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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ca2+-mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species metabolism augments Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation to facilitate cell differentiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Emerging evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can stimulate the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in a number of cellular processes. However, potential sources of endogenous ROS have not been thoroughly explored. Here, we show that growth factor depletion in human neural progenitor cells induces ROS production in mitochondria. Elevated ROS levels augment activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling that regulates neural differentiation. We find that growth factor depletion stimulates the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum stores. Ca(2+) subsequently accumulates in the mitochondria and triggers ROS production. The inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake with simultaneous growth factor depletion prevents the rise in ROS metabolism. Moreover, low ROS levels block the dissociation of the Wnt effector Dishevelled from nucleoredoxin. Attenuation of the response amplitudes of pathway effectors delays the onset of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation and results in markedly impaired neuronal differentiation. Our findings reveal Ca(2+)-mediated ROS metabolic cues that fine-tune the efficiency of cell differentiation by modulating the extent of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling output.
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KLRG1+ NK cells protect T-bet-deficient mice from pulmonary metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We studied the developmental and functional mechanisms behind NK cell-mediated antitumor responses against metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in mice. In particular, we focused on investigating the significance of T-box transcription factors and the immunotherapeutic relevance of IL-15 in the development and function of tumor-reactive NK cells. Pulmonary CRC metastases were experimentally seeded via an adoptive i.v. transfer of luciferase-expressing CT26 CRC cells that form viewable masses via an in vivo imaging device; genetically deficient mice were used to dissect the antitumor effects of developmentally different NK cell subsets. IL-15 precomplexed to IL-15 receptor-? was used in immunotherapy experiments. We found that mice deficient for the T-box transcription factor T-bet lack terminally differentiated antitumor CD27(low)KLRG1(+) NK cells, leading to a terminal course of rapid-onset pulmonary CRC metastases. The importance of this NK cell subset for effective antitumor immunity was shown by adoptively transferring purified CD27(low)KLRG1(+) NK cells into T-bet-deficient mice and, thereby, restoring immunity against lung metastasis formation. Importantly, immunity to metastasis formation could also be restored in T-bet-deficient recipients by treating mice with IL-15 precomplexed to IL-15 receptor-?, which induced the development of eomesodermin(+)KLRG1(+) NK cells from existing NK cell populations. Thus, contingent upon their T-bet-dependent development and activation status, NK cells can control metastatic CRC in mice, which is highly relevant for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches in the clinic.
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Double deficiency for ROR?t and T-bet drives Th2-mediated allograft rejection in mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Although Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells are thought to be major effector cells in adaptive alloimmune responses, their respective contribution to allograft rejection remains unclear. To precisely address this, we used mice genetically modified for the Th1 and Th17 hallmark transcription factors T-bet and ROR?t, respectively, which allowed us to study the alloreactive role of each subset in an experimental transplant setting. We found that in a fully mismatched heterotopic mouse heart transplantation model, T cells deficient for T-bet (prone to Th17 differentiation) versus ROR?t (prone to Th1 differentiation) rejected allografts at a more accelerated rate, indicating a predominance of Th17- over Th1-driven alloimmunity. Importantly, T cells doubly deficient for both T-bet and ROR?t differentiated into alloreactive GATA-3-expressing Th2 cells, which promptly induced allograft rejection characterized by a Th2-type intragraft expression profile and eosinophilic infiltration. Mechanistically, Th2-mediated allograft rejection was contingent on IL-4, as its neutralization significantly prolonged allograft survival by reducing intragraft expression of Th2 effector molecules and eosinophilic allograft infiltration. Moreover, under IL-4 neutralizing conditions, alloreactive double-deficient T cells upregulated Eomesodermin (Eomes) and IFN-?, but not GATA-3. Thus, in the absence of T-bet and ROR?t, Eomes may salvage Th1-mediated alloimmunity that underlies IL-4 neutralization-resistant allograft rejection. We summarize that, whereas Th17 cells predictably promote allograft rejection, IL-4-producing GATA-3(+) Th2 cells, which are generally thought to protect allogeneic transplants, may actually be potent facilitators of organ transplant rejection in the absence of T-bet and ROR?t. Moreover, Eomes may rescue Th1-mediated allograft rejection in the absence of IL-4, T-bet, and ROR?t.
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A color-coded reporter model to study the effect of immunosuppressants on CD8+ T-cell memory in antitumor and alloimmune responses.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors possess anticancer properties potentially useful in reducing posttransplantation malignancy. Besides controlling tumor-sensitive proliferative and angiogenic effects, mTOR influences transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) in CD8 cytotoxic T cells (Tc), which are key in rejecting tumors, and allografts.
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The granulocyte colony stimulating factor pathway regulates autoantibody production in a murine induced model of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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INTRODUCTION: An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced systemic lupus erythematosus contains a polymorphism in the gene encoding the G-CSF receptor. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the Sle2c2 suppression is associated with an impaired G-CSF receptor function that can be overcome by exogenous G-CSF. METHODS: Leukocytes from B6.Sle2c2 and B6 congenic mice, which carry a different allele of the G-CSF receptor, were compared for their responses to G-CSF. Autoantibody production was induced with the chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) model by adoptive transfer of B6.bm12 splenocytes. Different treatment regimens varying the amount and frequency of G-CSF (Neulasta®) or carrier control were tested on cGVHD outcomes. Autoantibody production, immune cell activation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were compared between the two strains with the various treatments. In addition, the effect of G-CSF treatment was examined on the production autoantibodies in the B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) spontaneous model of lupus. RESULTS: B6.Sle2c2 and B6 leukocytes responded differently to G-CSF. G-CSF binding by B6.Sle2c2 leukocytes was reduced as compared to B6, which was associated with a reduced expansion in response to in vivo G-CSF treatment. G-CSF in vivo treatment also failed to mobilize bone-marrow B6.Sle2c2 neutrophils as it did for B6 neutrophils. In contrast, the expression of G-CSF responsive genes indicated a higher G-CSF receptor signaling in B6.Sle2c2 cells. G-CSF treatment restored the ability of B6.Sle2c2 mice to produce autoantibodies in a dose-dependent manner upon cGVHD induction, which correlated with restored CD4+ T cells activation, as well as dendritic cell and granulocyte expansion. Steady-state ROS production was higher in B6.Sle2c2 than in B6 mice. cGVHD induction resulted in a larger increase in ROS production in B6 than in B6.Sle2c2 mice, and this difference was eliminated with G-CSF treatment. Finally, a low dose G-CSF treatment accelerated the production of anti-dsDNA IgG in young B6.TC mice. CONCLUSION: The different in vivo and in vitro responses of B6.Sle2c2 leukocytes are consistent with the mutation in the G-CSFR having functional consequences. The elimination of Sle2c2 suppression of autoantibody production by exogenous G-CSF indicates that Sle2c2 corresponds to a loss of function of G-CSF receptor. This result was corroborated by the increased anti-dsDNA IgG production in G-CSF-treated B6.TC mice, which also carry the Sle2c2 locus. Overall, these results suggest that the G-CSF pathway regulates the production of autoantibodies in murine models of lupus.
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Unusual tubulin-clustering ability of specifically c7-modified colchicine analogues.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Highly cytotoxic C7-modified colchicine analogues, exemplified by tubuloclustin, promote microtubule disassembly followed by the formation of very stable tubulin clusters, both in vitro and in cells. The proposed mechanism of action of tubuloclustin and its analogues, beyond that of colchicine, includes additional specific interactions with the ?-tubulin subunit.
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Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway.
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Nanoparticles induce changes of the electrical activity of neuronal networks on microelectrode array neurochips.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Nanomaterials are extensively used in industry and daily life, but little is known about possible health effects. An intensified research regarding toxicity of nanomaterials is urgently needed. Several studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) can be transported to the central nervous system; however, interference of NPs with the electrical activity of neurons has not yet been shown.
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Novel derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are potent mitostatic agents featuring strong microtubule depolymerizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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A series of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives based on structural and electronic overlap with combretastatins have been designed and synthesized. Initially, we tested all new compounds in vivo using the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to yield a number of agents with anti-proliferative, anti-mitotic, and microtubule destabilizing activities. The experimental data led to identification of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with isothiazole (5-8) and phenyl (9-12) pharmacophores featuring activity profiles comparable to that of combretastatins, podophyllotoxin and nocodazole. Cytotoxic effects of the two lead molecules, namely 6 and 12, were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with the A549 human cancer cell line including cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, cellular microtubule distribution, and finally in vitro microtubule assembly with purified tubulin. The modeling results using 3D similarity (ROCS) and docking (FRED) correlated well with the observed activity of the molecules. Docking data suggested that the most potent molecules are likely to target the colchicine binding site.
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