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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings.
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Hepatitis A and E seroprevalence and associated risk factors: a community-based cross-sectional survey in rural Amazonia.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the faecal-oral route, and represent common causes of acute hepatitis in developing countries. The endemicity of HAV infection has shifted from high to moderate in Brazil. Human cases of HEV infection seem to be rare, although the virus has been detected in swine livestock and effluents of slaughterhouses. This study was to determine the epidemiology of hepatitis A and E in one of the largest agricultural settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil.
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Tracking malaria parasites in the eradication era.
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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As more endemic countries enter the elimination phase, the detection of sporadic malaria infections or outbreaks elicits many questions: (i) are the infections locally acquired or imported? (ii) If imported, where do they come from? (iii) Do outbreak strains have a single or multiple geographic origins? New molecular barcoding methods provide ways to analyze clinical malaria parasite samples and answer these and other crucial questions.
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Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax over time and space: a community-based study in rural Amazonia.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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SUMMARY To examine how community-level genetic diversity of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax varies across time and space, we investigated the dynamics of parasite polymorphisms during the early phases of occupation of a frontier settlement in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Microsatellite characterization of 84 isolates of P. vivax sampled over 3 years revealed a moderate-to-high genetic diversity (mean expected heterozygosity, 0·699), with a large proportion (78·5%) of multiple-clone infections (MCI), but also a strong multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) consistent with rare outcrossing. Little temporal and no spatial clustering was observed in the distribution of parasite haplotypes. A single microsatellite haplotype was shared by 3 parasites collected during an outbreak; all other 81 haplotypes were recovered only once. The lowest parasite diversity, with the smallest proportion of MCI and the strongest LD, was observed at the time of the outbreak, providing a clear example of epidemic population structure in a human pathogen. Population genetic parameters returned to pre-outbreak values during last 2 years of study, despite the concomitant decline in malaria incidence. We suggest that parasite genotyping can be useful for tracking the spread of new parasite strains associated with outbreaks in areas approaching malaria elimination.
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[Epistemological/methodological contributions to the fortification of an emancipatory con(science)].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This article conducts a critical and reflective analysis into the paths of elaboration, sistematization and communication of the results of research in conjunction with colleges, social movements and individuals in the territory under scrutiny. For this, the article embraces as the core analytical theme the process of shared production of knowledge, both in the epistemological-methodological field and with respect to its social destination. The case study was adopted as the methodology, preceded by the use of focused groups and in-depth interviews as technique. To analyze the qualitative material discourse analysis was adopted in line with the assumptions of in-depth hermeneutics. The results are presented in two stages: Firstly, the new possibilities for a paradigmatic reorientation are discussed from the permanent and procedural interlocution with the empirical field and it's different contexts and authors. Secondly, it analyzes in the praxiological dimension, the distinct ways of appropriation of knowledge produced in dialogue with the social movements and the individuals in the territory under scrutiny. It concludes by highlighting alternative and innovative paths to an edifying academic practice. which stresses solidarity and is sensitive to the vulnerable population and its requests.
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Composition, abundance and aspects of temporal variation in the distribution of Anopheles species in an area of Eastern Amazonia.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The diverse and complex environmental conditions of the Amazon Basin favor the breeding and development of Anopheles species. This study aimed to describe the composition, abundance and temporal frequency of Anopheles species and to correlate these factors with precipitation, temperature and relative humidity.
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Effect of chlorogenic acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the structure and pharmacological activities of secretory phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2?:?5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the ?-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2.
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Parasite virulence, co-infections and cytokine balance in malaria.
Pathog Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Strong early inflammatory responses followed by a timely production of regulatory cytokines are required to control malaria parasite multiplication without inducing major host pathology. Here, we briefly examine the homeostasis of inflammatory responses to malaria parasite species with varying virulence levels and discuss how co-infections with bacteria, viruses, and helminths can modulate inflammation, either aggravating or alleviating malaria-related morbidity.
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Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185?±?13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P?
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Plasmodium ovale malaria in Brazil: report of an imported case with a prolonged incubation period.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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We report the first case of imported Plasmodium ovale in Brazil, confirmed using both conventional microscopy and PCR-based protocols. The patient was a 36-year-old Brazilian male who had been working as a miner in Cabinda Province, Angola. Based on his travel history, the parasite was dormant for at least two years. The relatively long period of incubation of P. ovale may obscure the link between exposure and disease. The recent increase in the number of people travelling to regions where P. ovale is endemic, suggests that a PCR-based protocol should be included as a complementary tool for malaria reference laboratories.
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Anti-trypanosomal phenolic derivatives from Baccharis uncinella.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to identification of two cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic and ferulic acids), two flavones (hispidulin and pectolinaringenin) and a mixture of three chlorogenic acids (3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids), which displayed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. Pectolinaringenin, hispidulin and caffeic acid showed activity against trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 52, 81 and 56 microg/mL, respectively, while the chlorogenic acid mixture showed an IC50 value of 61 microg/mL. The flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives were evaluated for cytotoxicity against NCTC cells resulting in a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) ranging from 33.82 to 129.1 microg/mL while the chlorogenic acids did not display cytotoxicity (CC50 >150 microg/mL). This is the first report of anti-trypanosomal activity of compounds from B. uncinella.
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A new model for the origins of allelic dimorphism in Plasmodium falciparum.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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In his landmark 1987 study of the merozoite surface protein-1 locus in Plasmodium falciparum, Kazuyuki Tanabe and coauthors introduced the phenomenon of allelic dimorphism, in which antigenic diversity is arranged into two maximally diverged haplotypes. Further work has extended this finding to other loci in P. falciparum. Each of the loci at which allelic dimorphism is observed encodes major surface antigens of blood-stage malaria parasites, and is consequently a major vaccine target, thus understanding the origins and implications of allelic dimorphism is of crucial importance. Here we examine the essential features of allelic dimorphism in dimorphic malarial surface antigens. From sequence analysis, we conclude that the ancestral population may have been recombining/multimorphic rather than dimorphic. We hypothesize a pathway to allelic dimorphism in which an ancestral allele-rich recombining population could have undergone a severe population bottleneck, putatively caused by the lateral transfer of P. falciparum from apes to humans. This bottleneck produced a reduction in allelic diversity, favoring the survival of the most divergent alleles, which in turn led to recombination suppression by strong natural selection against recombinants.
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Using mitochondrial genome sequences to track the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections diagnosed in the United States.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Although the geographic origin of malaria cases imported into the United States can often be inferred from travel histories, these histories may be lacking or incomplete. We hypothesized that mitochondrial haplotypes could provide region-specific molecular barcodes for tracing the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections. An analysis of 348 mitochondrial genomes from worldwide parasites and new sequences from 69 imported malaria cases diagnosed across the United States allowed for a geographic assignment of most infections originating from the Americas, southeast Asia, east Asia, and Melanesia. However, mitochondrial lineages from Africa, south Asia, central Asia, and the Middle East, which altogether contribute the vast majority of imported malaria cases in the United States, were closely related to each other and could not be reliably assigned to their geographic origins. More mitochondrial genomes are required to characterize molecular barcodes of P. vivax from these regions.
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Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in South America: an overview.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ) since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax-endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.
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Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in South America: an overview.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ) since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax -endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.
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An evaluation of 3-rhamnosylquercetin, a glycosylated form of quercetin, against the myotoxic and edematogenic effects of sPLA 2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This paper shows the results of quercitrin effects on the structure and biological activity of secretory phospholipase (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus, which is the main toxin involved in the pharmacological effects of this snake venom. According to our mass spectrometry and circular dichroism results, quercetin was able to promote a chemical modification of some amino acid residues and modify the secondary structure of C. d. terrificus sPLA2. Moreover, molecular docking studies showed that quercitrin can establish chemical interactions with some of the crucial amino acid residues involved in the enzymatic activity of the sPLA2, indicating that this flavonoid could also physically impair substrate molecule access to the catalytic site of the toxin. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo assays showed that the quercitrin strongly diminished the catalytic activity of the protein, altered its Vmax and Km values, and presented a more potent inhibition of essential pharmacological activities in the C. d. terrificus sPLA2, such as its myotoxicity and edematogenic effect, in comparison to quercetin. Thus, we concluded that the rhamnose group found in quercitrin is most likely essential to the antivenom activities of this flavonoid against C. d. terrificus sPLA2.
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The Sri Lankan paradox: high genetic diversity in Plasmodium vivax populations despite decreasing levels of malaria transmission.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Here we examined whether the recent dramatic decline in malaria transmission in Sri Lanka led to a major bottleneck in the local Plasmodium vivax population, with a substantial decrease in the effective population size. To this end, we typed 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in 185 P. vivax patient isolates collected from 13 districts in Sri Lanka over a period of 5 years (2003-2007). Overall, we found a high degree of polymorphism, with 184 unique haplotypes (12-46 alleles per locus) and average genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity) of 0·8744. Almost 69% (n = 127) isolates had multiple-clone infections (MCI). Significant spatial and temporal differentiation (F ST = 0·04-0·25; P?0·0009) between populations was observed. The effective population size was relatively high but showed a decline from 2003-4 to 2006-7 periods (estimated as 45 661 to 22 896 or 10 513 to 7057, depending on the underlying model used). We used three approaches - namely, mode-shift in allele frequency distribution, detection of heterozygote excess and the M-ratio statistics - to test for evidence of a recent population bottleneck but only the low values of M-ratio statistics (ranging between 0·15-0·33, mean 0·26) were suggestive of such a bottleneck. The persistence of high genetic diversity and high proportion of MCI, with little change in effective population size, despite the collapse in demographic population size of P. vivax in Sri Lanka indicates the importance of maintaining stringent control and surveillance measures to prevent resurgence.
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Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum cytoadhesion and merozoite invasion.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-iEs) in the microvasculature of vital organs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria complications, such as cerebral malaria and malaria in pregnancy. This phenomenon is marked by the cytoadhesion of Pf-iEs to host receptors on the surfaces of endothelial cells, on noninfected erythrocytes, and in the placental trophoblast; therefore, these sites are potential targets for antiadhesion therapies. In this context, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, have shown the ability to inhibit Pf-iE cytoadherence and growth. Nevertheless, the use of heparin was discontinued due to serious side effects, such as bleeding. Other GAG-based therapies were hampered due to the potential risk of contamination with prions and viruses, as some GAGs are isolated from mammals. In this context, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a unique and highly sulfated GAG isolated from the sea cucumber, with respect to P. falciparum cytoadhesion and development. FucCS was effective in inhibiting the cytoadherence of Pf-iEs to human lung endothelial cells and placenta cryosections under static and flow conditions. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches of the FucCS structure virtually abolished the inhibitory effects of FucCS. Importantly, FucCS rapidly disrupted rosettes at high levels, and it was also able to block parasite development by interfering with merozoite invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential of FucCS as a candidate for adjunct therapy against severe malaria.
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SEM analysis of defects and wear on Ni-Ti rotary instruments.
Scanning
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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SEM analysis of endodontic instruments from a Ni-Ti rotary system was assessed, before and after using them, considering their defects and deformations. Twenty Twisted File®, BioR?Ce®, Mtwo®, and EndoWave® instruments were micrographed at 190× magnification. The files were washed and micrographed again to view alterations as to the presence or absence of irregular edges, grooves, microcavities, and scraping. Simulated root canal preparations were performed using these instruments. The instruments were cleaned and received a microscopic analysis after being used five times. After analysis tests were tested using Fisher's exact test and Kappa to evaluate the concordance among examiners. There was a statistically significant difference with respect to deformations between Twisted File® and other instruments (p??0.05). All Twisted File® instruments showed the same defects; however damage were lower than those found in BioRace® and Mtwo®. The Endowave® did not show the same defects. In accordance with the data we conclude that the presence of defects was higher in Twisted File® instruments as the instruments and BioRace® Mtwo® brand, the defect rate was smaller and Endowave® instruments had no defects. Regarding the presence of wear after five uses among the groups all instruments showed changes in their cutting blades.
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Prevalence of burnout syndrome in clinical nurses at a hospital of excellence.
Int Arch Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Burnout syndrome can be defined as long-term work stress resulting from the interaction between constant emotional pressure associated with intense interpersonal involvement for long periods of time and personal characteristics. We investigated the prevalence/propensity of Burnout syndrome in clinical nurses, and the factors related to Burnout syndrome-associated such as socio-demographic characteristics, work load, social and family life, leisure activities, extra work activities, physical activities, and work-related health problems.
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[Irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for the development of the semi-arid region and its implications for health, labor and the environment].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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An analysis was made of irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for expanding Brazilian agricultural frontiers and the "development" of the northeastern semi-arid region with respect to social determinants in health in rural communities. Research was conducted in the Chapada do Apodi in the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte between 2007 and 2011. Various research techniques and tools were adopted, such as research-action, ethnographic studies, questionnaires and laboratory exams, water contamination analyses, social cartography and focal groups. In the context of agribusiness expansion, it was revealed that public policies of irrigation have had consequences for health, labor and the environment with the implementation of the Jaguaribe-Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Ceará. The social and environmental conflict and resistance in the phase prior to the installation of the Santa Cruz do Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Rio Grande do Norte was significant as it had consequences for the health-disease process on rural communities. It is important for the evaluation of public irrigation policies to consider the impacts of the perimeters on the lifestyle, labor, health and the environment of the affected territories.
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The BCG Moreau RD16 deletion inactivates a repressor reshaping transcription of an adjacent gene.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The Brazilian anti-tuberculosis vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) BCG Moreau is unique in having a deletion of 7608 bp (RD16) that results in the truncation of a putative TetR transcriptional regulator, the ortholog of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rv3405c, BCG_M3439c. We investigated the effect of this truncation on the expression of the rv3406 ortholog (BCG_M3440), lying 81 bp downstream in the opposite orientation. RT-PCR and western blot experiments show that rv3406 mRNA and Rv3406 accumulate in BCG Moreau but not in BCG Pasteur (strain that bears an intact rv3405c), suggesting this to be a result of rv3405c truncation. Recombinant Rv3405c forms a complex with the rv3405c-rv3406 intergenic region, which contains a characteristic transcription factor binding site, showing it to have DNA binding activity. Complementation of M. bovis BCG Moreau with an intact copy of rv3405c abolishes Rv3406 accumulation. These results show that Rv3405c is a DNA binding protein that acts as a transcriptional repressor of rv3406.
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Protoporphyrin fluorescence induced by methyl-ALA in skin healing.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Estimation of the time period that precedes an injury is critical in forensic medicine. However, there is no reliable method that can be used to evaluate the oldness of a lesion. The aim of this work is to develop a fluorimetric method that can be used to follow the aging process of lesions by applying methyl-ALA (MAL) on wounds and by quantifying protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence during the healing process. We also aim to understand the changes in PPIX fluorescence by establishing a correlation with histological evaluations during the healing process.
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Extensive central ossifying fibroma of the maxilla: a case report.
Gen Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Central ossifying fibroma (COF) is a benign osteogenic neoplasm, with fibrous tissue and calcifications similar to bone, which has the clinical presentation of an asymptomatic bulging. It is more common in the mandibular premolar and molar region, in the third and fourth decades of life, and in women more frequently than men. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice and additional reconstruction is essential due to the functional and esthetic problems faced by the patient. This article describes the surgical treatment and subsequent reconstruction in a 22-year-old man with COF and an expansile lesion of the anterior maxilla. Enucleation of the lesion was performed and porous high-density polyethylene biomaterial was used for reconstruction.
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Fatty acid profiles in Leishmania spp. isolates with natural resistance to nitric oxide and trivalent antimony.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Fatty acids, especially those from phospholipids (PLFA), are essential membrane components that are present in relatively constant proportions in biological membranes under natural conditions. However, under harmful growth conditions, such as diseases, environmental changes, and chemical exposure, the fatty acid proportions might vary. If such changes could be identified and revealed to be specific for adverse situations, they could be used as biomarkers. Such biomarkers could facilitate the identification of virulence and resistance mechanisms to particular chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, specific biomarkers could lead to better therapeutic decisions that would, in turn, enhance treatment effectiveness. The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid profiles of trivalent antimony and nitric oxide (NO)-resistant and -sensitive Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from total lipids (MIDI), ester-linked lipids (ELFA), and ester-linked phospholipids (PLFA). FAMEs were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Species- or resistance-associated differences in FAME profiles were assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling, multiresponse permutation procedures, and indicator species analyses. The isolate groups had different MIDI-FAME profiles. However, neither the ELFA nor PLFA profiles differed between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Levels of the fatty acid 18:1 ?9c were increased in sensitive isolates (p?
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Neutrophils LL-37 migrate to the nucleus during overwhelming infection.
Tissue Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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LL-37 is the only cathelicidin produced by human cells. It is secreted by a variety of cell types, including monocyte/macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, keratinocytes and epithelial cells, acting on the extracellular milieu by directly killing bacteria or boosting innate immunity. Here, we show that LL-37 translocates to the nucleus following overwhelming infection, putting in evidence that its role may be even broader, with new potential important implications to cell biology. Future studies are necessary to address if LL-37 is able to induce or affect transcription, since it can lead to a novel cell signaling pathway that probably will contribute to the understanding of complex diseases.
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Microsatellite analysis of malaria parasites.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Microsatellites have been increasingly used to investigate the population structure of malaria parasites, to map genetic loci contributing to phenotypes such as drug resistance and virulence in laboratory crosses and genome-wide association studies and to distinguish between treatment failures and new infections in clinical trials. Here, we provide optimized protocols for genotyping highly polymorphic microsatellites sampled from across the genomes of the human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax that have been extensively used in research laboratories worldwide.
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Higher microsatellite diversity in Plasmodium vivax than in sympatric Plasmodium falciparum populations in Pursat, Western Cambodia.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Previous microsatellite analyses of sympatric populations of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil revealed higher diversity in the former species. However, it remains unclear whether regional species-specific differences in prevalence and transmission levels might account for these findings. Here, we examine sympatric populations of P. vivax (n=87) and P. falciparum (n=164) parasites from Pursat province, Western Cambodia, where both species are similarly prevalent. Using 10 genome-wide microsatellites for P. falciparum and 13 for P. vivax, we found that the P. vivax population was more diverse than the sympatric P. falciparum population (average virtual heterozygosity [HE], 0.87 vs. 0.66, P=0.003), with more multiple-clone infections (89.6% vs. 47.6%) and larger mean number of alleles per marker (16.2 vs. 11.1, P=0.07). Both populations showed significant multi-locus linkage disequilibrium suggestive of a predominantly clonal mode of parasite reproduction. The higher microsatellite diversity found in P. vivax isolates, compared to sympatric P. falciparum isolates, does not necessarily result from local differences in transmission level and may reflect differences in population history between species or increased mutation rates in P. vivax.
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Red blood cell polymorphism and susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax.
Adv. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fy(a) antigen, compared to Fy(b), is associated with lower binding to the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein and reduced susceptibility to vivax malaria. Additionally, it is interesting that numerous studies have now shown that P. vivax can infect RBCs and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people. This suggests that the relationship between P. vivax and the Duffy antigen is more complex than customarily described. Evidence of P. vivax Duffy-independent red cell invasion indicates that the parasite must be evolving alternative red cell invasion pathways. In this chapter, we review the evidence for P. vivax Duffy-dependent and Duffy-independent red cell invasion. We also consider the influence of further host gene polymorphism associated with malaria endemicity on susceptibility to vivax malaria. The interaction between the parasite and the RBC has significant potential to influence the effectiveness of P. vivax-specific vaccines and drug treatments. Ultimately, the relationships between red cell polymorphisms and P. vivax blood-stage infection will influence our estimates on the population at risk and efforts to eliminate vivax malaria.
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Postnatal evaluation of intrauterine hydronephrosis due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Fetal hydronephrosis is a frequent finding due to advances in prenatal ultrasonography. The definition of fetal and neonatal urinary tract obstruction is a very difficult task requiring confirmation of reduced renal function and hydronephrosis. In this study we followed a series of consecutive patients with intrauterine hydronephrosis that persisted during post-natal life.
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Castor beans hulls as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay in lamb diets.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton 85 hay (0, 33, 66, or 100 %) with by castor bean hulls on the intake and nutrient digestibility and performance of 28 noncastrated lambs, averaging 7 months in age, 19.5 ± 2.0 kg average live weight, fed on diets based on forage cactus. The animals were housed in individual pens for 100 days. The digestibility trial occurred 40 days after the start of the performance using LIPE® as an external indicator for estimating fecal dry matter production. The replacement of hay with Castor beans hulls linearly decreased the intakes of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and crude protein and reduced the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter content, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient content. The hot carcass and true carcass yields were not influenced by the treatments and the feed conversion increased linearly. The empty body weight, live weight at slaughter, hot and cold carcass weights, total gain, and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay with castor bean hulls reduced the intake of dry matter, crude protein and energy, consequently reducing the performance of the animals. However, as the regression coefficients were of low magnitude, data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared using the Dunnett test with diet without castor bean hulls set as the control treatment. The Tifton 85 hay can be replaced up to 66 % by castor bean hulls in finishing diets for lambs.
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Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.
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Fy(a)/Fy(b) antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cells surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fy(a) or Fy(b), resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasites red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fy(a), compared with Fy(b), significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fy(a) had 41-50% lower binding compared with Fy(b) cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fy(a+b-) phenotype demonstrated a 30-80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fy(a+b-) phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes.
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Limited geographical origin and global spread of sulfadoxine-resistant dhps alleles in Plasmodium falciparum populations.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistant to chloroquine and pyrimethamine originated in limited foci and migrated to Africa. It remains unresolved whether P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine, which is conferred by mutations in dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), evolved following a similar pattern.
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Genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain against tuberculosis.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, and the strains used worldwide represent a family of daughter strains with distinct genotypic characteristics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of M. bovis BCG Moreau, the strain in continuous use in Brazil for vaccine production since the 1920s.
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Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis, with and without the use of an intracanal optical fiber: an in vitro study.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new technique introduced in endodontics that combines the action of a photosensitizer (dye) and a low intensity light source. Currently, there are no PDT studies evaluating the microbial disinfection of root canals in order to compare the effects of light delivery systems in the photosensitizer activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PDT effectiveness in reducing Enterococcus faecalis, with and without the aid of an intracanal optical fiber.
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Amazonian malaria: asymptomatic human reservoirs, diagnostic challenges, environmentally driven changes in mosquito vector populations, and the mandate for sustainable control strategies.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Across the Americas and the Caribbean, nearly 561,000 slide-confirmed malaria infections were reported officially in 2008. The nine Amazonian countries accounted for 89% of these infections; Brazil and Peru alone contributed 56% and 7% of them, respectively. Local populations of the relatively neglected parasite Plasmodium vivax, which currently accounts for 77% of the regional malaria burden, are extremely diverse genetically and geographically structured. At a time when malaria elimination is placed on the public health agenda of several endemic countries, it remains unclear why malaria proved so difficult to control in areas of relatively low levels of transmission such as the Amazon Basin. We hypothesize that asymptomatic parasite carriage and massive environmental changes that affect vector abundance and behavior are major contributors to malaria transmission in epidemiologically diverse areas across the Amazon Basin. Here we review available data supporting this hypothesis and discuss their implications for current and future malaria intervention policies in the region. Given that locally generated scientific evidence is urgently required to support malaria control interventions in Amazonia, we briefly describe the aims of our current field-oriented malaria research in rural villages and gold-mining enclaves in Peru and a recently opened agricultural settlement in Brazil.
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Dimensional changes in gypsum fragments bonded with cyanoacrylate.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Accidental fractures may occur during manipulation and transportation of plaster casts. In clinical practice, plaster fragments may be bonded without harming the accuracy of the final denture, provided that the bonding agent does not cause dimensional alterations. Cyanoacrylate could be a good material because of its ease of use, quick set, wide availability, and low cost. The aim of this study was to assess the dimensional alteration of Type IV plaster fragments bonded with a cyanoacrylate-based adhesive.
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In vitro antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of flavanones from Baccharis retusa DC. (Asteraceae).
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Leishmaniasis and Chagas are parasitic protozoan diseases that affect the poorest population in the world, causing a high mortality and morbidity. As a result of highly toxic and long-term treatments, novel, safe and more efficacious drugs are essential. In this work, the CH(2)Cl(2) phase from MeOH extract from the leaves of Baccharis retusa DC. (Asteraceae) was fractioned to afford two flavonoids: naringenin (1) and sakuranetin (2). These compounds were in vitro tested against Leishmania spp. promastigotes and amastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes. Compound 2 presented activity against Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, Leishmania (L.) major, and Leishmania (L.) chagasi with IC(50) values in the range between 43 and 52 ?g/mL and against T. cruzi trypomastigotes (IC(50)=20.17 ?g/mL). Despite of the chemical similarity, compound 1 did not show antiparasitic activity. Additionally, compound 2 was subjected to a methylation procedure to give sakuranetin-4-methyl ether (3), which resulted in an inactive compound against both Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi. The obtained results indicated that the presence of one hydroxyl group at C-4 associated to one methoxyl group at C-7 is important to the antiparasitic activity. Further drug design studies aiming derivatives could be a promising tool for the development of new therapeutic agents for Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.
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Modeling the effects of relapse in the transmission dynamics of malaria parasites.
J Parasitol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Often regarded as "benign," Plasmodium vivax infections lay in the shadows of the much more virulent P. falciparum infections. However, about 1.98 billion people are at risk of both parasites worldwide, stressing the need to understand the epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, particularly under the scope of decreasing P. falciparum prevalence and ecological interactions between both species. Two epidemiological observations put the dynamics of both species into perspective: (1) ACT campaigns have had a greater impact on P. falciparum prevalence. (2) Complete clinical immunity is attained at younger ages for P. vivax, under similar infection rates. We systematically compared two mathematical models of transmission for both Plasmodium species. Simulations suggest that an ACT therapy combined with a hypnozoite killing drug would eliminate both species. However, P. vivax elimination is predicted to be unstable. Differences in age profiles of clinical malaria can be explained solely by P. vivaxs ability to relapse, which accelerates the acquisition of clinical immunity and serves as an immunity boosting mechanism. P. vivax transmission can subsist in areas of low mosquito abundance and is robust to drug administration initiatives due to relapse, making it an inconvenient and cumbersome, yet less lethal alternative to P. falciparum.
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Molecular markers and genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Enhanced understanding of the transmission dynamics and population genetics for Plasmodium vivax is crucial in predicting the emergence and spread of novel parasite phenotypes with major public health implications, such as new relapsing patterns, drug resistance and increased virulence. Suitable molecular markers are required for these population genetic studies. Here, we focus on two groups of molecular markers that are commonly used to analyse natural populations of P. vivax. We use markers under selective pressure, for instance, antigen-coding polymorphic genes, and markers that are not under strong natural selection, such as most minisatellite and microsatellite loci. First, we review data obtained using genes encoding for P. vivax antigens: circumsporozoite protein, merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3?, apical membrane antigen 1 and Duffy binding antigen. We next address neutral or nearly neutral molecular markers, especially microsatellite loci, providing a complete list of markers that have already been used in P. vivax populations studies. We also analyse the microsatellite loci identified in the P. vivax genome project. Finally, we discuss some practical uses for P. vivax genotyping, for example, detecting multiple-clone infections and tracking the geographic origin of isolates.
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Anti-malarial, anti-trypanosomal, and anti-leishmanial activities of jacaranone isolated from Pentacalia desiderabilis (Vell.) Cuatrec. (Asteraceae).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria affect the poorest population around the world, with an elevated mortality and morbidity. In addition, the therapeutic alternatives are usually toxic or ineffective drugs especially those against the trypanosomatids. In the course of selection of new anti-protozoal compounds from Brazilian flora, the CH(2)C(l2) phase from MeOH extract obtained from the leaves of Pentacalia desiderabilis (Vell.) Cuatrec. (Asteraceae) showed in vitro anti-leishmanial, anti-malarial, and anti-trypanosomal activities. The chromatographic fractionation of the CH(2)Cl(2) phase led to the isolation of the bioactive compound, which was characterized as jacaranone [methyl (1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexandienyl)acetate], by spectroscopic methods. This compound showed activity against promastigotes of Leishmania (L.) chagasi, Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, and Leishmania (L.). amazonensis showing an IC(50) of 17.22, 12.93, and 11.86 ?g/mL, respectively. Jacaranone was also tested in vitro against the Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant parasites (K1 strain) showing an IC(50) of 13 and 7.82 ?g/mL, respectively, and was 3.5-fold more effective than benznidazole in anti-Trypanosoma cruzi assay. However, despite of the potential against promatigotes forms, this compound was not effective against amastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi and T. cruzi. The cytotoxicity study using Kidney Rhesus monkey cells, demonstrated that jacaranone showed selectivity against P. falciparum (21.75 ?g/mL) and a selectivity index of 3. The obtained results suggested that jacaranone, as other similar secondary metabolites or synthetic analogs, might be useful tolls for drug design for in vivo studies against protozoan diseases.
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Torque removal evaluation of prosthetic screws after tightening and loosening cycles: an in vitro study.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in removal torque of implant prosthetic abutment screws after successive tightening and loosening cycles, in addition to evaluating the influence of the hexagon at the abutment base on screw removal torque.
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A rationale method for evaluating unscrewing torque values of prosthetic screws in dental implants.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw.
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Intraspecific variation in the essential oils from Drimys brasiliensis leaves and stem barks.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The essential oils from leaves and stem barks of Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), collected in July and December 2008, were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The stem bark oils were composed mainly of monoterpenes (July, 45 +/- 3%; December, 92 +/- 4%), while the oils from leaves showed the predominance of sesquiterpenes (July, 47 +/- 1%; December, 55 +/- 1%). The variation in the relative amount of constituents could be associated, at least in part, to several microclimatic parameters such as precipitation, temperature and/or phenological state, which were different for each collection of D. brasiliensis.
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Worldwide sequence conservation of transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pvs230 in Plasmodium vivax.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Pfs230, surface protein of gametocyte/gamete of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is a prime candidate of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. Plasmodium vivax has an ortholog of Pfs230 (Pvs230), however, there has been no study in any aspects on Pvs230 to date. To investigate whether Pvs230 can be a vivax malaria transmission-blocking vaccine, we performed evolutionary and population genetic analysis of the Pvs230 gene (pvs230: PVX_003905). Our analysis of Pvs230 and its orthologs in eight Plasmodium species revealed two distinctive parts: an interspecies variable part (IVP) containing species-specific oligopeptide repeats at the N-terminus and a 7.5kb interspecies conserved part (ICP) containing 14 cysteine-rich domains. Pvs230 was closely related to its orthologs, Pks230 and Pcys230, in monkey malaria parasites. Analysis of 113 pvs230 sequences obtained from worldwide, showed that nucleotide diversity is remarkably low in the non-repeat 8-kb region of pvs230 (??=0.00118) with 77 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 40 of which results in amino acid replacements. A signature of purifying selection but not of balancing selection was seen on pvs230. Functional and/or structural constraints may limit the level of polymorphism in pvs230. The observed limited polymorphism in pvs230 should ground for utilization of Pvs230 as an effective transmission-blocking vaccine.
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Effect of the Synadenium carinatum latex lectin (ScLL) on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection in murine macrophages.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Antiparasitic effect of a lectin isolated from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL) was evaluated against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes/amastigotes. Pretreatment of murine inflammatory peritoneal macrophages with ScLL reduced by 65.5% the association index of macrophages and L. (L) amazonensis promastigotes. Expression of cytokines (IL-12, IL-1 and TNF-?) was detected in infected macrophages pretreated with ScLL (10?g/mL). ScLL also reduced the growth of L. (L) amazonensis amastigote intracellular forms, showing no in vitro cytotoxic effects in mammalian host cells. ScLL treatment in infected murine inflammatory peritoneal macrophages did not induce nitric oxide production, suggesting that a nitric oxide independent pathway is activated to decrease the number of intracellular Leishmania.
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Memantine effects on liver and adrenal gland of rats exposed to cold stress.
Int Arch Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Memantine attenuates heart stress due cold stress, however, no study focused its effects on liver and adrenal gland. We evaluated its effects on lipid depletion in adrenal gland and glycogen depletion in liver of rats exposed to cold stress.
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Chemical composition, seasonal variation, and biosynthetic considerations of essential oils from Baccharis microdonta and B. elaeagnoides (Asteraceae).
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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The chemical composition and seasonal variation throughout one year of the essential oils from leaves of Baccharis microdonta and B. elaeagnoides, collected in Campos do Jordão, SP, were investigated. The composition of the latter species has been described for the first time. By GC (RI) and GC/MS analysis, 43 compounds were identified, and a predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpene derivatives was found in both species. The main components of the B. microdonta oils were elemol (31; 11.7-30.6%), spathulenol (34; 4.7-9.1%), ?-caryophyllene (19; 3.7-6.2%), and germacrene D (24; 2.9-12.2%), and those of the B. elaeagnoides oils were 34 (10.1-21.5%), viridiflorol (35; 3.6-18.4%), 24 (0.9-13.8%), and 19 (3.5-9.4%). The identified compounds were grouped according to their respective C-skeletons, and the percentages of occurrence of the C-skeletons in the essential oils of leaves collected in the four seasons allowed identifying the preferential accumulation of different types of C-skeletons as well as the seasonal variation of the biosynthetic routes over the studied period.
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Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines.
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CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, and circulating cytokines in uncomplicated malaria: do different parasite species elicit similar host responses?
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Clearing blood-stage malaria parasites without inducing major host pathology requires a finely tuned balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. The interplay between regulatory T (Treg) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) is one of the key determinants of this balance. Although experimental models have revealed various patterns of Treg cell expansion, DC maturation, and cytokine production according to the infecting malaria parasite species, no studies have compared all of these parameters in human infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in the same setting of endemicity. Here we show that during uncomplicated acute malaria, both species induced a significant expansion of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells expressing the key immunomodulatory molecule CTLA-4 and a significant increase in the proportion of DCs that were plasmacytoid (CD123(+)), with a decrease in the myeloid/plasmacytoid DC ratio. These changes were proportional to parasite loads but correlated neither with the intensity of clinical symptoms nor with circulating cytokine levels. One-third of P. vivax-infected patients, but no P. falciparum-infected subjects, showed impaired maturation of circulating DCs, with low surface expression of CD86. Although vivax malaria patients overall had a less inflammatory cytokine response, with a higher interleukin-10 (IL-10)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) ratio, this finding did not translate to milder clinical manifestations than those of falciparum malaria patients. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for species-specific pathogenesis and long-lasting protective immunity to malaria.
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Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: evolution in the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Retrospective study aiming at evaluating the interference of associate diseases in the evolution and prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
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Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein.
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Regulatory phosphorylation of FXYD2 by PKC and cross interactions between FXYD2, plasmalemmal Ca-ATPase and Na,K-ATPase.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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FXYD2 is a regulatory peptide associated with the ?-subunit of the kidney Na,K-ATPase. FXYD2 can be phosphorylated by PKA, and its phosphorylation activates Na,K-ATPase. Here we show that FXYD2 is phosphorylated by PKC (PKC-FXYD2-P), by PKA (PKA-FXYD2-P) or by PKA and PKC simultaneously (FXYD2-P(2)) modulating both the erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA). In erythrocyte ghosts, the addition of PKA-FXYD2-P activated Na,K-ATPase by 80%, while non-phosphorylated FXYD2 (np) activated only 55%. The addition of np FXYD2 did not affect PMCA basal activity, but FXYD2-P(2) increased the basal PMCA activity by up to 200%. Calmodulin-activated PMCA activity was increased by np FXYD2 (3-fold) or FXYD2-P(2) (2.5-fold). However, PKC-FXYD2-P increased PMCA activity only by 50%. In contrast, when PMCA was treated with PKA-FXYD2-P, the ATPase activity was inhibited by 50%. The effect of all forms of FXYD2-P on calcium uptake from PMCA resembled the pattern observed in ATP hydrolysis. Our results suggest that the FXYD2 anchoring site could be conserved among the P-ATPase family permitting cross regulation. The effects of FXYD2 on calcium uptake and calcium-stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggest a novel role for FXYD2 on PMCA.
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New improvements in automatic structure elucidation using the LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) and the SISTEMAT expert systems.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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This article describes the integration of the LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) and SISTEMAT expert systems that were both designed for the computer-assisted structure elucidation of small organic molecules. A first step has been achieved towards the linking of the SISTEMAT database with the LSD structure generator. The skeletal descriptions found by the SISTEMAT programs are now easily transferred to LSD as substructural constraints. Examples of the synergy between these expert systems are given for recently reported natural products.
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Computer-aided structure elucidation of neolignans.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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This paper describes a new module of the expert system SISTEMAT used for the prediction of the skeletons of neolignans by 13C NMR, 1H NMR and botanical data obtained from the literature. SISTEMAT is composed of MACRONO, SISCONST, C13MACH, H1MACH and SISOCBOT programs, each analyzing data of the neolignan in question to predict the carbon skeleton of the compound. From these results, the global probability is computed and the most probable skeleton predicted. SISTEMAT predicted the skeletons of 75% of the 20 neolignans tested, in a rapid and simple procedure demonstrating its advantage for the structural elucidation of new compounds.
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Sudden cardiac death athletes: a systematic review.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Previous events evidence that sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is still a reality and it keeps challenging cardiologists. Considering the importance of SCD in athletes and the requisite for an update of this matter, we endeavored to describe SCD in athletes. The Medline (via PubMed) and SciELO databases were searched using the subject keywords "sudden death, athletes and mortality". The incidence of SCD is expected at one case for each 200,000 young athletes per year. Overall it is resulted of complex dealings of factors such as arrhythmogenic substrate, regulator and triggers factors. In great part of deaths caused by heart disease in athletes younger than 35 years old investigations evidence cardiac congenital abnormalities. Athletes above 35 years old possibly die due to impairments of coronary heart disease, frequently caused by atherosclerosis. Myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction are responsible for the most cases of SCD above this age (80%). Pre-participatory athletes evaluation helps to recognize situations that may put the athletes life in risk including cardiovascular diseases. In summary, cardiologic examinations of athletes pre-competition routine is an important way to minimize the risk of SCD.
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Evidence-based public health and prospects for malaria control in Brazil.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2010
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Despite intensive control efforts over the past decades, Brazil still accounts for more than 50% of the malaria burden in the Americas and the Caribbean, with 458,041 slide-confirmed cases reported countrywide in 2007. The reason malaria has proved so difficult to control in this middle-income country with a reasonable health infrastructure remains unclear. Here we examine whether four strategies that were largely successful in other countries (aggressive active case detection, improved anti-relapse therapy for P. vivax infections, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and selective house spraying with residual insecticides) are likely to work in Brazil. We review evidence from field and laboratory studies and identify gaps in our knowledge that require further investigation with well-designed large-scale trials.
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Plasmodium falciparum accompanied the human expansion out of Africa.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Plasmodium falciparum is distributed throughout the tropics and is responsible for an estimated 230 million cases of malaria every year, with a further 1.4 billion people at risk of infection. Little is known about the genetic makeup of P. falciparum populations, despite variation in genetic diversity being a key factor in morbidity, mortality, and the success of malaria control initiatives. Here we analyze a worldwide sample of 519 P. falciparum isolates sequenced for two housekeeping genes (63 single nucleotide polymorphisms from around 5000 nucleotides per isolate). We observe a strong negative correlation between within-population genetic diversity and geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa (R(2) = 0.95) over Africa, Asia, and Oceania. In contrast, regional variation in transmission intensity seems to have had a negligible impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The striking geographic patterns of isolation by distance observed in P. falciparum mirror the ones previously documented in humans and point to a joint sub-Saharan African origin between the parasite and its host. Age estimates for the expansion of P. falciparum further support that anatomically modern humans were infected prior to their exit out of Africa and carried the parasite along during their colonization of the world.
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Fertilization outcome, embryo development and birth after unstimulated IVM.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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A common observation in oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) cycles is poor embryo quality. However, no study was dedicated to assess zygote and early cleavage embryo quality in IVM cycles. The objective of this study is to analyze fertilization outcome, embryo development and the resulting pregnancy and births in unstimulated IVM cycles.
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[Clinical profile of systemic inflammatory response after pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass].
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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the postoperative period of congenital cardiomyopathies correction is frequently accompanied by systemic inflammatory response.
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Dichorionic twins and monochorionic triplets after the transfer of two blastocysts.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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To describe a unique case of MZ dichorionic twins and MZ monochorionic triplets in a quintuplet gestation after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) and blastocyst transfer.
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Electric countershock and cold stress effects on liver and adrenal gland.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Cold exposure induces glycogen and lipid depletion in the liver and the adrenal gland, respectively. However, no previous study has determined the effects of electrical countershock on those tissues. We aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical countershock on lipid depletion in the adrenal gland and on glycogen depletion in the liver.
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Anti-hypertensive drugs have different effects on ventricular hypertrophy regression.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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There is a direct relationship between the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and a decreased risk of mortality. This investigation aimed to describe the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on cardiac hypertrophy through a meta-analysis of the literature.
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Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.
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Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) in Brazilian Amazon.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Duffy binding protein (DBP), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, plays a critical role in Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte invasion. Sixty-eight of 366 (18.6%) subjects had IgG anti-DBP antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a community-based cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Despite continuous exposure to low-level malaria transmission, the overall seroprevalence decreased to 9.0% when the population was reexamined 12 months later. Antibodies from 16 of 50 (36.0%) subjects who were ELISA-positive at the baseline were able to inhibit erythrocyte binding to at least one of two DBP variants tested. Most (13 of 16) of these subjects still had inhibitory antibodies when reevaluated 12 months later. Cumulative exposure to malaria was the strongest predictor of DBP seropositivity identified by multiple logistic regression models in this population. The poor antibody recognition of DBP elicited by natural exposure to P. vivax in Amazonian populations represents a challenge to be addressed by vaccine development strategies.
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Epidemiology and control of frontier malaria in Brazil: lessons from community-based studies in rural Amazonia.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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We describe the epidemiology of malaria in a frontier agricultural settlement in Brazilian Amazonia. We analysed the incidence of slide-confirmed symptomatic infections diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 in a cohort of 531 individuals (2281.53 person-years of follow-up) and parasite prevalence data derived from four cross-sectional surveys. Overall, the incidence rates of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum were 20.6/100 and 6.8/100 person-years at risk, respectively, with a marked decline in the incidence of both species (81.4 and 56.8%, respectively) observed between 2001 and 2006. PCR revealed 5.4-fold more infections than conventional microscopy in population-wide cross-sectional surveys carried out between 2004 and 2006 (average prevalence, 11.3 vs. 2.0%). Only 27.2% of PCR-positive (but 73.3% of slide-positive) individuals had symptoms when enrolled, indicating that asymptomatic carriage of low-grade parasitaemias is a common phenomenon in frontier settlements. A circular cluster comprising 22.3% of the households, all situated in the area of most recent occupation, comprised 69.1% of all malaria infections diagnosed during the follow-up, with malaria incidence decreasing exponentially with distance from the cluster centre. By targeting one-quarter of the households, with selective indoor spraying or other house-protection measures, malaria incidence could be reduced by more than two-thirds in this community.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and geographic structure in the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax: prospects for genome-wide association studies.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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The ideal malaria parasite populations for initial mapping of genomic regions contributing to phenotypes such as drug resistance and virulence, through genome-wide association studies, are those with high genetic diversity, allowing for numerous informative markers, and rare meiotic recombination, allowing for strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and phenotype-determining loci. However, levels of genetic diversity and LD in field populations of the major human malaria parasite P. vivax remain little characterized.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.