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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination: should innovative ideas from the past be revisited?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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In the 1950s, the strategy of adding chloroquine to food salt as a prophylaxis against malaria was considered to be a successful tool. However, with the development of Plasmodium resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, this control strategy was abandoned. More than 50 years later, asexual stage resistance can be avoided by screening for antimalarial drugs that have a selective action against gametocytes, thus old prophylactic measures can be revisited. The efficacy of the old methods should be tested as complementary tools for the elimination of malaria.
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Malaria and vascular endothelium.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.
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Influence of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the relations between the osmotic stability of human erythrocyte membrane and hematological and biochemical variables.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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This study evaluated the influence of infection by Plasmodium vivax on the relations between hematological and biochemical variables and the osmotic stability of the erythrocyte membrane in a Brazilian Amazon population. A total of 72 patients with P. vivax malaria were included in the study and invited to return after 14 days, post-treatment with chloroquine and primaquine, for clinical and laboratorial reevaluations. The osmotic stability of the erythrocyte membrane was analyzed by nonlinear regression of the dependency of the absorbance of hemoglobin, released with hemolysis, as a function of the salt concentration, and it was represented by the inverse of the salt concentration at the midpoint of the curve (1/H 50) and by the variation of salt concentration, which promotes lysis (dX). Bivariate and multivariate methods were used in the analysis of the results. Prior to treatment of the disease, the erythrocytes showed greater stability, probably due to the natural selection of young and also more stable erythrocytes. The bivariate analysis showed that 1/H 50 was positively correlated with red cell distribution width (RDW), urea, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, but negatively associated with albumin, HDL-cholesterol, and indirect bilirubin, while dX was negatively associated with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These associations were confirmed by canonical correlation analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that albumin, urea, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol are the variables with the highest abilities of predicting erythrocyte stability. The bivariate analysis also showed that the hematological index RDW was related to elevated levels of bilirubin and decreased levels of albumin and urea, associated with liver damage resulting from malaria.
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Amazonian plant natural products: perspectives for discovery of new antimalarial drug leads.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria parasites are now resistant, or showing signs of resistance, to most drugs used in therapy. Novel chemical entities that exhibit new mechanisms of antiplasmodial action are needed. New antimalarials that block transmission of Plasmodium spp. from humans to Anopheles mosquito vectors are key to malaria eradication efforts. Although P. vivax causes a considerable number of malaria cases, its importance has for long been neglected. Vivax malaria can cause severe manifestations and death; hence there is a need for P. vivax-directed research. Plants used in traditional medicine, namely Artemisia annua and Cinchona spp. are the sources of the antimalarial natural products artemisinin and quinine, respectively. Based on these compounds, semi-synthetic artemisinin-derivatives and synthetic quinoline antimalarials have been developed and are the most important drugs in the current therapeutic arsenal for combating malaria. In the Amazon region, where P. vivax predominates, there is a local tradition of using plant-derived preparations to treat malaria. Here, we review the current P. falciparum and P. vivax drug-sensitivity assays, focusing on challenges and perspectives of drug discovery for P. vivax, including tests against hypnozoites. We also present the latest findings of our group and others on the antiplasmodial and antimalarial chemical components from Amazonian plants that may be potential drug leads against malaria.
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Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA), malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria.
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Thrombocytopenia in malaria: who cares?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Despite not being a criterion for severe malaria, thrombocytopenia is one of the most common complications of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In a systematic review of the literature, platelet counts under 150,000/mm³ ranged from 24-94% in patients with acute malaria and this frequency was not different between the two major species that affected humans. Minor bleeding is mentioned in case reports of patients with P. vivax infection and may be explained by medullary compensation with the release of mega platelets in the peripheral circulation by megakaryocytes, thus maintaining a good primary haemostasis. The speculated mechanisms leading to thrombocytopenia are: coagulation disturbances, splenomegaly, bone marrow alterations, antibody-mediated platelet destruction, oxidative stress and the role of platelets as cofactors in triggering severe malaria. Data from experimental models are presented and, despite not being rare, there is no clear recommendation on the adequate management of this haematological complication. In most cases, a conservative approach is adopted and platelet counts usually revert to normal ranges a few days after efficacious antimalarial treatment. More studies are needed to specifically clarify if thrombocytopenia is the cause or consequence of the clinical disease spectrum.
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Chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites in Brazil: consequences on disease morbidity and control.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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In Brazil, malaria still remains a clinically important febrile syndrome for local populations and travelers, occurring mostly in the Amazon Basin. This review aims to report the main efforts employed to control this disease since the 1940s and the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax chemoresistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine among other drugs. Additionally, in vivo, in vitro and molecular studies as well as malaria chemoresistance consequences on disease morbidity and policy treatment guidelines were commented.
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[Malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul (Western Brazilian Amazon): analysis of the historical series from 1998 to 2008].
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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To describe the epidemiological characteristics of malaria and its main determinants in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, State of Acre, Brazil, between 1998 and 2008.
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Concurrent helminthic infection protects schoolchildren with Plasmodium vivax from anemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Plasmodium vivax is responsible for a significant portion of malaria cases worldwide, especially in Asia and Latin America, where geo-helminthiasis have a high prevalence. Impact of the interaction between vivax malaria and intestinal helminthes has been poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of intestinal helminthiasis on the concentration of hemoglobin in children with Plasmodium vivax malaria in rural areas in the municipality of Careiro, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in an endemic area for malaria in Manaus: a cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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There is a paucity of information regarding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in endemic areas for malaria in Latin America.
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[Algid malaria: a syndromic diagnosis].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Two patients with malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum who progressed to shock syndrome are reported. They received hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit without using antibiotics and presented improvements. Algid malaria should be a syndromic diagnosis of varying etiology (dehydration, bacterial infection, bleeding and/or adrenal insufficiency).
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Risk factors and characterization of Plasmodium vivax-associated admissions to pediatric intensive care units in the Brazilian Amazon.
PLoS ONE
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Plasmodium vivax is responsible for a significant proportion of malaria cases worldwide and is increasingly reported as a cause of severe disease. The objective of this study was to characterize severe vivax disease among children hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to identify risk factors associated with disease severity.
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Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage vaccine candidates (PvMSP-1?? and PvMSP-3???????? and their relationship with hematological features in malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon.
Microbes Infect.
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An important step when designing a vaccine is identifying the antigens that function as targets of naturally acquired antibodies. We investigated specific antibody responses against two Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidates, PvMSP-1?? and PvMSP-3????????. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between these antibodies and morbidity parameters. PvMSP-1?? was the most immunogenic antigen and the frequency of responders to this protein tended to increase in P. vivax patients with higher parasitemia. For both antigens, IgG antibody responses tended to be lower in patients who had experienced their first bout of malaria. Furthermore, anemic patients presented higher IgG antibody responses to PvMSP-3????????. Since the humoral response involves a number of antibodies acting simultaneously on different targets, we performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Anemic patients had, on average, higher first principal component scores (IgG1/IgG2/IgG3/IgG4 anti-MSP3?), which were negatively correlated with hemoglobin levels. Since antibodies against PfMSP-3 have been strongly associated with clinical protection, we cannot exclude the possibility of a dual role of PvMSP-3 specific antibodies in both immunity and pathogenesis of vivax malaria. Our results confirm the high immunogenicity of the conserved C terminus of PvMSP-1 and points to the considerable immunogenicity of polymorphic PvMSP-3???????? during natural infection.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.