Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-functional osteoclasts. More than 50% of the patients have mutations in the TCIRG1 gene, encoding for a subunit of the osteoclast proton pump. The aim of this study was to restore the resorptive function of IMO osteoclasts by lentiviral mediated gene transfer of the TCIRG1 cDNA. CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood of five IMO patients and from normal cord blood were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing TCIRG1 and GFP under a SFFV promoter, expanded in culture and differentiated on bone slices to mature osteoclasts. qPCR analysis and western blot revealed increased mRNA and protein levels of TCIRG1, comparable to controls. Vector corrected IMO osteoclasts generated increased release of Ca(2+) and bone degradation product CTX-I into the media as well as increased formation of resorption pits in the bone slices, while non-corrected IMO osteoclasts failed to resorb bone. Resorption was approximately 70-80% of that of osteoclasts generated from cord blood. Furthermore, transduced CD34(+) cells successfully engrafted in NSG-mice. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of lentiviral-mediated correction of a human genetic disease affecting the osteoclastic lineage.
IL1RAP, a co-receptor for interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-33 receptors, was previously found to be highly upregulated on candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells, allowing for leukemia-selective killing using IL1RAP-targeting antibodies. We analyzed IL1RAP expression in a consecutive series of 29 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and, based on the level of expression in mononuclear cells (MNCs), we divided the samples into 3 groups: IL1RAP low (n = 6), IL1RAP intermediate (n = 11), and IL1RAP high (n = 12). Within the CD34+CD38- population, the intermediate and high groups expressed higher levels of IL1RAP than did corresponding normal cells. With the aim to target AML stem cells, an anti-IL1RAP monoclonal antibody was generated followed by isotype switching for improved antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Using this antibody, we achieved selective killing of AML MNC, CD34+CD38+, and CD34+CD38- cells. Our findings demonstrate that IL1RAP is a promising new therapeutic target in AML.
Osteopetrosis caused by defective acid secretion by the osteoclast, is characterized by defective bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, while bone formation is normal or increased. In contrast the bones are of poor quality, despite this uncoupling of formation from resorption.To shed light on the effect of uncoupling in adult mice with respect to bone strength, we transplanted irradiated three-month old normal mice with hematopoietic stem cells from control or oc/oc mice, which have defective acid secretion, and followed them for 12 to 28 weeks.Engraftment levels were assessed by flow cytometry of peripheral blood. Serum samples were collected every six weeks for measurement of bone turnover markers. At termination bones were collected for µCT and mechanical testing. An engraftment level of 98% was obtained. From week 6 until termination bone resorption was significantly reduced, while the osteoclast number was increased when comparing oc/oc to controls. Bone formation was elevated at week 6, normalized at week 12, and reduced onwards. µCT and mechanical analyses of femurs and vertebrae showed increased bone volume and bone strength of cortical and trabecular bone.In conclusion, these data show that attenuation of acid secretion in adult mice leads to uncoupling and improves bone strength.
Understanding the in vivo regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) will be critical to identifying key factors involved in the regulation of HSC self-renewal and differentiation. The niche (microenvironment) in which HSCs reside has recently regained attention accompanied by a dramatic increase in the understanding of the cellular constituents of the bone marrow HSC niche. The use of sophisticated genetic models allowing modulation of specific lineages has demonstrated roles for mesenchymal-derived elements such as osteoblasts and adipocytes, vasculature, nerves, and a range of hematopoietic progeny of the HSC as being participants in the regulation of the bone marrow microenvironment. Whilst providing significant insight into the cellular composition of the niche, is it possible to manipulate any given cell lineage in vivo without impacting, knowingly or unknowingly, on those that remain?
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is caused by lack of functional osteoclasts leading to skeletal abnormalities, blindness owing to compression of the optic nerves, bone marrow (BM) failure, and early death. In most patients, TCIRG1, a proton pump subunit essential for bone resorption, is mutated. oc/oc mice represent a model for IMO owing to a deletion in Tcirg1 and die around 4 weeks of age. To determine if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without prior conditioning can reverse osteopetrosis, neonatal mice were transplanted intravenously with lineage-depleted BM cells. More than 85% of oc/oc mice transplanted with 5?×?10(6) cells survived long term with an engraftment of 3% to 5% in peripheral blood (PB). At 3 weeks, engraftment in the BM was 1% to 2%, but the cellularity had increased 60-fold compared with untreated oc/oc mice, and RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) expression in the BM was normalized. Histopathology and micro-computed tomography revealed almost complete reversal of osteopetrosis after 4 weeks. In vitro studies showed that bone resorption by osteoclasts from transplanted oc/oc mice was 14% of transplanted controls, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that resorption was mainly associated with osteoclasts of donor origin. Lineage analysis of BM, PB, and spleen did not provide any evidence for selective recruitment of cells to the osteoclastic lineage. The vision also was preserved in transplanted oc/oc mice, as determined by a visual tracking drum test. In summary, nonablative neonatal transplantation leading to engraftment of only a small fraction of normal cells rapidly reverses severe osteopetrosis in the oc/oc mouse model.
The bone marrow (BM) is contained within the bone cavity and is the main site of hematopoiesis, the continuous development of blood cells from immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The bone marrow consists of developing hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic cells, the latter collectively termed the bone marrow microenvironment. These non-hematopoietic cells include cells of the osteoblast lineage, adipocytes and endothelial cells. For many years these bone marrow microenvironment cells were predicted to play active roles in regulating hematopoiesis, and recent studies have confirmed such roles. Importantly, more recent data has indicated that cells of the BM microenvironment may also contribute to hematopoietic diseases. In this review we provide an overview of the roles of the data suggesting that the cells of the bone marrow microenvironment may play an active role in the initiation and progression of hematopoietic malignancy.
Dysfunction in or lack of osteoclasts result in osteopetrosis, a group of rare but often severe, genetic disorders characterized by an increase in bone mass, skeletal malformations and bone marrow failure that may be fatal. Several of the underlying defects have lately been characterized in humans and in animal disease models. In humans, these defects often involve mutations in genes expressing proteins involved in the acidification of the osteoclast sub-cellular compartment, a process necessary for proper bone resorption. So far, the only cure for children with severe osteopetrosis is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, the characterization of the genetic defects opens up the possibility for gene replacement therapy as an alternative to SCT. Recently, gene therapy targeting hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in a mouse model of infantile malignant osteopetrosis was shown to correct many aspects of the disease. Here we review important aspects of this group of diseases and discuss the prospects for development of gene therapy of osteopetrosis.
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis is a fatal disease caused by lack of functional osteoclasts. In most of patients, TCIRG1, encoding a subunit of a proton pump essential for bone resorption, is mutated. Osteopetrosis leads to bone marrow failure and blindness due to optic nerve compression. Oc/oc mice have a deletion in Tcirg1 and die around 3 to 4 weeks, but can be rescued by neonatal stem cell transplantation (SCT) after irradiation conditioning. However, as irradiation of neonatal mice results in retinal degeneration, we wanted to investigate whether conditioning with busulphan prior to SCT can lead to preservation of vision and reversal of osteopetrosis in the oc/oc mouse model.
The recently revitalized interest in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by the bone marrow microenvironment has resulted in the identification of some important cell types that potentially form the HSC niche. The term osteoblast has commonly been used to describe the endosteal elements of the HSC niche, but these cells are part of a larger family that functions in bone at different stages of differentiation. Given that there is much controversy as to what cell types have important roles in the HSC niche, this review offers an overview of the diverse osteoblastic cell types and discusses the current evidence regarding what roles they have in the HSC niche.
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