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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cardiac, ventilatory, and metabolic adjustments in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during the performance of Glittre activities of daily living test.
Chron Respir Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Functional status and quality of life are measures of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient's health status and can demonstrate the impact of the disease on the patient's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Glittre-ADL test was developed to evaluate the functional status of COPD patients and their ability to perform activities of daily life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiac, respiratory, and metabolic adjustments and reproducibility of the Glittre ADL test performed by COPD patients. Twenty-two mild to severe COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 56.6 ± 19.9% predicted; mean age: 66.3 ± 9.18 years old) were enrolled in this study. Metabolic (oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE)/VCO2, and VE/VO2), ventilatory (tidal volume, respiratory rate, and VE), and cardiovascular (pulse oxygen saturation, VO2/heart rate (HR), and HR) variables, lower limbs fatigue, and dyspnea (Borg score) after each lap of two Glittre ADL test were analyzed. All metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac variables increased their values up to the third lap and remained stable (plateau) until the end of the test (five laps; multivariate analysis); there was no difference among the time spent to complete each of the five laps in each test and between tests (total time of second test: 4 minutes and 3 seconds); the second test was 17.8 seconds (6.6%) shorter than the first one (NS). All variables were highly reproducible in the two tests (NS). At the end of the test, patients reached 87.7% of the VO2 max, 81% of VE peak, and 88.5% of the HR peak obtained from an incremental maximal test on a treadmill. The Glittre ADL test is easy for COPD patients to perform and is a highly reproducible test in COPD patients with mild to severe stages of the disease. In addition, our results suggest that it is possible to demonstrate the patient's functional capacity with a single test of only three laps, making it faster and easier to apply and less stressful for some patients.
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Sleep pattern is associated with adipokine levels and nutritional markers in resident physicians.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Shift work and long hours of work are common in medical training and have been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. Changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations - two hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake - are poorly described in this population. The aim of this study was to identify possible negative associations between sleep patterns, nutritional status and serum levels of adipokines. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables, fasting metabolism, physical activity level, sleep quality and sleepiness. Resident physicians with poor sleep quality reported greater weight gain after the beginning of residency (5.1 and 3.0?kg, respectively; p?=?0.01) and higher frequency of abnormal waist circumference (44.2 and 17.6%, respectively; p?=?0.04) than those with better sleep quality. Mean ghrelin concentration was greater in volunteers with poor sleep quality (64.6?±?67.8 and 26.2?±?25.0?pg/mL, respectively; p?=?0.04). Women identified as having excessive daytime sleepiness had lower levels of leptin (9.57?±?10.4?ng/mL versus 16.49?±?11.4?ng/mL, respectively; p?=?0.03) than those without excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, correlations were found between hours of additional work per week and: intake of cereals, bread and pasta (r?=?0.22, p?=?0.01); intake of servings of fruits (r?=?-0.20; p?=?0.02) and beans (r?=?-0.21; p?=?0.01); and global score for Adapted Healthy Eating Index (r?=?-0.23; p?=?0.008; Table 3). The sleep quality total score correlated with servings of beans (r?=?-0.22; p?=?0.01) and servings of oils (r?=?0.23; p?=?0.008). Significant correlations were found between mean of time of sleep and servings of cereals, bread and pasta (r?=?0.20; p?=?0.02), servings of meat (r?=?-0.29; p?=?0.02) and cholesterol levels (r?=?0.27; p?=?0.03). These observations indicate that sleep patterns and long working hours of resident physicians are negatively associated with biological markers related to central food control, the lipid profile, cholesterol levels and eating healthy foods. These factors may predispose these shift workers to become overweight and develop metabolic disorders.
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Changes in motor behavior during pregnancy in rats: the basis for a possible animal model of restless legs syndrome.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Pregnant women have a 2-3 fold higher probability of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS - sleep-related movement disorders) than general population. This study aims to evaluate the behavior and locomotion of rats during pregnancy in order to verify if part of these animals exhibit some RLS-like features.
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Changes in motor behavior during pregnancy in rats: the basis for a possible animal model of restless legs syndrome.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Pregnant women have a 2-3 fold higher probability of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS - sleep-related movement disorders) than general population. This study aims to evaluate the behavior and locomotion of rats during pregnancy in order to verify if part of these animals exhibit some RLS-like features.
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Aerobic plus resistance training was more effective in improving the visceral adiposity, metabolic profile and inflammatory markers than aerobic training in obese adolescents.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether aerobic plus resistance training (AT + RT) is more effective than aerobic training (AT) at reducing inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk in obese adolescents. A total of 139 obese adolescents were enrolled, aged 15-19 years, body mass index (BMI) ? 95th percentile and participated in 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention. They were randomised into two groups: AT (n = 55), AT + RT (n = 61). Blood samples were collected to analyse glycaemia, insulin, the lipid profile, leptin and adiponectin concentrations. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). The AT + RT group showed better results with regard to decreased body fat mass, low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL-c) levels, subcutaneous and visceral fat and increased body lean mass. Indeed, a reduction of hyperleptinaemia and an increase in adiponectin concentrations, promoting an improvement in the leptin/adiponectin ratio, was observed. Important clinical parameters were improved in both types of exercise; however, AT + RT was more effective in improving the visceral adiposity, metabolic profile and inflammatory markers than AT alone, suggesting clinical applications for the control of intra-abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk in the paediatric population.
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Exercise improves immune function, antidepressive response, and sleep quality in patients with chronic primary insomnia.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 ± 9 years) with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symptoms and plasma cortisol. Immunologic assays revealed a significant increase in plasma apolipoprotein A (140.9 ± 22 to 151.2 ± 22 mg/dL) and decreases in CD4 (915.6 ± 361 to 789.6 ± 310 mm(3)) and CD8 (532.4 ± 259 to 435.7 ± 204 mm(3)). Decreases in cortisol were significantly correlated with increases in total sleep time (r = -0.51) and REM sleep (r = -0.52). In summary, long-term moderate aerobic exercise training improved sleep, reduced depression and cortisol, and promoted significant changes in immunologic variables.
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The high glycemic index diet was an independent predictor to explain changes in agouti-related protein in obese adolescents.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The role of diet glycemic index (GI) in the control of orexigenic and anorexigenic factors of the energy balance is still not clear. The present study aimed to assess whether the habitual diet, according to different GI foods, exerts influence on regulation of energy balance markers and the effects of interdisciplinary intervention in obese adolescents.
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Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise on visceral fat in overweight chronic kidney disease patients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The prevalence of obesity has markedly increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies on the impact of exercise focusing on obese CKD patients are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise performed either in an exercise centre or at home on visceral fat in overweight non-dialysed CKD patients.
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Spontaneously hypertensive rats: possible animal model of sleep-related movement disorders.
J Mot Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Clinical experience suggests that restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic leg movement (PLM), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may co-occur in both children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to provide an electrocorticography and electromyography evaluation of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) to investigate the potential of this rat strain as an animal model of RLS-PLM. Initial work focused on evaluating sleep patterns and limb movements during sleep in SHR, having normotensive Wistar rats (NWR) as control, followed by comparison of two treatments (pharmacological-dopaminergic agonist treatment and nonpharmacological-chronic physical exercise), known to be clinically beneficial for sleep-related movement disorders. The captured data strengthen the association between SHR and RLS-PLM, revealing a significant reduction on sleep efficiency and slow wave sleep and an increase on wakefulness and limb movements for the SHR group during the dark period, as compared to the NWR group, effects that have characteristics that are strikingly consistent with RLS-PLM. The pharmacological and nonpharmacological manipulations validated these results. The present findings suggest that the SHR may be a useful putative animal model to study sleep-related movement disorders mechanisms.
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Dietary patterns, metabolic markers and subjective sleep measures in resident physicians.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Shiftwork is common in medical training and is necessary for 24-h hospital coverage. Shiftwork poses difficulties not only because of the loss of actual sleep hours but also because it can affect other factors related to lifestyle, such as food intake, physical activity level, and, therefore, metabolic patterns. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional and metabolic profiles of medical personnel receiving training who are participating in shiftwork. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible negative effects of food intake, anthropometric variables, and metabolic and sleep patterns of resident physicians and establish the differences between genders. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference), fasting metabolism (lipids, cortisol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], glucose, and insulin), physical activity level (Baecke questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS). We observed a high frequency of residents who were overweight or obese (65% for men and 21% for women; p = 0.004). Men displayed significantly greater body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.002) and self-reported weight gain after the beginning of residency (p = 0.008) than women. Poor diet was observed for both genders, including the low intake of vegetables and fruits and the high intake of sweets, saturated fat, cholesterol, and caffeine. The PSQI global scores indicated significant differences between genders (5.9 vs. 7.5 for women and men, respectively; p = 0.01). Women had significantly higher mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p < 0.005), hs-CRP (p = 0.04), and cortisol (p = 0.009) values than men. The elevated prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and abnormal values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; >100 mg/dL) were observed in most individuals. Higher than recommended hs-CRP levels were observed in 66% of the examined resident physicians. Based on current recommendations, a high prevalence of low sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness was identified. These observations indicate the need to monitor health status and develop actions to reassess the workload of medical residency and the need for permission to perform extra night shifts for medical residents to avoid worsening health problems in these individuals.
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Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents.
J Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r = 0.325,), TG (r = 0.277), AST (r = 0.509), ALT (r = 0.519), WC (r = 0.390), and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r = 0.790) for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47?cm for girls and 4.21?cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773).
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Dopamine transporter shown by SPECT in patients with periodic leg movement after acute physical exercise.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate dopamine transporter (DAT) density in patients with periodic leg movement (PLM) shown by [(99mt)Tc]TRODAT-1 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and to determine the influence of acute physical exercise (maximal exercise test [MET]) on DAT densities.
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Do circadian preferences influence the sleep patterns of night shift drivers?
Med Princ Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns.
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Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of obese adolescents: effects on cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.
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Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions.
Int J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea), excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others), as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored.
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Shoulder rotator strength and torque steadiness in athletes with anterior shoulder instability or SLAP lesion.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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To investigate shoulder rotator strength and steadiness in athletes with anterior instability and superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion.
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Passive body heating improves sleep patterns in female patients with fibromyalgia.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia.
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Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.
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Can high altitude influence cytokines and sleep?
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 ? ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ? ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.
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Interaction of bone mineral density, adipokines and hormones in obese adolescents girls submitted in an interdisciplinary therapy.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition with numerous metabolic consequences to the organism, highlighting its influence on bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the role of visceral fat, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin on bone mineral density in obese post-puberty adolescents girls, submitted to an interdisciplinary therapy. The study involved 20 post-puberty obese adolescent girls: 16±1.5 years of age, 98.9±15.8 kg (weight), 1.60±0.72 m (height) and 37.2±4.8 kg/m2 [body mass index (BMI)]. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, bone mineral density and content were determined. Ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin were analyzed and the leptin/adiponectin ratio was calculated. Our findings showed a significant increase in adiponectin concentration and a reduction in body weight, BMI, total fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous fat. In addition, ghrelin (r2=-0.53; p=0.02) visceral fat (r2=-0.46, p=0.04) (r2 -0.66, p=0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r2 -0.56, p=0.01) were negative predictors for bone mineral density and content in obese adolescent girls, respectively. It provides a novel physiologically concept that may shed light on the etiology of osteoporosis and help to identify new therapeutic targets. However this should be confirmed in a large cohort study.
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Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments.
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Low-grade inflammation and spinal cord injury: exercise as therapy?
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.
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Relationship between physical activity and depression and anxiety symptoms: a population study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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There are few studies evaluating the association between practice of physical activity and mood in a population sample. This study evaluated the frequency of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the population of the city of Sao Paulo and their association with the report of practice of regular physical activity.
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Polysomnographic sleep aspects in liver cirrhosis: a case control study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To study sleep aspects and parameters in cirrhotic patients and assess the role of liver dysfunction severity in polysomnographic results.
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The impact of shift work on Brazilian train drivers with different chronotypes: a comparative analysis through objective and subjective criteria.
Med Princ Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company.
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Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals.
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The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy.
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The effects of a session of resistance training on sleep patterns in the elderly.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a session of resistance training on the sleep patterns of elderly people. Forty men aged 65-80 years who were sedentary and clinically healthy were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 18) and the resistance group (n = 22). Both groups underwent two polysomnography tests, one at baseline and another after either a resistance training session (the resistance group) or no physical exercise (the control group). The resistance training session was based on 60% of one repetition maximum (a test that assesses the maximum force). We observed that the frequency with which the control group awoke (arousal index) increased from 16.29 ± 6.06 events/h to 20.09 ± 6.9 events/h, and in the resistance group, it decreased from 22.27 ± 11 events/h to 20.41 ± 8.57 events/h (t = 2.10 and p = 0.04). For stage-1 sleep, there was an increase from 4.96% at baseline to 5.40% in the control group, and there was a decrease in the resistance group from 8.32 to 6.21% after the exercise session (t = 2.12 and p = 0.04). A session of resistance training at 60% of one repetition maximum was able to modify the sleep pattern in men aged 65-80 years, suggesting that physical exercise has a modest influence on sleep consolidation.
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The effects of physical exercise on the serum iron profile in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of serum iron in spontaneously hypertensive rats after an aerobic physical exercise. To accomplish this, 12 normotensive Wistar rats and 12 spontaneously hypertensive rats were distributed into "physical exercise" and "no physical exercise" groups. The animals in the physical exercise group underwent to an aerobic exercise for a total of 4 weeks. Blood was collected for the analysis of iron. Our results indicate that rats of the physical exercise group had significantly lower serum iron levels after the aerobic exercise protocol compared to the spontaneously hypertensive rats no physical exercise group (F ((3,16))?=?4.4915, p?
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Physical exercise performed before bedtime improves the sleep pattern of healthy young good sleepers.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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To investigate the influence of different intensities and durations of exercise before bedtime on the sleep pattern and core body temperature of individuals considered good sleepers, we selected 17 healthy males and all underwent 5 nonconsecutive days of study. Measurements of polysomnographic parameters and core body temperature were taken at baseline and after each experimental protocol, performed at night. We found increased sleep efficiency (p?=?.016) among all protocols compared with baseline data and increase in REM sleep latency (p?=?.047) between two experiments; there was decrease in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (p?=?.046) and wake after sleep onset (p?=?.003). Core body temperature did not change significantly during the nights following exercise. Exercise performed before sleep does not impair sleep quality; rather, its practice improves sleep in good sleepers who are nonathletes, and may be considered to improve sleep pattern.
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Physiological and electroencephalographic responses to acute exhaustive physical exercise in people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Although the available evidence suggests that exercise may positively affect epilepsy, whether this effect is applicable to different types of epilepsy has not been established. Physiological responses during rest, acute physical effort, and a recovery period were studied by concomitant analysis of cerebral electric activity using EEGs in subjects with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and healthy controls. In addition, level of habitual physical activity, body composition, and 1 week of actigraphy monitoring data were evaluated. Twenty-four subjects (12 with JME and 12 controls) participated in this study. Compared with the control group, the JME group had a significantly lower V?O(2) at rest (13.3%) and resting metabolic rate (15.6%). The number of epileptiform discharges in the JME group was significantly reduced during the recovery period (72%) compared with the resting state. There were no significant differences between the JME and control groups in behavioral outcomes and sleep parameters evaluated by actigraphy monitoring. The positive findings of our study strengthen the evidence for the benefits of physical exercise for people with JME.
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Obese adolescents with eating disorders: analysis of metabolic and inflammatory states.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effect of interdisciplinary therapy on the physical and metabolic profiles, including body composition, insulin resistance and sensitivity as well as adiponectin and leptin concentrations, of obese adolescents with and without eating disorder symptoms.
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Effects of exercise training associated with continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 2-month exercise training associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the subjective and objective sleep measurements, quality of life, and mood in moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients.
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Alterations in downstream mediators involved in central control of eating behavior in obese adolescents submitted to a multidisciplinary therapy.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a multidisciplinary therapy (24 weeks) on neurohormonal control of food intake, specifically in orexigenic (total ghrelin, agouti-related protein [AgRP], neuropeptide Y [NPY], and melanin-concentrating hormone) and anorexigenic factors (leptin, insulin, and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone [?-MSH]), in obese adolescents.
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Hormonal appetite control is altered by shift work: a preliminary study.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. However, the possible changes in leptin and ghrelin (2 hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake) concentrations in this population are poorly described. The objective of the study was to evaluate the daily concentrations of leptin, nonacylated ghrelin, and acylated ghrelin and the appetite ratings in men working different shift schedules. Daily concentrations of nonacylated ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, and leptin and appetite were measured in 3 groups of subjects: workers on fixed night shifts (n = 9), fixed early morning shifts (n = 6), and fixed day shifts (n = 7). Appetite was evaluated by a validated questionnaire. Blood samples were collected every 4 hours over the course of 24 hours for a total of 6 samples. When comparing the 3 groups, leptin concentrations at 8:00 am and 4:00 pm for those workers on the day shift were significantly lower than for those on the early morning shift; and concentrations at noon for those workers on the day shift were significantly lower than for those on the night shift. Nonacylated and acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower for those workers on the early morning shift than for those on the day shift. In general, appetite was the lowest in those working the early morning shift. Shift workers on the early morning shift have lower appetites and concentrations of leptin and nonacylated and acylated ghrelin than the workers on other shifts. Further studies are required to better understand the detailed needs of these individuals.
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Evaluation of periodic limb movements in a putative animal model of restless leg syndrome.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a major healthcare burden with increasing prevalence. It has been demonstrated that periodic limb movements (PLM) can occur as an isolated phenomenon, but they are often associated with this syndrome and are the only symptom of this disorder that can be measured electrophysiologically. The aim of this study was to examine the sleep-wake behavior and the presence of limb movement in a rat model of RLS induced by lesioning the A11 dopaminergic nuclei with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Rats were implanted with electrodes for electrocorticography and electromyography. Sleep recordings were monitored during light/dark periods lasting 12 hours each and were evaluated on days 7, 15, and 28 after injection of the drug or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A control group that did not receive any injection was also included. Wakefulness percentages were generated for 4-hour segments of the dark period, yielding the following 3 bins: 7 PM to 11 PM, 11 PM to 3 AM, and 3 PM to 7 PM. Additionally, slow wave sleep, paradoxical sleep, wakefulness, and limb movements were evaluated over the entire 12 hours of the light/dark cycle. All A11-lesioned rats exhibited an increased percentage of wakefulness during the last block of the dark period, as would be expected for an animal model of this syndrome. In addition, at all time points after lesioning, these animals presented increased frequencies of limb movement during both the light and the dark periods. These alterations were reversed by the acute administration of the dopaminergic agonist pramipexole. This animal model strengthens the notion that 6-OHDA-induced A11 lesions can be a valid animal model for RLS and PLM.
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Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life.
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Hyperleptinemia in obese adolescents deregulates neuropeptides during weight loss.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone not only in energy balance regulation but also in neuroendocrine and inflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether hyperleptinemia deregulates neuropeptides during weight loss. A total of 86 post-pubertal obese adolescents (with or without hyperleptinemia) participated in one year of interdisciplinary weight loss therapy (clinical, nutritional, psychological and exercise-related). Adipokine and neuropeptide concentrations were measured by ELISA, visceral fat was measured by ultrasound and body composition was measured by pletismography. The hyperleptinemic patients presented a lower alpha-MSH concentration and higher NPY/AgRP ratio while the adiponectin/leptin (A/L) ratio was lower compared with the non-hyperleptinemic group. After therapy, significant improvements in BM, BMI, body fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous fat, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, total cholesterol and triglycerides were observed in both groups. Indeed, we observed significant increases in adiponectin and A/L as well as reductions in leptin and NPY/AgRP ratio in the hyperleptinemic group. In the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with leptin concentration as the dependent variable, ?-MSH and body fat mass (%) were the independent predictors to explain leptin concentration. For the entire group, we found positive correlations between leptinemia and BMI and body fat mass (%) as well as a negative correlation with free fat mass (%) and alpha-MSH. Finally, we verified negative correlations between adiponectin/leptin ratio with total cholesterol and LDL-c, only in hyperleptinemic patients. In conclusion, the hyperleptinemia in obese adolescents deregulates neuropeptides during weight loss.
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?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HM?) supplementation stimulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats via the mTOR pathway.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HM?) supplementation is used to treat cancer, sepsis and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, its effects on animal and human health and the consequences of this treatment in other tissues (e.g., fat and liver) have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of HM? supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the expression of proteins involved in insulin signalling. Rats were treated with HM? (320 mg/kg body weight) or saline for one month. The skeletal muscle hypertrophy and insulin signalling were evaluated by western blotting, and hormonal concentrations were evaluated using ELISAs. HM? supplementation induced muscle hypertrophy in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles and increased serum insulin levels, the expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylation of p70S6K in the EDL muscle. Expression of the insulin receptor was increased only in liver. Thus, our results suggest that HM? supplementation can be used to increase muscle mass without adverse health effects.
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Interdisciplinary therapy improves biomarkers profile and lung function in asthmatic obese adolescents.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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The simultaneous rise in the prevalence of asthma and obesity in the world, have demonstrated the importance of the development of treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term results of interdisciplinary therapy on inflammatory biomarkers and lung function in asthmatics obese adolescents.
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Effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on chronic primary insomnia.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon.
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Sleep quality evaluation, chronotype, sleepiness and anxiety of Paralympic Brazilian athletes: Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality, sleepiness, chronotype and the anxiety level of Brazilian Paralympics athletes before the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games.
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Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (?HOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (?adiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (?carotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ?HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.
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Long-term effects of aerobic plus resistance training on the metabolic syndrome and adiponectinemia in obese adolescents.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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The metabolic syndrome is an emerging clinical problem and different kinds of interventions have emphasized that healthy eating and exercise are crucial to its control. The aim of this study was to identify whether aerobic training plus resistance training (AT+RT) is more effective than AT on improving features of the metabolic syndrome and adiponectinemia in obese adolescents. A total of 30 adolescents (aged 15-19 years, body mass index ?95 percentile) were enrolled in the program. All patients were diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome and submitted to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention. They were divided into two groups: AT (n=15) and AT+RT (n=15). Blood samples were collected to analyze glycemia and lipid profiles. Adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. After short- and long-term intervention, both groups presented a significant reduction in body mass, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat. Indeed, the AT+RT group had significantly higher changes throughout the intervention in body composition, total cholesterol, waist circumference, glucose, and adiponectin. Although important clinical parameters were ameliorated with AT, the AT+RT group showed more effective improvements in metabolic profiles and adiponectinemia. These findings suggest a clinical role of AT+RT in the control of metabolic syndrome in pediatric populations.
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Metabolic responses on the early shift.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Shiftwork has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of metabolic disorders and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and insulin among fixed night workers (n = 9), fixed early morning workers (n = 6), and day workers (n = 7). Food intake was recorded for 7 days using a diary. Blood samples were collected every 4 h over the course of 24 h, yielding six samples. Total carbohydrate intake was lowest (p < .0005), whereas fat (p = .03) and protein (p < .0005) were highest on the early morning shifts. Early morning workers also had overall elevated cortisol levels relative to the other two groups. Cortisol levels appeared to be more influenced by time since waking prior to the shift than by time-of-day. Cortisol was highest for the early morning group than the day group 12 h after waking, and both the early morning and night groups had higher levels than the day group 16 h after waking (p < .05 in all cases). In contrast, the homesostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) appeared to be more influenced by time-of-day than by time since waking prior to the shift. The early morning group had higher levels of HOMA-IR at 08:00 h than the other groups (p < .05). In conclusion, the early morning group had the highest overall concentrations of cortisol and tended to have higher levels of HOMA-IR, indicating that more attention should be given to these workers. Moreover, all three groups showed pronounced cortisol levels on awakening, suggesting that they may have adjusted to their awaking time. (Author: heloguarita@rgnutri.com.br ).
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Eating disorders in adolescents: correlations between symptoms and central control of eating behavior.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between eating disorders (binge eating and bulimia nervosa) and body image dissatisfaction with BMI, anorexigenic and orexigenic factors in adolescents. Thirty-two adolescents, (13 obese [BMI=36.65±5.68] and 19 non-obese [BMI=22.18±3.11]), aged between 14 and 19y, were recruited. Symptoms of eating disorders were measured by self-report questionnaires (BSQ, BITE and BES). Hormones, cytokines and neuropeptides were determined by Elisa kits (Phoenix peptide). A positive correlation was found between: leptin and BES (r=.724), BSQ (r=.705) and BITE (r=.696); BMI and BES (r=.663), BSQ (r=.525) and BITE (r=.732); the same pattern was observed to insulin and TNF-?. A negative correlation was found in ?-MSH and AgRP with BES, BSQ and BITE. Blood levels of hormones and neuropeptides could be the link between obesity and eating disorders in adolescents. However, it is not clear which is the cause and which is the consequence.
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Effect of acute physical exercise on patients with chronic primary insomnia.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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The aim was to assess and to compare the acute effects of three different modalities of physical exercise on sleep pattern of patients with chronic primary insomnia.
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Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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The role of nutritional profile in the orexigenic neuropeptide secretion in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Little progress has been made to identify the central neuroendocrine pathway involved in the energy intake control in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.
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Correlation between quality of life and functional capacity in cardiac failure.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Patients with cardiac failure (CF) present progressive incapacity and decreased quality of life, both related to dyspnea and fatigue. Thus, there is the increasing interest in measuring the quality of life (QL), by generic instrument, such as the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), by specific instrument, such as Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLHFQ).
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Long-term effects of metformin and lifestyle modification on nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease obese adolescents.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Objective. To assess the long-term effects of metformin in combination with lifestyle intervention and its association between insulin levels and the degree of steatosis at ultrasonography (US) in obese adolescents. Methods. Thirty-five postpubertal obese boys were randomized into two groups: one receiving metformin in combination with a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention versus a placebo group, which also received the same intervention. The visceral, subcutaneous fat and degree of steatosis were measured by ultrasonography. Fasting blood samples were collected to analyze glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and aminotransferases. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to compare changes over time and between groups, and Spearmans correlations were used to identify an association between insulin and the degree of steatosis at US. Results. There was a positive correlation between the degree of steatosis at US with insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR. Long-term therapy plus metformin significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, insulin, HOMA-IR, and visceral fat. Conclusions. Metformin was more effective than the placebo in improving clinical parameters associated with obesity and steatosis.
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The role of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides and peripheral signals on quartiles of weight loss in obese adolescents.
Neuropeptides
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Obesity is characterized as an inflammatory state associated with a modification in the pattern of adipokine secretion. The present study aimed to assess the role of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides and peripheral signals in obese adolescents submitted to 1 year of weight loss interdisciplinary therapy and grouped according to quartiles of weight loss. A total of 111 post-puberty adolescents, with a BMI >95th percentile, were included. Glycemia and lipid profiles were analyzed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR. Cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. The results are presented according to quartiles of weight loss: 1st (<2.5 kg)=low; 2nd (2.5-8 kg)=low to moderate; 3rd (8-14 kg)=moderate; and 4th (>14 kg)=massive. The most important finding was that the NPY concentration increased significantly only in the first phase of weight loss. Moreover, ?-MSH variation was an independent factor in explaining the NPY changes during the intervention, confirming the role of the ?-MSH concentration in the peripheral control of energy balance in obese adolescents. Indeed, BMI reduction was correlated with increased ?-MSH (p<0.05). Massive weight loss promoted a significant increase in ?-MSH concentration, and hyperleptinemia was reduced after intervention. All together, our findings, which contribute to our understanding of how orexigenic and anorexigenic systems are regulated by weight loss, will provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases, especially in obese adolescents.
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Visceral fat decreased by long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy correlated positively with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? and negatively with adiponectin levels in obese adolescents.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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The purpose of this study was to assess the level of cytokine expression in correlation with visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese adolescents admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. The study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (18, aged 15-19 years) with body mass indexes greater than the 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was analyzed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected to analyze tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and adiponectin concentrations that were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The most important finding in the present investigation is that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased visceral fat. Positive correlations between IL-6 levels and visceral fat (r = 0.42, P < .02) and TNF-? levels and visceral fat (r = 0.40, P < .05) were observed. Negative correlations between TNF-? levels and subcutaneous fat (r = -0.46, P < .01) and adiponectin levels and subcutaneous fat (r = -0.43, P < .03) were also observed. In addition, we found a positive correlation between TNF-? levels and the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (r = 0.42, P < .02) and a negative correlation between adiponectin level and the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (r = -0.69, P < .001). Despite the limitation of sample size, our results indicate that the observed massive weight loss (mainly visceral fat) was highly correlated with a decreased inflammatory state, suggesting that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in decreasing inflammatory markers.
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Diet, body composition, and bone mass in well-trained cyclists.
J Clin Densitom
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2009
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Cycling is believed to be associated with low bone mass. In this study, we investigate food intake, body composition, and bone mass in well-trained young adult cyclists compared with those in sedentary controls. Four-day estimated diet records were used to study dietary intake in 31 cyclists and 28 sedentary controls (all male, 24yr old on average), together with maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition, and bone mass measurements (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). The VO(2max) values were twice as high as those in the cyclists, whereas no significant difference in bone mass was observed between cyclists and controls. A total of 10 cyclists and 9 controls had low bone mass. Total-body lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were higher in cyclists (p<0.001), whereas percentage of body fat was lower (p<0.001) compared with that of the controls. Energy and macro- and micronutrient intake was higher in the cyclists than in the controls (p<0.01). Energy consumption was considered adequate in the cyclists, whereas lipid and protein intake was higher than the American College of Sports Medicine recommendation. Lipid consumption negatively correlated with bone mass in the athletes. Our results demonstrate that cycling was associated with greater aerobic conditioning and lean mass without significant association with bone mass compared with sedentary controls.
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Effect of exercise on glutamine metabolism in macrophages of trained rats.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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This study investigated the effect of exercise on glutamine metabolism in macrophages of trained rats. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (SED); moderately trained (MOD) rats that were swim trained 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; and exhaustively trained (EXT) rats that were similarly trained as MOD for 5 weeks and, in the 6th week, trained in three 1-h sessions/day with 150 min of rest between sessions. The animals swam with a load equivalent to 5.5% of their body weight and were killed 1 h after the last exercise session. Cells were collected, and glutamine metabolism in macrophage and function were assayed. Exercise increased phagocytosis in MOD when compared to SED (34.48 +/- 1.79 vs 15.21 +/- 2.91%, P < 0.05); however, H(2)O(2) production was higher in MOD (75.40 +/- 3.48 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1)) and EXT (79.20 +/- 1.18 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1)) in relation to SED (32.60 +/- 2.51 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1), P < 0.05). Glutamine consumption increased in MOD and EXT (26.53 +/- 3.62 and 19.82 +/- 2.62 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1), respectively) relative to SED (6.72 +/- 0.57 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1), P < 0.05). Aspartate increased in EXT (9.72 +/- 1.14 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1)) as compared to SED (1.10 +/- 0.19 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1), P < 0.05). Glutamine decarboxylation was increased in MOD (12.10 +/- 0.27 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1)) and EXT (16.40 +/- 2.17 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1)) relative to SED (1.10 +/- 0.06 nmol h x 10(5) cell(-1), P < 0.05). This study suggests an increase in macrophage function post-exercise, which was supported by enhanced glutamine consumption and metabolism, and highlights the importance for glutamine after exercise.
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Gender differences in the sleep habits of 11-13 year olds.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Sleep plays an important role in the physical and emotional development of adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in sleep habits in a sample of 11-13 year olds.
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Negative correlation between neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein concentration and adiponectinemia in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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The complexity pathogenesis in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves an interplay between adipokines and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance, including the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) system. The first aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term interdisciplinary intervention on NAFLD in obese adolescents, and the second objective was to establish the relationship between NPY/AgRP ratio and adiponectinemia. Fifty-five postpuberty obese adolescents were submitted to interdisciplinary intervention. The group was divided between subjects with and without NAFLD (n = 19 and 36, respectively). Blood samples were collected to measure glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and sensitivity. Adiponectin, NPY, and AgRP concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. It was observed at baseline that important clinical parameters including body weight, body mass index, visceral fat, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hepatic transaminases were more altered in NAFLD patients. After the intervention, these parameters, total energy, and macronutrient intake were reduced significantly in both groups. The most important finding was the positive correlation between AgRP and visceral fat in all patients and the negative correlation between NPY/AgRP and adiponectinemia only in NAFLD obese adolescents. The NAFLD patients presented more altered clinical parameters than the non-NAFLD subjects, including the negative correlation between adiponectinemia and NPY/AgRP. These results suggested that NAFLD obese adolescents presented an inflammatory profile that can influence the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance, suggesting an additional impairment in the weight loss therapy.
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Reciprocal interactions of obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in males.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism gene contributes to the genesis of hypertension (HTN) and may help explain the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and HTN. However, ACE is a pleiotropic gene that has several influences, including skeletal muscle and control of ventilation. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ACE polymorphism influences OSA severity.
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Effect of acute and chronic physical exercise on patients with periodic leg movements.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Nonpharmacological interventions may lead to an improvement in sleep quality. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of acute intensive exercise and chronic exercise on sleep patterns in patients with periodic leg movements (PLM).
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Risk factors for depression in truck drivers.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Depression is a major public health problem. Work stress is associated with depression and workers whose jobs impose high levels of psychological demands, such as truck drivers, may be at increased risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of depression in truck drivers.
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Quality of life in Brazilian obese adolescents: effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents.
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Relationship between bone mineral density, leptin and insulin concentration in Brazilian obese adolescents.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Despite the epidemic of adolescent obesity, the effect of obesity and hormones on bone mineral accrual during growth is poorly understood. Studies using dual-energy X-ray to examine the effect of obesity on bone mass in children and adolescents have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to explore the combined and independent contributions of body mass index, body composition, leptin, insulin, glucose levels and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content in a group of Brazilian obese adolescents. This study included 109 post-pubescent obese adolescents. A whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed,using a HOLOGIC QDR4200, to determine whole-body BMD and body composition. Blood samples were collected in the outpatient clinic after an overnight fast, and evaluated for fasting blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin. Leptin levels were assessed with a radioimmunoassay kit. Insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Our results showed that insulin levels and HOMA-IR correlated negatively with BMD and a linear regression analysis showed that serum leptin is inversely associated to BMD adjusted for body mass. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that leptin, insulin and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with BMD and play a significant direct role in bone metabolism.
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Aerobic exercise does not change C-reactive protein levels in non-obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
Eur J Sport Sci
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Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a 2-month aerobic exercise training programme on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in non-obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Twenty non-obese and sedentary adult male volunteers underwent polysomnography (PSG) to assess their sleep parameters. After the PSG analysis, the subjects were divided into two groups (CTRL, control and OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea). Twenty-four sessions of aerobic exercise were performed, and PSG was repeated on the night that followed the last physical training session (24th). Blood samples were collected for CRP analysis before the first exercise session and after the last session. The OSA group demonstrated a reduction in sleep latency (SL) after 2 months of physical exercise, and 80% of them showed a lower apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), although this difference was not statistically significant. The differences between the CRP values for the CTRL and OSA groups were also not statistically significant at baseline or after 2 months of physical exercise. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the CRP levels and body mass index (BMI) in the two groups assessed. Our results suggest that in non-obese patients with OSA, CRP levels were normal and did not change after 2 months of aerobic exercise training.
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Reduction in the leptin concentration as a predictor of improvement in lung function in obese adolescents.
Obes Facts
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To assess the effects of weight loss on adipokines, asthma-related symptoms, exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) and lung function, and to evaluate the role of leptin and adiponectin levels on lung function after treatment in obese adolescents.
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A strength exercise program in rats with epilepsy is protective against seizures.
Epilepsy Behav
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The beneficial effects of physical exercise on epilepsy, such as a decreased seizure frequency, have been observed following aerobic exercise programs in both clinical and experimental studies. However, it is not well clarified whether other types of exercise, including strength exercise, can provide similar benefits for epilepsy. Forty four animals with epilepsy were continuously monitored 24 h a day for 60 days and divided into two periods of 30 days. The first period was used to determine the number of seizures before beginning the physical exercise program, and the second period was utilized to determine the number of seizures during the strength training. The mean frequency of seizures in the control and SHAM groups increased significantly from period 1 to period 2. Although the frequency of seizures did not change significantly between the two periods of 30 days of observation in the strength exercise group, a significant reduction in the seizure frequency was observed compared with the control and SHAM groups in period 2. Our study demonstrated that a strength exercise program exerted a significant influence on the seizure frequency in animals with epilepsy and strengthens the observed beneficial effect of exercise on epilepsy that has been demonstrated in animal studies. The finding of this nonclinical study can open a new window to verify the beneficial contribution of strength exercise in epilepsy. Further experimental and clinical investigations are necessary to explore the extent to which strength exercise interferes with the epileptic condition.
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Insulin resistance can impair reduction on carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
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The atherosclerotic process at the endothelial level begins in early ages and seems to be associated with obesity and its comorbidities as insulin resistance.
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