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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Drugs in context: a historical perspective on theories of psychopharmaceutical efficacy.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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This article demonstrates that psychoanalysis and socially oriented psychiatry were crucial to the understanding and adoption of the first effective psychopharmaceuticals in North American psychiatry. In the 1950s and the early 1960s, psychoanalysts, socially oriented psychiatrists, and biologists collaborated, debated, and organized interdisciplinary conferences to situate the biochemistry of new psychopharmaceuticals, such as chlorpromazine, in the broader psychosocial context of patients lives. Psychoanalytical and sociological perspectives not only helped American psychiatrists explain the mechanism of drug action in research but also established the professional authority of psychiatrists over the new pharmaceuticals. As modern pharmacology narrows its focus to microscopic targets in the body, I argue that this early drug research illustrates the present-day need for holistic and interdisciplinary approaches to drug response that acknowledge the psychosocial significance of psychiatric medication in the lives of individuals.
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Psychiatry, authoritarianism, and revolution: the politics of mental illness during military dictatorships in Argentina, 1966-1983.
Bull Hist Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology.
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Acid-Denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as Model Substrate to Study the Chaperone Activity of Protein Disulfide Isomerase.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denaturation. Furthermore, this acid-denatured GFP has been used as substrate in studies of the folding activity of some bacterial chaperones and other chaperone-like molecules. Protein disulfide isomerase enzymes, a family of eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides, play a key role in protein folding and it could display chaperone activity. However, contrasting results have been reported using different proteins as model substrates. Here, we report the further application of GFP as a model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes. Since refolding of acid-denatured GFP can be easily and directly monitored, a simple micro-assay was used to study the effect of the molecular participants in protein refolding assisted by PDI. Additionally, the effect of a well-known inhibitor of PDI chaperone activity was also analyzed. Because of the diversity their functional activities, PDI enzymes are potentially interesting drug targets. Since PDI may be implicated in the protection of cells against ER stress, including cancer cells, inhibitors of PDI might be able to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; furthermore, it has been demonstrated that blocking the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds of proteins associated with the cell surface markedly reduces the infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus. Although several high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to test PDI reductase activity have been described, we report here a novel and simple micro-assay to test the chaperone activity of PDI enzymes, which is amenable for HTS of PDI inhibitors.
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[Tuberculous pericarditis. A case reported and a brief review].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Pericarditis in patients with tuberculosis is estimated from one to eight percent. The tuberculosis is considered endemic in developing countries and tuberculous pericarditis is found frequently in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This entity is characterized by mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes, sternum or spine with retrograde tracheobronchial extension. Spread may also take place by the hematogenous route. The beginning can be suddenly, like an unknown pericarditis, with cough, dyspnea, chest pain, ankle edema, fever, tachycardia, and night sweats. Clinical examination shows pericardial friction rub, liver congestion, ascites, edema and low intensity cardiac noise. Chest radiograph shows cardiomegaly. The two-dimensional echocardiography verifies pericardial effusion. The PPD skin test can be negative in 30% by the presence of anergy. Definitive diagnosis is the demonstration of pericardium inflammatory granulomas and the presence of acid-alcohol resistant bacilli in the pericardial biopsy. We conclude that the tuberculous pericarditis diagnosis should be established by clinical suspicion, two-dimensional echocardiography and pericardiocentesis and later pericardiectomy must be practiced as soon as possible before receiving pharmacological treatment with triple drug therapy and steroids.
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Diffusion tensor imaging of incentive effects in prospective memory after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Few studies exist investigating the brain-behavior relations of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, children with moderate-to-severe TBI performed an EB-PM test with two motivational enhancement conditions and underwent concurrent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 months post-injury. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n=37) or moderate-to-severe TBI (n=40) were contrasted. Significant group differences were found for fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient for orbitofrontal white matter (WM), cingulum bundles, and uncinate fasciculi. The FA of these WM structures in children with TBI significantly correlated with EB-PM performance in the high, but not the low motivation condition. Regression analyses within the TBI group indicated that the FA of the left cingulum bundle (p=0.003), left orbitofrontal WM (p<0.02), and left (p<0.02) and right (p<0.008) uncinate fasciculi significantly predicted EB-PM performance in the high motivation condition. We infer that the cingulum bundles, orbitofrontal WM, and uncinate fasciculi are important WM structures mediating motivation-based EB-PM responses following moderate-to-severe TBI in children.
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Entamoeba histolytica: biochemical characterization of a protein disulfide isomerase.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes are eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze oxidation, reduction and isomerization of disulfide bonds in polypeptide substrates. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of a PDI enzyme from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (EhPDI). Our results show that EhPDI behaves mainly as an oxidase/isomerase and can be inhibited by bacitracin, a known PDI inhibitor; moreover, it exhibits chaperone-like activity. Albeit its physiological role in the life style of the parasite (including virulence and survival) remains to be studied, EhPDI could represent a potential drug target for anti-amebic therapy.
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Pharmacogenetic screening of N-acetyltransferase 2, thiopurine s-methyltransferase, and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in Northwestern Mexicans.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Specific information about the population pharmacogenetics can be the starting point to study the inheritance of these traits, to design individual drug therapy, and to develop new drugs rationally. Pharmacogenetic studies have been performed in some regions of Mexico, such as Central and Northeast, but this kind of study has not been conducted in the Northwest region so far. Here, we report the distribution of NAT2, TPMT, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms in Baja California, Mexico. We found that our population sample exhibits allele and genotype frequencies that are highly similar to those observed in Caucasian populations, although it should be noted that there are slight similarities with those determined in other populations. As allelic variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes are prevalent in our population, it is important to consider pharmacogenetic testing as part of the standard diagnostic protocols before medication.
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Hydrophobic weak acid polymers as controlled release carriers.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Poly(carboxyalkyl methacrylates) were studied as a cationic-drug delivery system, at pH 6.8 and 8.0. Different polymer/drug complexes were used to prepare compressed tablets. By kinetics experiments, we have found that drug release is dependent on both the hydrophobicity of the whole complex and the pH of the environment. Furthermore, a mechanism of dissociation/erosion clearly describes the drug release from a complex formed by a polymer soluble at target pH; otherwise, a mechanism of dissolution/diffusion is depicted. Additionally, we have observed that hydrophilic fillers increase the drug release rate. Since our results using different polymer/drug complexes exhibit pH-sensitive drug release, we propose that the poly(carboxyalkyl methacrylates) have potential as a colon-specific drug-delivery system.
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[Risk stratified in the National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes at the IMSS].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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to identify prognostic factors in the National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes.
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Diffusion tensor imaging of the cingulum bundle in children after traumatic brain injury.
Dev Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Structural damage to the prefrontal-cingulate network has been implicated in cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-six children who had sustained moderate-to-severe TBI and 43 children with extracranial injury were imaged using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were found in the cingulum bundles bilaterally in the TBI group. Cingulum ADC was related to frontal lesion volume, injury severity, and injury mechanism. Finally, cingulum DTI parameters were related to cognitive control measures. DTI detects TBI-related injury to the cingulum, which may facilitate advances in assessment and treatment.
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Evaluation of clinical checklists for fragile X syndrome screening in Brazilian intellectually disabled males: proposal for a new screening tool.
J Intellect Disabil
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Patients with fragile X syndrome present a variable phenotype, which contributes to the underdiagnosing of this condition. The use of clinical checklists in individuals with intellectual disability can help in selecting patients to be given priority in the molecular investigation of the fragile X mutation in the FMR1 gene. Some features included in checklists are better predictors than others, but they can vary among different populations and with patient age. In the present study, we evaluated 20 features listed in four clinical checklists from the literature, using a sample of 192 Brazilian male patients presenting with intellectual disability (30 positive and 162 negative for fragile X mutation). After statistical analysis, 12 out of the 20 items analyzed showed significant differences in their distributions between the two groups. These features were grouped in a new checklist that can help clinicians in their referral for fragile X testing in patients with developmental delay.
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Diffusion tensor imaging of hemispheric asymmetries in the developing brain.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 39 right-handed children to examine structural hemispheric differences and the impact of age, socioeconomic status, and sex on these differences. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were smaller in the left than in the right temporal, prefrontal, anterior internal capsular and the thalamic regions, and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were larger in the left than in the right internal capsule, thalamus, and cingulate. Significant region-by-sex interactions disclosed that the relation of DTI asymmetries to performance depended on sex including the relation of temporal lobes to reading comprehension and the relation of frontal lobes to solving applied mathematical problems.
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Reduction in cerebral blood flow in areas appearing as white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in tissue classified as white matter hyperintensities (WMH), normal appearing white matter, and grey matter. Seventeen healthy older adults received structural and ASL MRI. Cerebral blood flow was derived for three tissue types: WMH, normal appearing white matter, and grey matter. Cerebral blood flow was lower in WMH areas relative to normal appearing white matter, which in turn, was lower than grey matter. Regions with consistently lower CBF across individuals were more likely to appear as WMH. Results are consistent with an emerging literature linking diminished regional perfusion with the risk of developing WMH.
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Oxidative folding and reductive activities of EhPDI, a protein disulfide isomerase from Entamoeba histolytica.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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PDI enzymes are oxidoreductases that catalyze oxidation, reduction and isomerization of disulfide bonds in polypeptide substrates. We have previously identified an E. histolytica PDI enzyme (EhPDI) that exhibits oxidase activity in vivo. However, little is known about the specific role of its redox-related structural features on the enzymatic activity. Here, we have studied the in vivo oxidative folding of EhPDI by mutagenic analysis and functional complementation assays as well as the in vitro oxidative folding and reductive activities by comparative kinetics using functional homologues in standard assays. We have found that the active-site cysteine residues of the functional domains (Trx-domains) are essential for catalysis of disulfide bond formation in polypeptides and proteins, such as the bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, we have shown that the recombinant EhPDI enzyme has some typical properties of PDI enzymes: oxidase and reductase activities. These activities were comparable to those observed for other functional equivalents, such as bovine PDI or bacterial thioredoxin, under the same experimental conditions. These findings will be helpful for further studies intended to understand the physiological role of EhPDI.
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[Acute myocardial infarction due to pheochromocytoma].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
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pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that secretes high levels of catecholamines and it is able to exert serious cardiovascular effects. The cardiac involvement is the most frequent, with reported conditions such as transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias.
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Autistic disorder phenotype associated to a complex 15q intrachromosomal rearrangement.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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The proximal regions of acrocentric chromosomes, particularly 15q11.2, are frequently involved in structural rearrangement. However, interstitial duplications involving one of the chromosome 15 homologues are less frequent, with few patients described with molecular techniques. These patients present distinctive clinical findings including developmental delay and intellectual disability, minor dysmorphic facial features, epilepsy, and autistic behavior. Here we describe an interstitial rearrangement of chromosome 15 composed of a triplication -6.9?Mb from 15q11.2 to 15q13.2 followed by a duplication of -2.4?Mb from 15q13.2 to 15q13.3, defined using different approaches as MLPA, qPCR, array and FISH. FISH revealed that the middle part of the triplicated segment was in inverted position. The parental origin of the rearrangement was assessed using methylation assay and SNP array that revealed the maternal origin of the additional material. The patient presents most of the clinical features associated to 15q11.2 triplication: minor dysmorphic facial features, generalized epilepsy, absence seizures, intellectual disability, and autistic behavior. In conclusion, the use of more accurate molecular tools enabled a detailed investigation, providing the identification of intrachromosome duplication/triplication and bringing new light to the study of genetic causes of autistic disorders.
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Practice guidelines for the implementation of a quality program in thromboprophylaxis and treatment management in patients with venous thromboembolic disease.
Cir Cir
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Venous thromboembolic disease is a major cause of morbidity and hospital mortality worldwide. Although exact figures are unknown in Mexico, achieving uniformity of criteria among the specialties involved in the prophylaxis and treatment will offer a clearer picture and contribute to a more rational and interdisciplinary approach in order to improve the quality of care for patients and increase the level of awareness of this entity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.