JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations of weight stigma with cortisol and oxidative stress independent of adiposity.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weight discrimination is associated with increased risk of obesity. The mechanism of this relationship is unknown, but being overweight is a highly stigmatized condition and may be a source of chronic stress that contributes to the development and pathophysiology of obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether weight stigma is associated with physiological risk factors linked to stress and obesity, including hypercortisolism and oxidative stress, independent of adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations.
Health Risk Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal cancer survivors' needs and preferences for survivorship information.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Before developing a survivorship care plan (SCP) that colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors will value, understanding the informational needs of CRC survivors is critical.
Related JoVE Video
Do Community-Based Patient Assistance Programs Affect the Treatment and Well-Being of Patients With Breast Cancer?
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with breast cancer who need adjuvant treatments often fail to receive them. High-quality, community-based patient-assistance programs are an underused, inexpensive resource to help patients with cancer obtain needed therapy. We sought to determine whether connecting women to patient-assistance programs would reduce underuse of adjuvant therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Self-reported mindfulness and cortisol during a Shamatha meditation retreat.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cognitive perseverations that include worry and rumination over past or future events may prolong cortisol release, which in turn may contribute to predisease pathways and adversely affect physical health. Meditation training may increase self-reported mindfulness, which has been linked to reductions in cognitive perseverations. However, there are no reports that directly link self-reported mindfulness and resting cortisol output. Here, the authors investigate this link.
Related JoVE Video
Follow your breath: respiratory interoceptive accuracy in experienced meditators.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Attention to internal bodily sensations is a core feature of mindfulness meditation. Previous studies have not detected differences in interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators on heartbeat detection and perception tasks. We compared differences in respiratory interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators in the ability to detect and discriminate respiratory resistive loads and sustain accurate perception of respiratory tidal volume during nondistracted and distracted conditions. Groups did not differ in overall performance on the detection and discrimination tasks; however, meditators were more accurate in discriminating the resistive load with the lowest ceiling effect. Meditators were also more accurate during the nondistracted tracking task at a lag time of 1 s following the breath. Results provide initial support for the notion that meditators have greater respiratory interoceptive accuracy compared to nonmeditators.
Related JoVE Video
Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.
Related JoVE Video
Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a pilot communication skills training intervention for minority cancer patients.
J Psychosoc Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to pilot test in a minority cancer patient population a communication workshop to improve doctor-patient communication skills. Thirty-two patients participated. Eighteen evaluated a face-to-face workshop, while 14 completed surveys only. Participants in the workshop group completed the Patient Report of Communication Behavior (PRCB) before and after the workshop and a course evaluation. Participants did not differ on baseline PRCB scores. Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (p < 0.01). All participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would use the communication skills; 93% agreed or strongly agreed that the skills would improve their health care.
Related JoVE Video
Physical activity moderates effects of stressor-induced rumination on cortisol reactivity.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physically active individuals have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence indicates that physical activity may be particularly beneficial to those experiencing chronic stress. The tendency to ruminate increases and prolongs physiological stress responses, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as indexed by cortisol reactivity to stressful experiences. We examined the association between ruminating in response to a laboratory stressor task and HPA axis reactivity and recovery and examined whether a physically active life-style moderates the associations between rumination and cortisol output trajectories.
Related JoVE Video
Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.
Related JoVE Video
A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Black sheep get the blues: a psychobiological model of social rejection and depression.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Major life events involving social rejection are strongly associated with onset of depression. To account for this relation, we propose a psychobiological model in which rejection-related stressors elicit a distinct and integrated set of cognitive, emotional, and biological changes that may evoke depression. In this model, social rejection events activate brain regions involved in processing negative affect and rejection-related distress (e.g., anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex). They also elicit negative self-referential cognitions (e.g., "Im undesirable," "Other people dont like me") and related self-conscious emotions (e.g., shame, humiliation). Downstream biological consequences include upregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, and inflammatory response. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in this process because they induce a constellation of depressotypic behaviors called sickness behaviors. Although these changes can be short-lived, sustained inflammation may occur via glucocorticoid resistance, catecholamines, sympathetic innervation of immune organs, and immune cell aging. This response also may be moderated by several factors, including prior life stress, prior depression, and genes implicated in stress reactivity.
Related JoVE Video
Establishing a general medical outpatient clinic for cancer survivors in a public city hospital setting.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many cancer centers and community hospitals are developing novel models of survivorship care. However, few are specifically focused on services for socio-economically disadvantaged cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Social-evaluative threat and proinflammatory cytokine regulation: an experimental laboratory investigation.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study experimentally tested whether a stressor characterized by social-evaluative threat (SET), a context in which the self can be judged negatively by others, would elicit increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and alter the regulation of this response. This hypothesis was derived in part from research on immunological responses to social threat in nonhuman animals. Healthy female participants were assigned to perform a speech and a math task in the presence or absence of an evaluative audience (SET or non-SET, respectively). As hypothesized, stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) increased from baseline to poststressor in the SET condition, but was unchanged in the non-SET condition. Further, the increases in TNF-alpha production correlated with participants cognitive appraisals of being evaluated. Additionally, the ability of glucocorticoids to shut down the inflammatory response was decreased in the SET condition. These findings underscore the importance of social evaluation as a threat capable of eliciting proinflammatory cytokine activity and altering its regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer in African-American (AA) women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA) women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER) status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.
Related JoVE Video
Psychobiological responses to social threat: evolution of a psychological model in psychoneuroimmunology.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There exists a bidirectional network of interactions between the central nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system. The existence of these pathways allows stressful life experience to impact the immune system with important implications for health. One powerful elicitor of changes in the autonomic, endocrine and immune systems is threat to social status. This review describes the development of a human model of social status threat that specifies a set of contextual, psychological and biological pathways that may underlie the health consequences of threats to social status and regard. The role of cognitive processes in shaping the physiological response to the social world will be emphasized.
Related JoVE Video
Linking disease symptoms and subtypes with personalized systems-based phenotypes: a proof of concept study.
Brain Behav. Immun.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A dynamic systems model was used to generate parameters describing a phenotype of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) behavior in a sample of 36 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and/or fibromyalgia (FM) and 36 case-matched healthy controls. Altered neuroendocrine function, particularly in relation to somatic symptoms and poor sleep quality, may contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. Blood plasma was assayed for cortisol and ACTH every 10 min for 24h. The dynamic model was specified with an ordinary differential equation using three parameters: (1) ACTH-adrenal signaling, (2) inhibitory feedback, and (3) non-ACTH influences. The model was "personalized" by estimating an individualized set of parameters from each participants data. Day and nighttime parameters were assessed separately. Two nocturnal parameters (ACTH-adrenal signaling and inhibitory feedback) significantly differentiated the two patient subgroups ("fatigue-predominant" patients with CFS only versus "pain-predominant" patients with FM and comorbid chronic fatigue) from controls (all ps<.05), whereas daytime parameters and diurnal/nocturnal slopes did not. The same nocturnal parameters were significantly associated with somatic symptoms among patients (ps<.05). There was a significantly different pattern of association between nocturnal non-ACTH influences and sleep quality among patients versus controls (p<.05). Although speculative, the finding that patient somatic symptoms decreased when more cortisol was produced per unit ACTH, is consistent with cortisols anti-inflammatory and sleep-modulatory effects. Patients HPA systems may compensate by promoting more rapid or sustained cortisol production. Mapping "behavioral phenotypes" of stress-arousal systems onto symptom clusters may help disentangle the pathophysiology of complex disorders with frequent comorbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Stress appraisals and cellular aging: a key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length.
Brain Behav. Immun.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for multiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N=50; M age=62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic caregiving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (?=-.32, p=.03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (?=-.36, p=.006) and retrospective (?=-.29, p=.03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, caregiving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging.
Related JoVE Video
Beyond Demographics: Differences in Patient Activation Across New Immigrant, Diverse Language Subgroups.
J Community Health
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The federal government promotes "patient-centered medical homes" to plan care with respect to patients cultures and values and support patients self-care efforts. To promote self-care, the medical home would be best utilized by activated, engaged patients. The objective of this study was to measure and compare patient activation scores in English-, Spanish-, and Haitian Creole-speaking patients seen at an inner-city hospital ambulatory care practice. Patient activation was measured using the patient activation measure (PAM). Mean PAM scores and activation levels differed according to survey language (p < 0.001). US-born participants had higher mean PAM scores than persons born outside of the US. Participants living in the US longer had higher mean PAM scores than participants newer to the US. Levels of activation and mean PAM scores increased with greater comfort reading, speaking, and thinking in English. The mean PAM (SD) score of 61.5 (16.5) for Haitian Creole-speaking Caribbean Blacks was significantly lower than the mean PAM score of 68.8 (15.6) for English-speaking Caribbean Blacks (p value = 0.006). Although mean PAM scores did not significantly differ between Haitian Creole and Spanish speakers, PAM stages differed according to language of survey completion (p < 0.001), with a greater percentage of Haitian Creole speakers being categorized as stage 1 (least activated) as well as stage 4 (most activated). Spanish and Haitian Creole speakers have lower mean PAM scores than English speakers. Mean PAM scores did not differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanics or according to race, illustrating the need to examine the role of language and culture on patient activation.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.