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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increasing HIV-1 Molecular Complexity among MSM in Bangkok.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Background: In Thailand, new HIV-1 infections are largely concentrated in certain risk groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), where annual incidence may be as high as 12% per year. The paucity of information on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Thai MSM limits progress in understanding the epidemic and developing new prevention methods. We evaluated HIV-1 subtypes in seroincident and seroprevalent HIV-1 infected men enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS) between 2006 and 2011. Methods: We characterized HIV-1 subtype in 231 seroprevalent and 194 seroincident subjects using the multihybridization assay (MHA). Apparent dual infections, recombinant strains, and isolates found to be non-typeable by MHA were further characterized by targeted genomic sequencing. Results: Most subjects were infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE (82%), followed by infections with recombinants (11%, primarily CRF01_AE/B recombinants), subtype B (5%), and dual infections (2%). More than 11 distinct chimeric patterns were observed among CRF01B_AE/B recombinants, most involving recombination within integrase. A significant increase in the proportion of non-typeable strains was observed among seroincident MSM between 2006 and 2011. Conclusion: CRF01_AE and subtype B were the most and least common infecting strains, respectively. The predominance of CRF01_AE among HIV-1 infections in Thai MSM participating in the BMCS parallels trends observed in Thai heterosexuals and injecting drug users. The presence of complex recombinants, and a significant rise in non-typeable strains suggest ongoing changes in the genetic makeup of the HIV-1 epidemic in Thailand, which may pose challenges for HIV-1 prevention efforts and vaccine development.
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Renal function of participants in the Bangkok tenofovir study--Thailand, 2005-2012.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir) has been associated with renal dysfunction in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. We reviewed data from an HIV preexposure prophylaxis trial to determine if tenofovir use was associated with changes in renal function in an HIV-uninfected population.
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Risk behaviors and risk factors for HIV infection among participants in the Bangkok tenofovir study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in drug use and HIV-associated risk behaviors have been reported. We examined data from the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial conducted among people who inject drugs, to assess participant risk behavior and drug use, and to identify risk factors for HIV infection.
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Hepatitis A and hepatitis B infection prevalence and associated risk factors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, 2006-2008.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, little is known about prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Thai men who have sex with men. The prevalence of HAV and HBV infection among men who have sex with men cohort in Bangkok was assessed. Baseline blood specimens were drawn and demographic and behavioral data were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for prevalent HAV and HBV infection. One thousand two hundred ninety-nine Thai men who have sex with men 18 years and older were enrolled. Among those with results, 349/1,291 (27.0%) had evidence of past or current hepatitis A infection. Of the 1,117 (86.5%) men with unambiguous HBV test results, 442 (39.6%) had serologic evidence of past/current infection, 103 (9.2%) were immune due to hepatitis B vaccination, 572 (51.2%) had no evidence of immunological exposure to HBV or vaccine. Of those with past/current HBV infection, 130 (29.4%) were HIV positive. Age >35 years was independently associated with both HAV and HBV infection. University education was protective against both HAV and HBV infection. Increased alcohol consumption, number of lifetime male sexual partners ?10, and prevalent HIV infection were also independently associated with HBV infection. The prevalence of past/current HAV and HBV infection was high in Bangkok men who have sex with men. Age-cohorts with a higher prevalence of hepatitis B vaccine induced immunity may be expected in the future. Hepatitis A and B vaccination is recommended.
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Cyclic changes in HIV shedding from the female genital tract during the menstrual cycle.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Factors increasing genital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding may increase female-to-male HIV transmission risk. We examined HIV shedding in 67 women with HIV type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, during 2 menstrual cycles. Shedding occurred in 60%, 48%, and 54% of samples during the follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases, respectively (P = .01). Shedding declined after menses until ovulation, with a slope -0.054 log10 copies/swab/day (P < .001), corresponding to a change of approximately 0.74 log10 copies between peak and nadir levels. Shedding increased during the luteal phase only among women with CD4 counts of <350 cells/µL. In reproductive-aged women, shedding frequency and magnitude are greatest immediately following menses and lowest at ovulation.
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Comprehensive assessment of HIV target cells in the distal human gut suggests increasing HIV susceptibility toward the anus.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Prevention of rectal HIV transmission is a high-priority goal for vaccines and topical microbicides because a large fraction of HIV transmissions occurs rectally. Yet, little is known about the specific target-cell milieu in the human rectum other than inferences made from the colon.
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HIV Therapy Simulator: a graphical user interface for comparing the effectiveness of novel therapy regimens.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Computer simulation models can be useful in exploring the efficacy of HIV therapy regimens in preventing the evolution of drug-resistant viruses. Current modeling programs, however, were designed by researchers with expertise in computational biology, limiting their accessibility to those who might lack such a background. We have developed a user-friendly graphical program, HIV Therapy Simulator (HIVSIM), that is accessible to non-technical users. The program allows clinicians and researchers to explore the effectiveness of various therapeutic strategies, such as structured treatment interruptions, booster therapies and induction-maintenance therapies. We anticipate that HIVSIM will be useful for evaluating novel drug-based treatment concepts in clinical research, and as an educational tool.
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Serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 is not associated with risk of HIV infection: a case-control study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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adenoviruses are among the most promising vectors for the development of an HIV vaccine. The results of the phase IIB study of the adenovirus serotype 5-based Merck Trivalent HIV vaccine have raised the concern that serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) could be linked to HIV acquisition risk in high-risk individuals. We examined the association between adenovirus serostatus and the rate of incident HIV infection in populations at elevated risk of HIV acquisition.
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HIV-1 envelope subregion length variation during disease progression.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein is the primary determinant of viral coreceptor usage, whereas the V1V2 loop region is thought to influence coreceptor binding and participate in shielding of neutralization-sensitive regions of the Env glycoprotein gp120 from antibody responses. The functional properties and antigenicity of V1V2 are influenced by changes in amino acid sequence, sequence length and patterns of N-linked glycosylation. However, how these polymorphisms relate to HIV pathogenesis is not fully understood. We examined 5185 HIV-1 gp120 nucleotide sequence fragments and clinical data from 154 individuals (152 were infected with HIV-1 Subtype B). Sequences were aligned, translated, manually edited and separated into V1V2, C2, V3, C3, V4, C4 and V5 subregions. V1-V5 and subregion lengths were calculated, and potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNLGS) counted. Loop lengths and PNLGS were examined as a function of time since infection, CD4 count, viral load, and calendar year in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. V1V2 length and PNLGS increased significantly through chronic infection before declining in late-stage infection. In cross-sectional analyses, V1V2 length also increased by calendar year between 1984 and 2004 in subjects with early and mid-stage illness. Our observations suggest that there is little selection for loop length at the time of transmission; following infection, HIV-1 adapts to host immune responses through increased V1V2 length and/or addition of carbohydrate moieties at N-linked glycosylation sites. V1V2 shortening during early and late-stage infection may reflect ineffective host immunity. Transmission from donors with chronic illness may have caused the modest increase in V1V2 length observed during the course of the pandemic.
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Frequent detection of human adenovirus from the lower gastrointestinal tract in men who have sex with men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The association between baseline seropositivity to human adenovirus (HAdV) type 5 and increased HIV acquisition in the Step HIV Vaccine Study has raised questions concerning frequency of acquired and/or persistent Adenovirus infections among adults at high risk of HIV-1 infection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.