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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Familial mental retardation: a review and practical classification.
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Mental retardation (MR) is a definition which comprises a series of conditions whose common feature is an intellectual handicap that develops before the age of 18, afflicting 2-3% of the worlds population. The classification of MR into different categories is determined by the extent of the handicap instead of its cause, which often remains unrecognized. Sometimes, MR runs in a family, characterizing familial MR, and those cases permit an in-depth look into the genetic causes and consequences of the problem. However, almost no work is available on the prevalence of familial MR among the registered MR cases, possibly because familial MR is a term with no clear definition. The scope of this work is to review the topic and discuss the implications of different genetic and environmental factors, which characterize particular categories of familial cases, suggesting a practical classification of familial MR, which is important for epidemiologic studies and also for counseling in the clinic. Some of the aspects are discussed under the perspective of a newly-developed country like Brazil.
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Thalassic biogas production from sea wrack biomass using different microbial seeds: cow manure, marine sediment and sea wrack-associated microflora.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Sea wrack (dislodged sea grasses and seaweeds) was used in biogas production. Fresh water scarcity in island communities where sea wrack could accumulate led to seawater utilization as liquid substrate. Three microbial seeds cow manure (CM), marine sediment (MS), and sea wrack-associated microflora (SWA) were explored for biogas production. The average biogas produced were 2172±156 mL (MS), 1223±308 mL (SWA) and 551±126 mL (CM). Though methane potential (396.9 mL(CH4) g(-1) volatile solid) computed from sea wrack proximate values was comparable to other feedstocks, highest methane yield was low (MS=94.33 mL(CH4) g(-1) VS). Among the microbial seeds, MS proved the best microbial source in utilizing sea wrack biomass and seawater. However, salinity (MS=42‰) observed exceeded average seawater salinity (34‰). Hence, methanogenic activity could have been inhibited. This is the first report on sea wrack biomass utilization for thalassic biogas production.
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Inhibition of dual/mixed tropic HIV-1 isolates by CCR5-inhibitors in primary lymphocytes and macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Dual/mixed-tropic HIV-1 strains are predominant in a significant proportion of patients, though little information is available regarding their replication-capacity and susceptibility against CCR5-antagonists in-vitro. The aim of the study was to analyze the replication-capacity and susceptibility to maraviroc of HIV-1 clinical isolates with different tropism characteristics in primary monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM), peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMC), and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes.
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The PEDVAC trial: preliminary data from the first therapeutic DNA vaccination in HIV-infected children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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The PEDVAC study is the first trial designed to analyze safety and immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccination with a multiclade multigene HIV DNA vaccine (HIVIS) in infected children. Twenty HIV-1 vertically infected children (6-16 years of age), on stable antiretroviral treatment for at least 6 months with HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/ml and stable CD4 counts (> 400 cells/mm³ or 25%) over 12 months of follow-up, were recruited into the study. Enrolled patients have been randomized into two arms: a control group of 10 children who continued previous antiretroviral treatment (HAART) (arm A) and a group of 10 children immunized intramuscularly with the HIVIS DNA vaccine in addition to previous HAART (arm B). Immunizations took place at week 0, 4, 12 and the boosting dose is planned at week 36. The 10 children in the vaccine group have received the first 3 priming doses of the HIVIS vaccine. Safety data showed good tolerance to the vaccination schedule. Mild cutaneous self-limeted reactions consisted of local irritation, usually itching or erythema +/- swelling at the injection site, were reported. No severe systemic adverse events have been observed. No vaccinated children had a decrease of CD4 T-cell counts from baseline. None experienced virological failure. Analysis of cellular immune responses was scheduled at week 0, 4, 12, 16, 20, 40, 60, 72 and 96 by standard lymphoproliferation assay, intracellular cytokine staining and cell-ELISA, a miniaturized assay to measure antigen-induced IFN? secretion. Evaluation of these results is in progress and will provide key information on the status and changes of antigen specific immunity during HIV DNA immunization.
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Association between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene polymorphism and elderly obesity.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Evidence suggests an association between obesity and oxidative stress caused by superoxide production. Since the dismutation of superoxide is catalyzed by superoxide dismutase enzymes, we tested the association between obesity and Ala16Val manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD) polymorphism. We analyzed 815 free-living community subjects (> or =60 years old) grouped into subjects who were either obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) or non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, we investigated the possible interaction between the Ala16Val MnSOD gene polymorphism and obesity in the modulation of biochemical and nutritional variables. We found a positive association between MnSOD polymorphism and obesity, since higher VV frequency (28.2%) was observed in the obese group (P = 0.002, odds ratio 1.949, 95% CI: 1.223-3.008). This result was independent of sex, age, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. A possible biological explanation of the association described here could be a chronic state of superoxide enzyme imbalance present in VV carriers, which could affect differential metabolic pathways contributing to the obese state.
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Nevirapine use, prolonged antiretroviral therapy and high CD4 nadir values are strongly correlated with undetectable HIV-DNA and -RNA levels and CD4 cell gain.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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To evaluate the correlations of the combination of undetectable HIV-DNA (<10 copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and HIV-RNA (<1 copy/mL of plasma) levels and a CD4 cell count of >500 cells/mm(3) (defined as the treatment goal) in a group of 420 antiretroviral treatment (ART) responder patients.
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Inflammatory cytokines in vitro production are associated with Ala16Val superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Cytokine
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Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state associated with a chronic oxidative stress caused by superoxide production (O(2)(-)). The superoxide dismutase manganese dependent (SOD2) catalyzes O(2)(-) in H(2)O(2) into mitochondria and is encoded by a single gene that presents a common polymorphism that results in the replacement of alanine (A) with a valine (V) in the 16 codon. This polymorphism has been implicated in a decreased efficiency of SOD2 transport into targeted mitochondria in V allele carriers. Previous studies described an association between VV genotype and metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. However, the causal mechanisms to explain this association need to be more elucidated. We postulated that the polymorphism could influence the inflammatory response. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carriers different Ala16Val-SOD2 genotypes (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-?). Additionally, we evaluated if the culture medium glucose, enriched insulin, could influence the cytokine production. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in VV-PBMCs when compared to AA-PBMCs. However, the culture medium glucose and enriched insulin did not affect cytokine production. The results suggest that Ala16Val-SOD2 gene polymorphism could trigger the PBMCs proinflammatory cytokines level. However, discerning if a similar mechanism occurs in fat cells is an open question.
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Performance of genotypic tropism testing on proviral DNA in clinical practice: results from the DIVA study group.
New Microbiol.
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The DIVA study is aimed at setting up a standardized genotypic tropism-testing on proviral-DNA for the routine clinical diagnostic-laboratory.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.