitterionic guanidiniocarbonylpyrrole carboxylate guest molecule (1). Upon addition of 1 to the cyclodextrin vesicles at neutral pH, the vesicles aggregate (but do not fuse), as shown by using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential measurements, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Aggregation of the vesicles is induced by a twofold supramolecular interaction. First, the adamantyl group of 1 forms an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin. Second, at neutral pH the guanidiniocarbonylpyrrole carboxylate zwitterion dimerizes through the formation of hydrogen-bonded ion pairs. Because the dimerization of 1 depends on the zwitterionic protonation state of 1, the aggregation of the cyclodextrin vesicles is also pH dependent; the cyclodextrin vesicles do not interact at pH 5 or 9, at which 1 is either cationic or anionic and, therefore, not self-complementary. These observations are consistent with molecular recognition of the vesicles through a combination of two different supramolecular interactions, that is, host-guest inclusion and dimerization of zwitterions, at the bilayer membrane surface.
Paramagnetic liposomes used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often suffer from low efficacies because of slow water diffusion through the membrane. We present an approach to overcome this limitation by incorporation of a calixarene based agent that expresses the chelates towards the bulk water.
A "multisegment amphiphile" has been synthesized by covalently connecting two well known building blocks, a gelator and a micelle forming surfactant. Self-assembly results in the formation of compartmentalized nano-object displaying properties inherited from both parents.
Self-replicating molecules are likely to have played an important role in the origin of life, and a small number of fully synthetic self-replicators have already been described. Yet it remains an open question which factors most effectively bias the replication toward the far-from-equilibrium distributions characterizing even simple organisms. We report here two self-replicating peptide-derived macrocycles that emerge from a small dynamic combinatorial library and compete for a common feedstock. Replication is driven by nanostructure formation, resulting from the assembly of the peptides into fibers held together by beta sheets. Which of the two replicators becomes dominant is influenced by whether the sample is shaken or stirred. These results establish that mechanical forces can act as a selection pressure in the competition between replicators and can determine the outcome of a covalent synthesis.
An artificial glycocalix self-assembles when unilamellar bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrins are decorated with maltose and lactose by host-guest interactions. To this end, maltose and lactose were conjugated with adamantane through a tetra(ethyleneglycol) spacer. Both carbohydrate-adamantane conjugates strongly bind to beta-cyclodextrin (K(a) approximately 4 x 10(4) M(-1)). The maltose-decorated vesicles readily agglutinate (aggregate) in the presence of the lectin concanavalin A, whereas the lactose-decorated vesicles agglutinate in the presence of peanut agglutinin. The orthogonal multivalent interaction in the ternary system of host vesicles, guest carbohydrates, and lectins was investigated by using isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that agglutination is reversible, and the noncovalent interaction can be suppressed and eliminated by the addition of competitive inhibitors, such as D-glucose or beta-cyclodextrin. Also, it was shown that agglutination depends on the surface coverage of carbohydrates on the vesicles.
A pyridine-N-oxide functionalized DOTA analogue has been conjugated to a calixarene and the corresponding Gd-complex was characterized with respect to its suitability as MRI contrast agent. The compound forms spherical micelles in water with a cmc of 35 microM and a radius of 8.2 nm. The relaxivity of these aggregates is 31.2 s(-1) mM(-1) at 25 degrees C and 20 MHz, which corresponds to a molecular relaxivity of 125 s(-1) mM(-1). The high relaxivity mainly originates from the short tau(M) (72.7 ns) and the size of the micelles. The interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied and an observed relaxivity of up to 40.8 s(-1) mM(-1) (163.2 s(-1) mM(-1) per binding place) at 20 MHz and 37 degrees C was found in the presence of 2.0 mM protein.
A pH sensitive carrier is obtained by coating a cyclodextrin vesicle with an adamantane-terminated octapeptide through the formation of an inclusion complex. Upon lowering the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, the formation of peptide beta-sheets on the vesicle surface induces a transition of the bilayer from a sphere to a fiber. This transition is fully reversible and repeatable. The vesicles release their cargo upon fiber formation.
Anammox bacteria that are capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonium (anammox) with nitrite to nitrogen gas produce unique membrane phospholipids that comprise hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly condensed cyclobutane rings. To gain insight into the biophysical properties of these ladderane lipids, we have isolated a ladderane phosphatidylcholine and a mixed ladderane phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid fraction and reconstituted these lipids in different membrane environments. Langmuir monolayer experiments demonstrated that the purified ladderane phospholipids form fluid films with a relatively high lipid packing density. Fluid-like behavior was also observed for ladderane lipids in bilayer systems as monitored by cryo-electron microscopy on large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and epi-fluorescence microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Analysis of the LUVs by fluorescence depolarization revealed a relatively high acyl chain ordering in the hydrophobic region of the ladderane phospholipids. Micropipette aspiration experiments were applied to study the mechanical properties of ladderane containing lipid bilayers and showed a relatively high apparent area compressibility modulus for ladderane containing GUVs, thereby confirming the fluid and acyl chain ordered characteristics of these lipids. The biophysical findings in this study support the previous postulation that dense membranes in anammox cells protect these microbes against the highly toxic and volatile anammox metabolites.
Newly developed conjugated terthiophene surfactants are able to aggregate in water and to act as a host for hydrophobic chromophores, creating a multiple donor-acceptor energy transfer (ET) system by self-assembly.
The novel amphipilic conjugate of a calixarene with four Gd-1,4,7,10- tetra(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (DOTA) chelates has potential as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, both in its monomeric and in its micellar form. The system, illustrated here with its nuclear magnetic relaxation profile, shows good relaxivities, thanks to its high rigidity.An amphiphilic conjugate 1 of a calixarene with four Gd-DOTA chelates (DOTA=1,4,7,10-tetra(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) was prepared and the properties relevant to its application as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent were investigated by NMR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The compound aggregates in water; its critical micelle concentration (cmc) is 0.21 mM (or 0.84 mM for Gd) at 37 degrees C. The relaxivity of the aggregates at 37 degrees C and 20 MHz (18.3 s(-1) per mM Gd or 73.2 s(-1) per mM 1) is about twice that of the monomer. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles show the relaxivity of the monomer to be almost independent of the magnetic field strength up to 60 MHz. At higher concentrations, the NMRD profiles exhibit a maximum at about 20 MHz, which is typical for high molecular volumes. The average water residence lifetime is 1.20 mus at 298 K as determined by (17)O NMR. The rotational correlation time of the monomer (390 ns at 37 degrees C) is very close to the optimal value predicted for high-field contrast agents. Monomer as well as micelles are very rigid systems with negligible local contributions to the overall rotational dynamics. The binding to human serum albumin (HSA) is significant (K(A)=1.2x10(3) M(-1)) and the relaxivity of the HSA adduct at 20 MHz is 24.6 s(-1) per mM Gd or 98.5 s(-1) per mM 1.
Interpenetrating networks (IPN) consist of two or more networks of different components which are entangled on a molecular scale and cannot be separated without breaking at least one of the networks. They are of great technological interest because they allow the blending of two or more otherwise incompatible properties or functions, and furthermore synergistic effects might arise from the simultaneous operation of the two networks. So far, the preparation of interpenetrating network gels by self-assembly approaches was doomed to fail because the conventional polymers and surfactant building blocks either phase separate or form mixed assemblies, respectively. Here we report on self-assembled interpenetrating networks obtained by the orthogonal self-assembly of small molecular hydrogelators and surfactants. Preliminary studies on the self-assembly behaviour and viscoelastic properties of these systems revealed that these self-assembled IPN have a number of intriguing properties. For instance, the presence of two coexisting networks offers new possibilities for compartmentalization, and will allow one to adjust the viscoelastic properties between soft and hard gels. The non-covalent character of such IPN makes their formation fully reversible, which can be exploited for dual responsive systems. Most interestingly, self-assembled IPN can also act as a very primitive, yet unique, model for biological interpenetrating networks like the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, and thereby contribute to our understanding of these very complex systems.
The development of triggered release systems for delivery of peptides and proteins is critical to the success of biological drug therapies. In this paper we describe a dynamic supramolecular system able to capture and release proteins in response to light. The ternary system self-assembles in a dilute aqueous solution of three components: vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrin host, noncovalent cross-linkers with an azobenzene and a carbohydrate moiety, and lectins. The cross-linkers form inclusion complexes with the host vesicles, provided the azobenzene is in the trans state. The formation of a ternary complex with lectins requires a high density of cross-linkers on the surface of vesicles. The key innovation in this system is a photoinduced switch from a multivalent, high-affinity state that captures protein to a monovalent, low-affinity state that releases protein. By using isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, UV/vis spectroscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that photoinduced capture and release of lectins in dense multilamellar complexes is highly efficient, highly selective, and fully reversible.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.