Rationale: In normal lungs, local changes in pleural pressure (Ppl) are generalized over the whole pleural surface. However, in a patient with injured lungs, we observed (using electrical impedance tomography) a pendelluft phenomenon (movement of air within the lung from nondependent to dependent regions without change in tidal volume) that was caused by spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. Objectives: To test the hypotheses that in injured lungs negative Ppl generated by diaphragm contraction has localized effects (in dependent regions) that are not uniformly transmitted, and that such localized changes in Ppl cause pendelluft. Methods: We used electrical impedance tomography and dynamic computed tomography (CT) to analyze regional inflation in anesthetized pigs with lung injury. Changes in local Ppl were measured in nondependent versus dependent regions using intrabronchial balloon catheters. The airway pressure needed to achieve comparable dependent lung inflation during paralysis versus spontaneous breathing was estimated. Measurements and Main Results: In all animals, spontaneous breathing caused pendelluft during early inflation, which was associated with more negative local Ppl in dependent regions versus nondependent regions (-13.0 ± 4.0 vs. -6.4 ± 3.8 cm H2O; P < 0.05). Dynamic CT confirmed pendelluft, which occurred despite limitation of tidal volume to less than 6 ml/kg. Comparable inflation of dependent lung during paralysis required almost threefold greater driving pressure (and tidal volume) versus spontaneous breathing (28.0 ± 0.5 vs. 10.3 ± 0.6 cm H2O, P < 0.01; 14.8 ± 4.6 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6 ml/kg, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Spontaneous breathing effort during mechanical ventilation causes unsuspected overstretch of dependent lung during early inflation (associated with reciprocal deflation of nondependent lung). Even when not increasing tidal volume, strong spontaneous effort may potentially enhance lung damage.
Studies correlating the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of nonaerated lung assessed by CT shunt yielded inconsistent results. We systematically analyzed this relationship and scrutinized key methodological factors that may compromise it. We hypothesized that both physiological shunt and the ratio between PaO2 and the fraction of inspired oxygen enable estimation of CT shunt at the bedside.
Parte superior do formulário Digite um texto ou endereço de um site ou traduza um documento. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological changes in lung parenchyma of pigs affected by interstitial lung disease induced after the infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs). Ten female swines were submitted to pulmonary fibrosis induced by a single dose of intratracheal bleomicine sulfate. Animals were arranged into two groups: Group 1: induced-disease control and Group 2: cell therapy using BMMCs. Both groups were clinically evaluated for 180 days. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed at 90 and 180 days. BMMC sampling was performed in cell therapy group at 90 days. Euthanasia was performed, and samples were collected for histology and immunohistochemistry. The 90-days HRCT demonstrated typical interstitial lesions in pulmonary parenchyma similarly to human disease. The 180-days HRCT in Group 1 demonstrated advanced stages of the disease when compared with Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the presence of pre-existent vessels and neoformed vessels as well as predominant young cells in the injured parenchyma of Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that cell therapy would promote a reconstructive response. Histology and HRCT analysis suggest a positive application of swine as a model for a bleomicine inducing of fibrotic interstitial pulmonary disease.
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