JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of malpositioning on panoramic radiography in implant dentistry.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The widely used panoramic radiography as a special kind of tomography underlies intrinsic procedural restrictions such as poor definition, inconsistent magnification, geometric distortion and spatial depositioning of objects situated outside the focal trough. This results in a non-anatomic display of the radiographed anatomic structures. Individual mandibular angle and width of the jaws, adjustment of the focal trough, jaw incongruence as well as patient positioning increase the inconsistency in display of the radiographed objects. This study precisely evaluated the quantitative impact of object malpositioning on the display in panoramic radiography.
Related JoVE Video
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC).
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is expressed in a number of malignancies (e.g. prostate, breast, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, lung and head and neck tumors). Based on studies in which ALCAM showed prognostic relevance in several carcinomas, it has been discussed as a potential therapeutic target. We evaluate its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). A tissue microarray was constructed from more than 400 HNSCCs. Slides were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for ALCAM. Membranous and cytoplasmic ALCAM positivity were rated separately. The tumors were combined into (a) cases with membranous staining and (b) cases with cytoplasmic staining, independently from membranous/cytoplasmic co-expression. We found staining in 70.3% of interpretable HNSCCs. Pure membranous staining was found in 12.4% of tumors, with cytoplasmic positivity in 40.1% of cases, and membranous/cytoplasmic co-expression in 17.9%. No significant association between ALCAM positivity and clinical parameters was found. No significant association between ALCAM expression and survival data was observed for all tumors. The frequent expression of ALCAM (70.3%) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas does not support an important role for HNSCC biology. The increased levels of ALCAM suggest the existence of a therapeutic window for potential anti-ALCAM therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Outcome of microvascular free flaps in a high-volume training centre.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular free tissue transfer allows major ablative defects following oncologic surgical and traumatic reasons to be reliably reconstructed in the head and neck region. A retrospective analysis of the microvascular flap procedures which were performed within one year in a high volume training centre was performed.
Related JoVE Video
Numb chin syndrome: a rare and often overlooked symptom.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numb chin syndrome (NCS) describes a sensory neuropathy characterized by numbness in the distribution of the terminal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Benign as well as malignant diseases are known to cause NCS. This is often misdiagnosed, and in some cases the symptom may lead to a late detection of malignancy. Reports of 10 cases in which NCS was the presenting and isolated symptom, caused by extracranial malignancies, drugs, or dental/surgical interventions, are presented. This article outlines the symptoms and the diagnostic approaches taken, provides a short review of the etiology and pathogenesis, and proposes diagnostic criteria and treatment of NCS. Both medical practitioners and dentists need to be aware of the relationship between malignancies and paresthesia of the chin or complete loss of sensation in partial segments of the jaw. In addition, dentists should be aware of the diagnostic limitations of an orthopantomogram to detect underlying diseases beyond localized dental disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Her2 expression and gene amplification is rarely detectable in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Her2 (ErbB2) transforms cells when overexpressed and is an important therapeutic target in breast cancer. Contrary to breast cancer, studies on Her2 overexpression and gene amplification in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region described largely different results. This study was undertaken to learn more on the prevalence and clinical significance of HER2 amplification and overexpression in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
Related JoVE Video
Fractal dimension of time-resolved autofluorescence discriminates tumour from healthy tissues in the oral cavity.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early detection and complete resection of oral carcinomas is of crucial importance for patient survival. This could be significantly improved by developing a non-invasive, sensitive and real-time detection technique. Time-resolved autofluorescence measurement is state-of-the-art technology originally developed for non-destructive inspection of material. In this study, we measured time-resolved autofluorescence in tumours and healthy tissues of the oral cavity ex vivo and calculated the corresponding fractal dimension which was significantly higher in tumours than in healthy tissues (1.8 vs. 1.6, P < 0.001, unpaired t-test) with non-overlapping 95% confidential intervals 1.88-1.84 and 1.57-1.69, respectively. Very high specificity (86%) could be reached at 100% sensitivity. The area under the curve was 99%, further suggesting the superior prediction potential of fractal dimension based on time-resolved autofluorescence spectra.
Related JoVE Video
Radiography-based score indicative for the pathogenicity of bacteria in odontogenic infections.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a new radiography-based score to assess the potential of bacteria to cause odontogenic infections derived from the occurrence of bacteria at small or large radiographical lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of evidence for predictive and prognostic value of cyclin D1 gene polymorphism CCND1 G870A for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) has a G to A polymorphism at the splice donor site of exon 4, position 870. The A allele codes for a truncated variant, cyclin D1b, which may have higher transforming activity. Data regarding the predictive and prognostic value of the CCND1 G870A polymorphism in tumors are controversial. We aimed to examine this polymorphism in patients with oral carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of melanoma antigen-A family and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens represents an independent marker for poor survival in head and neck cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients remains poor. The identification of high-risk subgroups is needed for the development of custom-tailored therapies. The expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) has been linked to a worse prognosis in other cancer types; however, their prognostic value in HNSCC is unclear because only few patients have been examined and data on CTA protein expression are sparse. A tissue microarray consisting of tumor samples from 453 HNSCC patients was evaluated for the expression of CTA proteins using immunohistochemistry. Frequency of expression and the subcellular expression pattern (nuclear, cytoplasmic, or both) was recorded. Protein expression of melanoma antigen (MAGE)-A family CTA, MAGE-C family CTA and NY-ESO-1 was found in approximately 30, 7 and 4% of tumors, respectively. The subcellular expression pattern in particular had a marked impact on the patients' prognosis. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with (i) simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear expression compared to (ii) either cytoplasmic or nuclear expression and (iii) negative patients was 23.0 versus 109.0 versus 102.5 months, for pan-MAGE (p?
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic relevance of circulating tumor cells in blood and disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current staging methods for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC) need to be improved to predict the risk of individual patients. Since hematogenous tumor cell dissemination is a key event in tumor progression we assessed the prognostic significance of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood (PB) from OSCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in consideration of primary diseases and concomitant therapies.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since its first description by Marx in 2003, the etiology of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is the subject of numerous scientific discussions for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Many retrospective studies on its etiology and pathogenesis have been carried out to explain pathological mechanisms; most of them just take a close look at the issue of dosage and application. Recently, attempts have been made, to identify co-factors which might promote the development of BRONJ.
Related JoVE Video
Immunohistochemical and FISH analysis of EGFR and its prognostic value in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study immunohistochemical expression of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral carcinomas and the head and neck region to examine possible associations with various features of the tumors and survival of the patients.
Related JoVE Video
The detection of oral pre- malignant lesions with an autofluorescence based imaging system (VELscopeTM) - a single blinded clinical evaluation.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The disease specific five-year survival rate especially for patients with advanced oral cancer has not improved significantly over the period of time. The most effective way of combating this dilemma is an early detection, diagnosis and eradication of early-stage lesions and their precursors. The use of VELscope® using an autofluorescence as a diagnostic tool might be useful in early detection of oral malignant lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Immunohistochemical analysis of p16 expression, HPV infection and its prognostic utility in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Functional inactivation of p16 is an early and frequent event in the carcinogenesis of tumours of the head and neck region. However, the prognostic relevance of p16 protein expression for these tumours has been controversial. This study aims to examine immunohistochemical expression of p16 and HP virus in a large number of oral carcinomas, and possible correlation with clinical features of the tumours and survival of the patients.
Related JoVE Video
CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene products, which show a significant association to cell proliferation and cell cycle control, are of high scientific interest, because genes as well as gene products could be possible targets for a specific therapeutic approach and eventually be prognostic markers.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative bleeding risk for cutaneous surgery in the head and neck region with continued phenprocoumon therapy.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a total of 171 surgical procedures for lesions in the head and neck region in patients in whom phenprocoumon therapy was not stopped, 16 (9%) postoperative bleeding events were observed over a follow-up period of two weeks. Local measures were sufficient in all cases except one severe case where blood transfusion was needed and anticoagulant treatment was stopped for 7 days. The bleeding risk was significantly higher for the surgical procedures of the nose than those in other areas (21% versus 6%, P = 0.014), but was not influenced by the international normalized ratio (INR) of blood coagulation, size, site and type of the lesion, surgical procedure, and sex and age of the patients. The bleeding rate in patients not on any anticoagulation therapy was significantly lower (6/211 = 3%). Across both groups, just over 80% of the bleeding episodes were within the first two days (55% on the same day and 32% on the next day) of the surgery. No bleeding was recorded after 5 days. Our data suggest that cutaneous surgery in the head and neck region can be safely performed with continued phenprocoumon therapy in most cases in an INR range of 1.3-3.4, but rarely severe bleeding does occur and can be managed with a close-contact follow-up and with 24-h on call services during the first two days postoperatively.
Related JoVE Video
P53 immunohistochemical expression does not correlate with clinical features in 207 carcinomas of the oral cavity and in the head and neck region.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the relevance of immunohistochemical p53 expression in carcinomas of the oral cavity and of the head and neck region. Long-term clinical and histopathological follow-up findings as well as HPV status are correlated with the results of this examination.
Related JoVE Video
Mandibular cortical shape index in non-standardised panoramic radiographs for identifying patients with osteoporosis as defined by the German Osteology Organization.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this prospective controlled study was to determine the validity of the mandibular cortical shape index (CI) on panoramic radiographs in distinguishing patients with osteoporosis as defined by the German Osteology Organization (Dachverbands der Deutschsprachigen Osteologischen Fachgesellschaften, DVO). The study group contained 50 patients (33 female, 17 male, mean age: 74.9 years), who had a high risk of osteoporosis. 50 young patients (33 female, 17 male, mean age: 37.9 years) with no anamnestic evidence of osteoporosis served as control. Three blinded observers evaluated panoramic views of the study and the control group in a mixed manner regarding the mandibular cortical shape index. The study group underwent bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and received a diagnosis according to the Organizations guidelines (normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis). The CI showed a high sensitivity of 72.2% and a high specificity of 93.9% with a highly significant predictive value (Chi-square = 22.96, p < 0.001), while the observers agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.47). We concluded that patients with a cortical shape index of the category assessed as "severe" on non-standardised panoramic radiographs have a higher risk of suffering systemic osteoporosis. The CI in panoramic radiographs is a good screening tool, which could be implemented in the routine assessment of panoramic radiographs in elder patients.
Related JoVE Video
Amplification of the PPFIA1 gene region on 11q13 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC).
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analyzing chromosomal amplifications delivers valuable information for identification of oncogenes. For carcinomas of the oral cavity only few genes have been identified in amplified regions. The aim of this study was to search genes in amplified regions as possible biomarkers and targets for novel therapies.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of bisphosphonates on human osteoblast migration and integrin aVb3/tenascin C gene expression in vitro.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bisphosphonates are therapeutics of bone diseases, such as Pagets disease, multiple myeloma or osteoclastic metastases. As a severe side effect the bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) often requires surgical treatment and is accompanied with a disturbed wound healing.Therefore, the influence on adhesion and migration of human osteoblasts (hOB) after bisphosphonate therapy has been investigated by morphologic as well as gene expression methods.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts.
Related JoVE Video
Bleeding incidence after oral surgery with continued oral anticoagulation.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence of postoperative hemorrhage in patients treated with coumarins without interruption of the anticoagulant treatment undergoing oral surgical procedures, mostly osteotomies for tooth removal, when compared with patients who had never been anticoagulated.
Related JoVE Video
Leech therapy in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Corrective plastic surgery is indicated after accidents, burns, cancer surgery, or postoperative wound healing disorders with large tissue defects. The range of reconstructive techniques includes local skin flaps, pedicle grafts, and microvascular anastomosed flaps in the case of large defects. Main complications such as arterial and venous insufficiency caused by a vessel collapse or a vascular spasm are reported regularly in the area of anastomosed vessels and are the concern of any surgeon. Today, leeches are used if wound healing is at risk because of hemodynamic imbalance or a venous insufficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Adhesion molecule L1 is down-regulated in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors versus benign neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumors.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is caused by a disorder of a single gene on chromosome 17 that usually restrains cell division. A sequence that is frequently associated with NF-1 is tumor progression from neurofibromas to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of the neural L1 cell adhesion molecule in dermal-diffuse neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas, and MPNSTs of NF-1. We retrospectively analyzed surgically resected primary tumors, including 20 dermal neurofibromas, 23 plexiform neurofibromas, and 17 MPNSTs, by immunohistochemistry in paraffin sections of NF-1 tumors with the use of the L1-specific monoclonal antibody UJ127, which does not cross-react with other members of the L1 family. Immunostainings for CD34 and S100 were included to distinguish and allocate L1-expressing Schwann cells and perineural (specialized) fibroblasts. Our data showed that L1 is highly expressed in all benign NF-1 tumors and in some but not all MPNSTs. Furthermore, we demonstrated a correlation between L1 expression and differentiation grade of MPNSTs. There was a significant trend toward lower or nondetectable expression in the poorly differentiated MPNSTs, in contrast to all other tumor entities so far investigated, in which L1 expression correlated positive with malignancy, except for juvenile but not adult-derived neuroblastomas. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular basis of the varying effects of the degree of L1 expression, receptor, and signal transduction mechanisms in different tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Metastases in odontogenic cysts: literature review and case presentation.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant tumors in the oral cavity are relatively rare. About 5% of all malignant growths in the body are localized in the oral cavity. The vast majority of oral malignancies are primary tumors with squamous cell carcinoma being the most frequent and sarcomas occurring very seldom. Secondary tumors caused by hematogenous spread arising from a tumor localized elsewhere in the body are extremely rare. About 1% of all oral cancers are metastases to the jawbones and the surrounding soft tissues. Metastases to the jaws are mainly caused by malignant tumors of the breast, lung, kidney, bone, and colon. They occur in the late state of the disease and are regularly detected by staging examinations including scintigraphy. Even more rare are metastases into odontogenic cysts. Odontogenic cysts include dentigerous cysts, periapical or radicular cysts, and the keratocysts-nowadays declared as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The incidence of odontogenic cysts is about 10% to 15% of all oral biopsies and therefore general dentists are frequently faced with these types of lesions. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding metastasis into odontogenic cysts and to further highlight this rare entity with the help of a clinical case.
Related JoVE Video
L1 is highly expressed in tumors of the nervous system: a study of over 8000 human tissues.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) has been detected in different malignant tumors and is associated with unfavorable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we assessed L1 expression in more than 8000 normal human tissues and different types of tumors, both malignant and non-malignant, and neural and non-neural.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical follow-up examination of surgically treated fractures of the condylar process using the transparotid approach.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The surgical approaches for the open treatment of condylar process fractures have been controversial. In our study, we evaluated the morbidity of the transparotid approach during 2 years of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Primary osteoplasty using calvarian bone in patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The results of primary bone grafting in terms of initial cleft width, existence or absence of a lateral incisor and scar formation in the donor area are compared.
Related JoVE Video
Intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography in oral and maxillofacial surgery using a C-arm prototype: first clinical experiences after treatment of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the first clinical applications of intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography with an integrated flat-panel detector in oral and maxillofacial surgery after surgical treatment of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures
Related JoVE Video
The innovative application of a novel bone adhesive for facial fracture osteosynthesis-in vitro and in vivo results.
J Biomed Mater Res A
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluates a novel adhesive fixation technique to affix cortical bone fragments to osteosynthesis plates using common PMMA cement. This technique utilizes a new amphiphilic bone bonding agent adhering with both hydrophilic bone and hydrophobic PMMA cement. After in vitro biomechanical testing of the bonding strength with explanted bovine and rabbit calvarian bone samples, osteosynthesis plates with screw holes of 1.3 and 1.5 mm were placed on the cranial bone of New Zealand white rabbits and the bond strength of these plates was determined through tension tests. In vitro bond strengths of 19.8-26.5 MPa were obtained. Control samples, prepared without a bone bonding agent, exhibited bone bonding strengths <0.2 MPa. In vivo respective bond strengths at the cranium of the white rabbits were 2.5-4.1 MPa 2 weeks post surgery and 1.9-2.5 MPa 12 weeks after implantation. This new innovative fixation method can be envisioned for cases in which conventional fixation techniques of screws and plates are insufficient or not possible due to the bone or trauma conditions. The observed bonding strengths support implementing this technique in nonload bearing regions, such as the central midface or frontal sinus, facilitating immobilization until bone reunion is complete.
Related JoVE Video
An odontogenic keratocystic tumor in the buccal space: an unusual site of origin and a review of the literature.
In Vivo
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) arise from remnants of epithelial structures associated with the development of teeth and occur predominantly intraosseously. In rare occasions they can appear extraosseously in the gingiva as peripheral counterparts; only 15 cases have been reported to date. Evenmore rare are cases of KCOTs of the buccal soft tissues. The aim of this report is to present a rare case of KCOT affecting the buccal soft tissue as an original site and a review of the literature regarding diagnostic and therapeutic options.
Related JoVE Video
CXCR4/SDF-1?-mediated chemotaxis in an in vivo model of metastatic esophageal carcinoma.
In Vivo
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha; SDF-1?) play an important role in tumor cell chemotaxis and metastatic homing of esophageal carcinoma. Several methods are available to examine tumor cell migration in vitro. However, in vivo chemotaxis is subject to complex tumor-host interactions. The aim of this study was to establish an in vivo model of chemotaxis for esophageal carcinoma that allows the examination of tumor cell migration and metastatic homing in the complex microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
Extensive sublingual epidermoid cyst--diagnosis by immunohistological analysis and proof by podoplanin.
In Vivo
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present the case of a surgically treated 39-year-old man with diagnosis of a giant sublingual internal epidermoid cyst. Usually, such dermoid or epidermoid cysts are caused by aberrant ectodermal tissues or by acquired aberrant epithelial tissues arising from the foetal period, or from trauma or surgery. The incidence of oral dermoid or epidermoid cysts is about 1.6%; most occur at the mouth floor but they nevertheless are very rare.
Related JoVE Video
Current trends and future perspectives of bone substitute materials - from space holders to innovative biomaterials.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An autologous bone graft is still the ideal material for the repair of craniofacial defects, but its availability is limited and harvesting can be associated with complications. Bone replacement materials as an alternative have a long history of success. With increasing technological advances the spectrum of grafting materials has broadened to allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials, providing material specific advantages. A large number of bone-graft substitutes are available including allograft bone preparations such as demineralized bone matrix and calcium-based materials. More and more replacement materials consist of one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which supports the ingrowth of new bone; and osteoinductive proteins, which sustain mitogenesis of undifferentiated cells; and osteogenic cells (osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors), which are capable of forming bone in the proper environment. All substitutes can either replace autologous bone or expand an existing amount of autologous bone graft. Because an understanding of the properties of each material enables individual treatment concepts this review presents an overview of the principles of bone replacement, the types of graft materials available, and considers future perspectives. Bone substitutes are undergoing a change from a simple replacement material to an individually created composite biomaterial with osteoinductive properties to enable enhanced defect bridging.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.