JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete Genome Sequences and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two West Nile Virus Strains Isolated from Equines in Argentina in 2006 Could Indicate an Early Introduction of the Virus in the Southern Cone.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The complete nucleotide sequences of two West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated in Argentina were determined. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned nucleic acid sequences of these two strains along with other previously published complete WNV genome sequences. Phylogenetic data showed that both strains belonged to clade 1a of lineage 1 and clustered in a subclade with American strains isolated during 1999-2002. These results suggest two independent routes of introduction of WNV in Argentina and that the virus could have been circulating in Argentina for some time before being isolated.
Related JoVE Video
VALIDATING AN ENERGY EXPENDITURE PREDICTION EQUATION IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE MEXICAN PATIENTS.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexico is approximately 70%; thus, obtaining a reliable measurement of the resting energy expenditure (REE) in these patients is of extreme importance. The aim of the study was to obtain a prediction equation of REE in overweight or obese outpatients in the Mexican population. Methods: The study was conducted at The National Institute for Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran (Mexico, D.F.). Consecutive outpatients (18-70 years old) at the Clinical Nutrition were evaluated between March 2010 and August 2012 after being diagnosed with overweight or obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 25 kg/m2). Patients with any disease that could affect the measurement of gas exchange were excluded. Participants were evaluated by indirect calorimetry (IC), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements to design the REE prediction equation. Two groups were evaluated: one group for derivation and another group for validation. The REE was also estimated using the equations of Harris-Benedict, Mifflin St-Jeor, Ireton-Jones, Carrasco, Kleiber and Owen, assessing current weight, ideal weight and adjusted weight. A REE equation was obtained by multiple linear regression based on the evaluated variables, and those that gave the best precision to the model were selected. The real REE and the estimated REE were then compared using Student's t-test. To highlight differences, pairs of measurements were further analyzed using the Bland & Altman plot. Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination between REE values measured by IC and REE values estimated using various formulas were calculated. Results: A total of 77 patients were included in the derivation group: 38 men (49.4%) and 39 women (50.6%). The mean age was 48.5 } 13.9 years, and the mean BMI was 34.7 } 5.7 kg/m2. A total of 50 participants were included in the validation group: 16 men (32%) and 34 women (68%). The mean age was 48.5 } 15.5 years, and the mean BMI was 34.2 } 5.2 kg/m2. The baseline characteristics of both groups were homogeneous. IC reported an average of 2001 } 552 kcal, with a respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.75 } 0.04. The new REE equation that resulted from the statistical model had an R2 = 0.52 and a bias of } 3.39 kcal. When the REE obtained from IC was compared with the REE estimated by the new formula, there was no significant difference between the results, and the correlation for all participants was 0.71 (p.
Related JoVE Video
Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case-control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD (n = 40) and TD (n = 113) children (aged 6-10 years) living in the same area. Body mass indices were below the 5th percentile in 20 % of ASD versus 8.85 % of TD children. We found intakes were lower for fluoride (p = 0.017) and higher for vitamin E (p = 0.001). There was limited food variety and inadequacy of some intakes suggests that routine monitoring of ASD children should include assessment of their dietary habits, as well as anthropometric measurements.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of the Mas receptor is upregulated in skeletal muscle wasting.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skeletal muscle atrophy during sepsis, immobilization, and chronic diseases is characterized by an increase in expression and activity of the muscle-specific ubiquitin 3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS), by high level of circulating angiotensin II (AngII) is directly involved in skeletal muscle wasting associated with cardiac and renal failure. Ang (1-7), a peptide belonging to the non-classical RAS system, produces effects that are opposite to AngII. The actions of Ang (1-7) are mediated by its binding and signalling through the Mas receptor. Our purpose is to assess the effects of atrophic stimuli AngII, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and immobilization on the expression of the Mas receptor in skeletal muscle. For that we used gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles of C57BL10 mice treated with AngII, LPS or subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization by casting. In addition, we used C2C12 myotubes incubated with AngII or LPS. We evaluated Mas expression by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot immunohistochemical analysis. Skeletal muscle atrophy was corroborated by the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 and the fibre diameter. Our results show that Mas receptor expression was increased by AngII or LPS in vitro and in vivo, and upregulated by immobilization. The increase of the Mas expression was concomitantly with the upregulation of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 and the reduction of the fibre diameter. These results from studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate for the first time that the Mas receptor is increased under atrophic stimulus and suggest that the non-classical RAS system could have an important role in muscle wasting.
Related JoVE Video
Novel and optimized strategies for inducing fibrosis in vivo: focus on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Skelet Muscle
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibrosis, an excessive collagen accumulation, results in scar formation, impairing function of vital organs and tissues. Fibrosis is a hallmark of muscular dystrophies, including the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which remains incurable. Substitution of muscle by fibrotic tissue also complicates gene/cell therapies for DMD. Yet, no optimal models to study muscle fibrosis are available. In the widely used mdx mouse model for DMD, extensive fibrosis develops in the diaphragm only at advanced adulthood, and at about two years of age in the 'easy-to-access' limb muscles, thus precluding fibrosis research and the testing of novel therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a constant monitoring should be done in order to verify the influence of different factors (season, amount of contaminants) in the water quality.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: a Spanish Multicenter Study.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bariatric surgery (BS) has become more frequent among women of child-bearing age. Data regarding the underlying maternal and perinatal risks are scarce. The objective of this nationwide study is to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes after BS.
Related JoVE Video
[Vertical stratification of epiphytic bryophytes found on Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae) from boyacá, Colombia].
Rev. Biol. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oak forest represents an ecologically important plant formation in Colombia, partly due to the large amount of epiphyte flora that harbors, especially non-vascular plants which have been poorly studied in Colombia. One of the biggest oak forests in the country is the one found in the Parque Natural Municipal "Robledales de Tipacoque" (PNMRT), in Boyacá, municipality of Tipacoque. The epiphyte bryoflora was evaluated in Q. humboldtii, using canopy climbing techniques and dividing the trees (25 individuals sampled) each into five layers (base, trunk, inner canopy, middle and outer canopy). A total of 365 samples were collected: 29% liveworts and 71% mosses. Hepatics represented 10 families, 16 genera and 26 species; mosses 11 families, 26 genera and 49 species. Considering the tree layers, the most diverse one was the base with 51 species, followed by the trunk with 43; in the canopy, the inner canopy was found the most diverse with 28 species, and was followed by the middle canopy with 18, and the outer canopy with 15. A species similarity index shows that the trunk and the middle canopy were the most closely related (0.42) in terms of species composition. The results showed that non-vascular plants were mostly found in lower layers (base and trunk), where the diversity was greater, richer (species number), and this might be caused by the microclimatic conditions in these places, such as higher humidity, lower light intensity and shade. Thus, some species are considered shade epiphytes (ombrophiles) because they are unique to these areas, like Bazzania gracilis and Taxilejeunea pterigonia, among others. Likewise, Jungermannia sp. is considered a sun epiphyte (heliophilous) because it is found only in the outer canopy. We concluded that Q. humboldtii could be considered as a potential host for the conservation of non-vascular epiphytes in Colombian forests.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence and removal of drugs of abuse in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Valencia (Spain).
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The occurrence of 8 drugs of abuse and metabolites in the influent and effluent of the 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) that treat wastewater from Valencia was studied in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Target drugs except 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-ACMOR) were detected in 100% of the influents. The WWTPs eliminate cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Benzoylecgonine (BECG) was also efficiently eliminated (93-98%), whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) presented removal rates of 32-57% and ketamine (KET) was not eliminated. The most consumed illicit drugs, according to the estimated concentrations of each compound in the studied WWTPs, were cannabis and COC followed by KET, AMP, MAMP, MDMA and heroin. Environmental risk assessment was evaluated by calculating Risk Quotient (RQ). MDMA and KET could pose a medium risk and low risk, respectively, to the aquatic organisms. Although short-term environmental risk is not worrisome, long-term effects cannot be known exactly.
Related JoVE Video
High Proportion of Pretransplantation Activated Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25highCD62L+CD45RO+) Predicts Acute Rejection in Kidney Transplantation: Results of a Multicenter Study.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prognostic biomarkers of acute rejection (AR) in solid organ transplantation have been addressed in multiple small retrospective studies, and there is a critical need for multicenter studies. Because of their tolerogenic properties, regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in transplant outcome.
Related JoVE Video
The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang (1-7)] is a peptide belonging to the non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang (1-7), through its receptor Mas, has an opposite action to angiotensin II (Ang II), the typical peptide of the classical RAS axis. Ang II produces skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterised by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is the decrease of the myofibrillar proteins produced by the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), evidenced by the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, it has been described that Ang II also induces myonuclear apoptosis during muscle atrophy. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) and Mas participation on myonuclear apoptosis during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II. Our results show that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by Ang II in the diaphragm muscles and decreases several events associated with apoptosis in the diaphragm (increased apoptotic nuclei, increased expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased caspase-3 activity and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Concomitantly, Ang (1-7) also attenuates the decrease in fibre diameter and muscle strength, and prevents the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 during the muscle wasting induced by Ang II. Interestingly, these effects of Ang (1-7) are dependent on the Mas receptor. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Ang (1-7) prevents myonuclear apoptosis during the recovery of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II.
Related JoVE Video
Zinc and smoking habits in the setting of hypertension in a Spanish populations.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between trace and toxic amounts of zinc (Zn) in biological samples (blood and urine) and the smoking habits of hypertensive patients and healthy control subjects in Valladolid (Spain). In order to compare biological samples, the concentrations of these samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limits of detection for Zn in blood plasma ranged between 4.22 and 17.34??mol?l(-1) and were <0.08??mol?g(-1) creatinine in urine. The results of this study indicate that the highest mean values of serum Zn were found in non-hypertensive nonsmokers (13.39±4.35??mol?l(-1)), whereas the highest urine Zn values were observed in hypertensive nonsmokers (2.78±2.13??mol?l(-1)). Higher Zn serum/urine quotient levels were observed in non-hypertensive and nonsmoking women, whereas lower levels were noted in non-hypertensive and smoking women (P=0.012). This study identified a correlation between Zn serum/urine quotients and cotinine levels (a marker of smoking), a correlation that suggests that smoking lowers the Zn serum/urine quotient, which was lower in hypertensive subjects than in control subjects.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 2 October 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.150.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern laos.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.
Related JoVE Video
It is better to smile to women: Gender modifies perception of honesty of smiling individuals across cultures.
Int J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social perception studies have revealed that smiling individuals are perceived more favourably on many communion dimensions in comparison to nonsmiling individuals. Research on gender differences in smiling habits showed that women smile more than men. In our study, we investigated this phenomena further and hypothesised that women perceive smiling individuals as more honest than men. An experiment conducted in seven countries (China, Germany, Mexico, Norway, Poland, Republic of South Africa and USA) revealed that gender may influence the perception of honesty in smiling individuals. We compared ratings of honesty made by male and female participants who viewed photos of smiling and nonsmiling people. While men and women did not differ on ratings of honesty in nonsmiling individuals, women assessed smiling individuals as more honest than men did. We discuss these results from a social norms perspective.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of phase transfer ligands on monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition in organic medium are highly monodisperse but at the same time are unsuitable for biological applications. Ligand-exchange reactions are useful to make their surface hydrophilic. However, these could alter some structural and magnetic properties of the modified particles. Here we present a comprehensive study and comparison of the effects of employing either citric acid (CA) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) ligand-exchange protocols for phase transfer of monodisperse hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in benzyl ether. We show the excellent hydrodynamic size distribution and colloidal stability of the hydrophilic particles obtained by the two protocols and confirm that there is a certain degree of oxidation caused by the ligand-exchange. CA revealed to be more aggressive towards the iron oxide surface than DMSA and greatly reduced the saturation magnetization values and initial susceptibility of the resulting particles compared to the native ones. Besides being milder and more straightforward to perform, the DMSA ligand exchange protocol produces MNP chemically more versatile for further functionalization possibilities. This versatility is shown through the covalent linkage of gum Arabic onto MNP-DMSA using carboxyl and thiol based chemical routes and yielding particles with comparable properties.
Related JoVE Video
Ambient air levels and health risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric particulate matter samples from low-polluted areas: application of an optimized microwave extraction and HPLC-FL methodology.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new methodology involving a simple and fast pretreatment of the samples by microwave-assisted extraction and concentration by N2 stream, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, was used for determining the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction). Obtained LOD, 1.0?×?10(-3) ng/m(3), was adequate for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in the samples, and BaP recovery from PAH in Fine Dust (PM10-like) certified reference material was nearly quantitative (86 %). The validated procedure was applied for analyzing 115 PM10 samples collected at different sampling locations in the low-polluted area of Extremadura (Southwest Spain) during a monitoring campaign carried out in 2011-2012. BaP spatial variations and seasonal variability were investigated as well as the influence of meteorological conditions and different air pollutants concentrations. A normalized protocol for health risk assessment was applied to estimate lifetime cancer risk due to BaP inhalation in the sampling areas, finding that around eight inhabitants per million people may develop lung cancer due to the exposition to BaP in atmospheric particulates emitted by the investigated sources.
Related JoVE Video
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in pregnant and nonpregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to compare the main features of infection with pandemic influenza A virus in pregnant and nonpregnant women admitted to hospitals in Spain during the first waves of the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic. This was a prospective (November 2009 to June 2010), multicenter observational study. All cases were women of reproductive age who had not been vaccinated against seasonal or pandemic influenza A. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sociodemographic and clinical data of all cases were reviewed. A total of 219 inpatients, including 49 pregnant women and 170 nonpregnant women, were enrolled in the study upon admission to participating hospitals. The most substantially different symptoms between the groups were respiratory distress and unilobar consolidation, both of which were more frequent among nonpregnant women. Antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids were more frequently used in nonpregnant women; however, there were no differences in the rates of treatment with antivirals. Our findings indicated that the compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant women in this study did not have significantly different symptoms and were not at increased risk of complications from pandemic influenza virus infection.
Related JoVE Video
Depigmented-polymerised allergoids favour regulatory over effector T cells: enhancement by 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment for allergic disease capable of modifying disease long term. To reduce the risk of anaphylaxis from SIT, allergen-extracts have been modified by polymerisation with glutaraldehyde to reduce IgE binding. It is suggested that these allergoid extracts also have reduced T cell activity, which could compromise clinical efficacy. Effective SIT is thought to act through regulatory T cells (Tregs) rather than activation of effector T cells. There is no published data on the activity of modified extracts on Tregs.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence of the gluten-free and casein-free diet in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In autism spectrum disorders, many parents resort to alternative treatments and these are generally perceived as risk free. Among these, the most commonly used is the gluten-free, casein-free diet. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of studies published from 1970 to date related to the gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism spectrum disorder patients. Few studies can be regarded as providing sound scientific evidence since they were blinded randomized controlled trials, and even these were based on small sample sizes, reducing their validity. We observed that the evidence on this topic is currently limited and weak. We recommend that it should be only used after the diagnosis of an intolerance or allergy to foods containing the allergens excluded in gluten-free, casein-free diets. Future research should be based on this type of design, but with larger sample sizes.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic, biochemical and genotoxic effects of biodiesel produced by different routes on ZFL cell line.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transesterification has proved to be the best option for obtaining biodiesel and, depending on the type of alcohol used in the reaction, the type of biodiesel may be methyl ester or ethyl ester. Leaking biodiesel can reach water bodies, contaminating aquatic organisms, particularly fish. The objective of this study was to determine whether the soluble fraction of biodiesel (Bd), produced by both the ethylic (BdEt) and methylic (BdMt) routes, can cause cytotoxic, biochemical and genotoxic alterations in the hepatocyte cell line of Danio rerio (ZFL). The metabolic activity of the cell was quantified by the MTT reduction method, while genotoxic damage was analyzed by the comet assay with the addition of specific endonucleases. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant/biotransformation enzymes activity also were determined. The results indicate that both Bd increased ROS production, glutathione S-transferase activity and the occurrence of DNA damage. BdMt showed higher cytotoxicity than BdEt, and also caused oxidative damage to the DNA. In general, both Bd appear to be stressors for the cells, causing cytotoxic, biochemical and genetic alterations in ZFL cells, but the type and intensity of the changes found appear to be dependent on the biodiesel production route.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidative stress mediates the conversion of endothelial cells into myofibroblasts via a TGF-?1 and TGF-?2-dependent pathway.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) circulate in the bloodstream and interact with endothelial cells (ECs), increasing intracellular oxidative stress. Although endothelial dysfunction is crucial in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation, little is known about the effects of oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction. Oxidative stress induces several functions, including cellular transformation. A singular process of cell conversion is tendothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, in which ECs become myofibroblasts, thus losing their endothelial properties and gaining fibrotic behavior. However, the participation of oxidative stress as an inductor of conversion of ECs into myofibroblasts is not known. Thus, we studied the role played by oxidative stress in this conversion and investigated the underlying mechanism. Our results show that oxidative stress induces conversion of ECs into myofibroblasts through decreasing the levels of endothelial markers and increasing those of fibrotic and ECM proteins. The underlying mechanism depends on the ALK5/Smad3/NF-?B pathway. Oxidative stress induces the expression and secretion of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Downregulation of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 by siRNA technology abolished the H2O2-induced conversion. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that oxidative stress is able to induce conversion of ECs into myofibroblasts via TGF-? secretion, emerging as a source for oxidative stress-based vascular dysfunction. Thus, oxidative stress emerges as a decisive factor in inducing conversion of ECs into myofibroblasts through a TGF-?-dependent mechanism, changing the ECs protein expression profile, and converting normal ECs into pathological ones. This information will be useful in designing new and improved therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress-mediated systemic inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The role of wearable sensors and wireless technologies for the assessment of heart rate variability in anorexia nervosa.
Eat Weight Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bradycardia and abnormal cardiac autonomic function are related to increased mortality in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to assess heart rate (HR) and HR variability of young adolescents with AN as compared to controls by means of wearable sensors and wireless technologies.
Related JoVE Video
The Ang-(1-7)/Mas-1 axis attenuates the expression and signalling of TGF-?1 induced by AngII in mouse skeletal muscle.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AngII (angiotensin II) induces pathological conditions such as fibrosis in skeletal muscle. In this process, AngII increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) and induces a biphasic phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). In addition, AngII stimulates the expression and production of TGF (transforming growth factor)-?1 via a mechanism dependent on ROS production mediated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and p38 MAPK activation. In the present study, we investigated whether Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)], through the Mas-1 receptor, can counteract the signalling induced by AngII in mouse skeletal muscle and cause a decrease in the expression and further activity of TGF-?1 in skeletal muscle cells. Our results show that Ang-(1-7) decreased the expression of TGF-?1 induced by AngII in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we observed that Ang-(1-7) prevented the increase in TGF-?1 expression induced by AngII, ROS production dependent on NOX and the early phase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Interestingly, Ang-(1-7) also prevented the late phase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, Smad-2 phosphorylation and Smad-4 nuclear translocation, an increase in transcriptional activity, as determined using the p3TP-lux reporter, and fibronectin levels, all of which are dependent on the TGF-?1 levels induced by AngII. We also demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) prevented the increase in TGF-?1, fibronectin and collagen content in the diaphragm of mice infused with AngII. All of these effects were reversed by the administration of A779, indicating the participation of Mas-1. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that Ang-(1-7) decreases the expression and further biological activity of TGF-?1 induced by AngII in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Cross-reactivity among non-specific lipid-transfer proteins from food and pollen allergenic sources.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are a family of pan-allergens present in foods and pollen. However, sequence homology among them is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the IgE-mediated cross-reactivity between nsLTPs from different sources and evaluate the allergenic properties of LTPs from peach (Pru p 3) and pellitory (Par j 1/Par j 2), major fruit and pollen allergens. Both proteins were purified and characterised. Cross-reactivity studies among nsLTPs from different foods and pollens were performed by immunoblot inhibition using sera specific to peach or pellitory pollen. Cross-reactivity with Pru p 3 was observed in hazelnut, onion, corn, peanut and apple while in pollens, none of the extracts was inhibited with Par j 1/2. In conclusion, Pru p 3 did not inhibit LTPs from most fruits. Therefore, although Pru p 3 covers the largest number of epitopes, diagnosis with only this allergen may not detect all LTP sensitivities.
Related JoVE Video
Concordance among Measurements Obtained by Three Pulse Oximeters Currently Used by Health Professionals.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxygen saturation is considered as the 5(th) vital sign. Presently, there exist fixed and wireless pulse oximeters, being the latter most widely used in the last years. Some of them have no possibility of calibration. This situation leads the health staff to adopt therapeutic attitudes which can be wrong. Therefore, it is extremely important to know if these wireless oximeters show a right concordance as regards measurements, since it is of great interest in daily clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Bladder cancer index: cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish and psychometric evaluation.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) is so far the only instrument applicable across all bladder cancer patients, independent of tumor infiltration or treatment applied. We developed a Spanish version of the BCI, and assessed its acceptability and metric properties.
Related JoVE Video
Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-genotoxicity and anti-mutagenicity of Apis mellifera venom.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The search for substances able to inhibit and/or diminish the effects of genotoxic and mutagenic substances has been the target of several investigations performed in recent times. Hymenoptera venoms constitute a considerable source of substances with pharmacological potential. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic and anti-genotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic potentials of Apis mellifera venom in HepG2 cells. In this evaluation, the MTT test was applied to determine the most appropriate concentrations for the genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. It was verified that the concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01?g/mL were not cytotoxic, hence these concentrations were used in the experiments. For the evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of the bee venom the comet assay and the micronucleus test were applied, respectively. The concentrations mentioned above presented both genotoxic and mutagenic potential for HepG2 cells and it was necessary to test lower concentrations of the venom (10pg/mL, 1pg/mL and 0.1pg/mL) for the anti-genotoxicity and anti-mutagenicity tests, which were performed subjecting the cells to the action of MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in order to verify the ability of the venom to inhibit or diminish the action of this compound, which has a recognized action on the genetic material. Pre-, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment with and without incubation with the venom were performed. It was observed that the lowest three concentrations tested did not present any anti-genotoxic and anti-mutagenic activity on the cells. The use of bee venom for pharmacological purposes in treatments such as cancer must be done with extreme caution, since it was observed that even at very low concentrations the venom can induce genotoxicity and mutagenicity in human cells, as was verified for the HepG2 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of the microbiological quality of groundwater in three regions of the Valencian Community (Spain).
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community (Valencia, Spain) where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies (GWBs) are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies. This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from 154 wells over a 7-year period (2004-2011), risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. coli measurements, category <1, or wells with low-frequency microbiological contamination and high-frequency wells or category 1-100, according to World Health Organization (WHO) quality criteria of drinking water. Of all wells, 18.12% showed high-frequency microbiological contamination with a majority distribution in the Ribera Alta region (26.98%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two risk categories for flow, static level, well depth and distance from population centres. This paper reveals that the vulnerability classes established by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) do not match the microbiological results, and that only eight wells with high-frequency contamination coincide with the high vulnerability areas.
Related JoVE Video
Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
A dehydrin-dehydrin interaction: the case of SK3 from Opuntia streptacantha.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dehydrins belongs to a large group of highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. It is well known that dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins that accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which their functions are carried out are still unclear. We have previously reported that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing an Opuntia streptacantha SK3 dehydrin (OpsDHN1) show enhanced tolerance to freezing stress. Herein, we show using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system that OpsDHN1 dimerizes. We found that the deletion of regions containing K-segments and the histidine-rich region in the OpsDHN1 protein affects dimer formation. Not surprisingly, in silico protein sequence analysis suggests that OpsDHN1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, an observation that was confirmed by circular dichroism and gel filtration of the recombinantly expressed protein. The addition of zinc triggered the association of recombinantly expressed OpsDHN1 protein, likely through its histidine-rich motif. These data brings new insights about the molecular mechanism of the OpsDHN1 SK3-dehydrin.
Related JoVE Video
The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24?years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.
Related JoVE Video
Andrographolide attenuates skeletal muscle dystrophy in mdx mice and increases efficiency of cell therapy by reducing fibrosis.
Skelet Muscle
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, increased transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-?) signaling, and fibrosis. At the present time, the only clinically validated treatments for DMD are glucocorticoids. These drugs prolong muscle strength and ambulation of patients for a short term only and have severe adverse effects. Andrographolide, a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has traditionally been used for the treatment of colds, fever, laryngitis, and other infections with no or minimal side effects. We determined whether andrographolide treatment of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD, affects muscle damage, physiology, fibrosis, and efficiency of cell therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: from experimental approach to clinic].
Recenti Prog Med
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by interstitial lung fibrosis with involvement of alveoli and terminal bronchiole. Its pathogenesis is still unknown, the risk factors involved in this disease are still unclear and its prognosis highly unfavorable. The main clinical presentations, the major and minor diagnostic criteria, the principal hypothesis on the pathogenesis of IPF and the experimental approaches for induction of the disease mostly in the murine model will be discussed together with current available treatments and ongoing clinical studies on drug therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Cerium oxide nanoparticles modify the antioxidative stress enzyme activities and macromolecule composition in rice seedlings.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants; however, there are limited reports on their impacts in rice (Oryza sativa). Given the widespread environmental dispersal of nCeO2, it is paramount to understand its biochemical and molecular impacts on a globally important agricultural crop, such as rice. This study was carried out to determine the impact of nCeO2 on the oxidative stress, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes activities, and macromolecular changes in the roots of rice seedlings. Rice seeds (medium amylose) were grown for 10 days in nCeO2 suspensions (0-500 mg L(-1)). Results showed that Ce in root seedlings increased as the external nCeO2 increased without visible signs of toxicity. Relative to the control, the 62.5 mg nCeO2 L(-1) reduced the H2O2 generation in the roots by 75%. At 125 mg nCeO2 L(-1), the roots showed enhanced lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, while at 500 mg L(-1), the nCeO2 increased the H2O2 generation in roots and reduced the fatty acid content. The lignin content decreased by 20% at 500 mg nCeO2 L(-1), despite the parallel increase in H2O2 content and peroxidase activities. Synchrotron ?-XRF confirmed the presence of Ce in the vascular tissues of the roots.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Quality of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Grains.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the remarkable number of publications on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants, knowledge of the implications of ENPs in the nutritional value of food crops is still limited. This research was performed to study the quality of rice grains harvested from plants grown in soil treated with cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2). Three rice varieties (high, medium, and low amylose) were cultivated to full maturity in soil amended with nCeO2 at 0 and 500 mg kg(-1) soil. Ce accumulation, nutrient content, antioxidant property, and nutritional quality of the rice grains were evaluated. Results showed that rice grains from nCeO2-treated plants had less Fe, S, prolamin, glutelin, lauric and valeric acids, and starch. Moreover, the nCeO2 reduced in grains all antioxidant values, except flavonoids. Medium- and low-amylose varieties accumulated more Ce in grains than the high-amylose variety, but the grain quality of the medium-amylose variety showed higher sensitivity to the nCeO2 treatment. These results indicate that nCeO2 could compromise the quality of rice. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report on the effects nCeO2 on rice grain quality.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of concomitant oral chronic dipyridamole therapy on inflammatory cytokines in heart failure patients.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess whether dipyridamole therapy exerts a significant anti-inflammatory effect in heart failure patients.
Related JoVE Video
Development of an indirect immunofluorescence technique for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in bottlenose dolphins.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often complicated by the lack of specific clinical symptoms or postmortem features, in humans and other animals. The only diagnostic test described so far for the serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals is the modified agglutination test (Dubey et al., Am J Vet Res 48(8):1239-1243, 1987). The development of more sensible and specific immunological techniques requires specific antibodies, which are currently unavailable in the scientific market. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is one of the most widely used methods for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans (Auer et al., Parasitol Res 12:965-970, 2000). In order to develop and apply this technique to the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), immunoglobulins were firstly purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The purified immunoglobulins were then injected in New Zealand rabbits in order to obtain polyclonal antibodies. These antisera were validated by the IIF technique, using as controls serum samples of dolphins infected by Toxoplasma. The results were visualized using antirabbit IgG labeled with fluorescein. This newly developed and specific serological assay was then tested with the dolphin collection of Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain (group I), and LOceanogràfic of Valencia, Spain (group II). The obtained results in this study showed that none of the dolphins from group 1 were infected by T. gondii and two animals were positive in group 2. Furthermore, we conclude that this study has produced antibodies with high specificity against dolphin immunoglobulins and an IIF method which may be used as immunological diagnostic tools, especially for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between the level of physical activity and markers of cardiovascular health in Valencian adolescents (Spain).
Arch Argent Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A sedentary lifestyle is not only a major cardiovascular risk factor from an early age, it also contributes to the development of other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the level of physical activity and relate it to cardiovascular risk markers in Valencian adolescents according to their anthropometric characteristics and gender.
Related JoVE Video
Food Selectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Synchrotron verification of TiO2 accumulation in cucumber fruit: a possible pathway of TiO2 nanoparticle transfer from soil into the food chain.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) into the food chain through edible plants is of great concern. Cucumis sativus L. is a freshly consumed garden vegetable that could be in contact with NPs through biosolids and direct agrichemical application. In this research, cucumber plants were cultivated for 150 days in sandy loam soil treated with 0 to 750 mg TiO2 NPs kg(-1). Fruits were analyzed using synchrotron ?-XRF and ?-XANES, ICP-OES, and biochemical assays. Results showed that catalase in leaves increased (U mg(-1) protein) from 58.8 in control to 78.8 in 750 mg kg(-1) treatment; while ascorbate peroxidase decreased from 21.9 to 14.1 in 500 mg kg(-1) treatment. Moreover, total chlorophyll content in leaves increased in the 750 mg kg(-1) treatment. Compared to control, FTIR spectra of fruit from TiO2 NP treated plants showed significant differences (p ? 0.05) in band areas of amide, lignin, and carbohydrates, suggesting macromolecule modification of cucumber fruit. In addition, compared with control, plants treated with 500 mg kg(-1) had 35% more potassium and 34% more phosphorus. For the first time, ?-XRF and ?-XANES showed root-to-fruit translocation of TiO2 in cucumber without biotransformation. This suggests TiO2 could be introduced into the food chain with unknown consequences.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an in-house and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from seropositive animals did not detect Trichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba Island, supporting its utility as an alternative, highly sensitive method in muscle examination. The serology results suggest Australian wildlife may have been exposed to Trichinella parasites. However, because of the possibility of non-specific reactions with other parasitic infections, more work using well-defined cohorts of positive and negative samples is required. Even if the specificity of the ELISAs is proven to be low, their ability to correctly classify the small number of true positive sera in this study indicates utility in screening wild boar populations for reactive sera which can be followed up with additional testing.
Related JoVE Video
Reducing CTGF/CCN2 slows down mdx muscle dystrophy and improves cell therapy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the mdx mouse model, the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin causes defective anchoring of myofibres to the basal lamina. The resultant myofibre degeneration and necrosis lead to a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased fibrosis and ultimately fatal weakness. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2) is critically involved in several chronic fibro-degenerative diseases. In DMD, the role of CTGF might extend well beyond replacement fibrosis secondary to loss of muscle fibres, since its overexpression in skeletal muscle could by itself induce a dystrophic phenotype. Using two independent approaches, we here show that mdx mice with reduced CTGF availability do indeed have less severe muscular dystrophy. Mdx mice with hemizygous CTGF deletion (mdx-Ctgf+/-), and mdx mice treated with a neutralizing anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody (FG-3019), performed better in an exercise endurance test, had better muscle strength in isolated muscles and reduced skeletal muscle impairment, apoptotic damage and fibrosis. Transforming growth factor type-? (TGF-?), pERK1/2 and p38 signalling remained unaffected during CTGF suppression. Moreover, both mdx-Ctgf+/- and FG-3019 treated mdx mice had improved grafting upon intramuscular injection of dystrophin-positive satellite cells. These findings reveal the potential of targeting CTGF to reduce disease progression and to improve cell therapy in DMD.
Related JoVE Video
The Impact of Atmospheric Pollutants on the Prevalence of Atopic Eczema in 6-7-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Spain; ISAAC Phase III.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atopic Eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects children and adults, and alters quality of life with a high morbidity rate and severe economic burden. The objective of the present work was to analyse specific atmospheric pollutants (O3, NO, PM10 and SO2) affecting the prevalence of diagnosed AE and its symptoms among 6-7-year-old schoolchildren.The participants included 21311 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 8 Spanish regions, whose parents completed the ISAAC Phase III questionnaire to ascertain AE diagnosis and symptoms. The mean levels (µg/m3) of O3, NO, PM10 (particles 10 micrometers or less in diameter) and SO2 were determined in each geographical area. Participating in this study.According to these mean levels, three levels of exposure to each pollutant were considered: level 1 (percentiles 0-25); level 2 (percentiles 26-74); level 3 (percentiles 75-100). Exposure to O3 was associated with increased prevalence of rashes (exposure level 2, Odds Ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 1.02-1.45; level 3 OR: 1.33, 95%CI: 1.10-1.61) and diagnosed AE (level 2, OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.17-1.39; level 3 OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15-1.41). An association was found between the level of NO and a drop in the prevalence of diagnosed AE (exposure level 2, OR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81-0.95; level 3 OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.74-0.97). There was also an association between the highest exposure level to PM10 and a reduced prevalence of rashes (level 3 OR: 0.42, 95%CI: 0.22-0.81) and diagnosed AE (level 3 OR: 0.53, 95%CI: 0.38-0.75). Future studies into exposure to O3 and its relationship with allergic diseases may be conducted in order to prevent this association.
Related JoVE Video
Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).
Related JoVE Video
Pre-transplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lack of an accepted definition for high immunological risk hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Recipient gender, body mass, previous transplantation and concomitant infection or disease do not appear to be influential. Deceased donation now has only a minor effect on rejection risk, but older donor age remains a significant predictor. Conventional immunological markers (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] mismatching, pre-transplant anti-HLA alloantibodies and panel reactive antibodies) are being reassessed in the light of growing understanding about the role of donor specific antibodies (DSA). At the time of transplant, delayed graft function is one of the most clear-cut risk factors for acute rejection. Extended cold ischemia time (?24 hours) may also play a contributory role. While it is not yet possible to establish conclusively the relative contribution of different risk factors for acute rejection after kidney transplantation, the available data point to variables that should be taken into account at the time of transplant. Together, these offer a realistic basis for planning an appropriate immunosuppression regimen in individual patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Haemoglobin levels for population from Gambo, a rural area of Ethiopia, and their association with anaemia and malaria.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Knowledge of appropriate reference intervals is critical not only to provide optimal clinical care, but also to enrol populations in medical research. The aim of this study was to generate normal ranges of laboratory values for haemoglobin among healthy Ethiopian adults and children and to determine if anaemia is a possible indicator of malaria in women and children in this area of Ethiopia.
Related JoVE Video
Is acetaminophen use associated with atopic eczema and other allergic diseases in adolescents?
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atopic Eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects children and adults, and alters quality of life. Previous studies have suggested several socio-demographic and environmental factors related to the prevalence of AE and other allergic diseases, including acetaminophen use. In the present study, we report the rates of isolated AE, AE associated with asthma and AE associated with rhinitis among 13- to 14-year-old Spanish adolescents and the level of association of these conditions with the use of acetaminophen. We analyzed Spanish data from a cross-sectional Phase 3 study within ISAAC. A total of 28,717 adolescents completed the Phase 3 written questionnaire by answering questions for acetaminophen use and on asthma, rhinitis and AE symptoms.We observed an association between acetaminophen use and AE among the adolescents who had used acetaminophen in the previous month. Furthermore, the prevalence rate increased with the number of allergic processes: for AE alone, the adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) was 1.81 and for AE associated with rhinitis or with asthma, aPRs were 2.20 and 3.03, respectively.We conclude that acetaminophen use in childhood may be an important factor associated with development and/or maintenance of AE and other allergic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the adenosinergic system in lung fibrosis.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adenosine (ADO) is a retaliatory metabolite that is expressed in conditions of injury or stress. During these conditions ATP is released at the extracellular level and is metabolized to adenosine. For this reason, adenosine is defined as a "danger signal" for cells and organs, in addition to its important role as homeostatic regulator. Its physiological functions are mediated through interaction with four specific transmembrane receptors called ADORA1, ADORA2A, ADORA2B and ADORA3. In the lungs of mice and humans all four adenosine receptors are expressed with different roles, having pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, determining bronchoconstriction and regulating lung inflammation and airway remodeling. Adenosine receptors can also promote differentiation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, typical of the fibrotic event. This last function suggests a potential involvement of adenosine in the fibrotic lung disease processes, which are characterized by different degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the pathology with the highest degree of fibrosis and is of unknown etiology and burdened by lack of effective treatments in humans.
Related JoVE Video
Long term biotransformation and toxicity of dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles support their use in biomedical applications.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been proposed for numerous biomedical applications, little is known about their biotransformation and long-term toxicity in the body. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles have been proven efficient for in vivo drug delivery, but these results must nonetheless be sustained by comprehensive studies of long-term distribution, degradation and toxicity. We studied DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticle effects in vitro on NCTC 1469 non-parenchymal hepatocytes, and analyzed their biodistribution and biotransformation in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Our results indicate that DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles have little effect on cell viability, oxidative stress, cell cycle or apoptosis on NCTC 1469 cells in vitro. In vivo distribution and transformation were studied by alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements, a technique that permits distinction of MNP from other iron species. Our results show that DMSA-coated MNP accumulate in spleen, liver and lung tissues for extended periods of time, in which nanoparticles undergo a process of conversion from superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to other non-superparamagnetic iron forms, with no significant signs of toxicity. This work provides the first evidence of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticle biotransformation in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Could contaminant induced mutations lead to a genetic diversity overestimation?
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Contaminant driven genetic erosion reported through the inspection of selectable traits can be underestimated using neutral markers. This divergence was previously reported in the aquatic system of an abandoned pyrite mine. The most sensitive genotypes of the microcrustacean cladoceran Daphnia longispina were found to be lacking in the impacted reservoir near the entrance of the metal rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Since that divergence could be, at least partially, accounted for by mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the AMD, the present study aimed at providing such a characterization. The Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay, using root meristematic cells, was carried out, by exposing seeds to 100, 10, 1, and 0.1 % of the local AMD. Chromosomal aberrations, cell division phases and cell death were quantified after the AMD exposure and after 24 and 48 h recovery periods. The AMD revealed to be mutagenic and genotoxic, even after diluting it to 1 and 0.1 %. Dilutions within this range were previously found to be below the lethality threshold and to elicit sublethal effects on reproduction of locally collected D. longispina clonal lineages Significant mutagenic effects (micronuclei and chromosomal breaks) were also found at 0.1 % AMD, supporting that exposure may induce permanent genetic alterations. Recovery tests showed that AMD genotoxic effects persisted after the exposure.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic effects of the venom of the wasp Polybia paulista.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hymenoptera venoms are constituted by a complex mixture of chemically or pharmacologically bioactive agents, such as phospholipases, hyaluronidases and mastoparans. Venoms can also contain substances that are able to inhibit and/or diminish the genotoxic or mutagenic action of other compounds that are capable of promoting damages in the genetic material. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the effect of the venom of Polybia paulista, a neotropical wasp, by assays with HepG2 cells maintained in culture. The cytotoxic potential of the wasp venom, assessed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT assay), was tested for the concentrations of 10 ?g/mL, 5 ?g/mL and 1 ?g/mL. As these concentrations were not cytotoxic, they were used to evaluate the genotoxic (comet assay) and mutagenic potential (micronucleus test) of the venom. In this study, it was verified that these concentrations induced damages in the DNA of the exposed cells, and it was necessary to test lower concentrations until it was found those that were not considered genotoxic and mutagenic. The concentrations of 1 ng/mL, 100 pg/mL and 10 pg/mL, which did not induce genotoxicity and mutagenicity, were used in four different treatments (post-treatment, pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment with and without incubation), in order to evaluate if these concentrations were able to inhibit or decrease the genotoxic and mutagenic action of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). None of the concentrations was able to inhibit and/or decrease the MMS activity. The genotoxic and mutagenic activity of the venom of P. paulista could be caused by the action of phospholipase, mastoparan and hyaluronidase, which are able to disrupt the cell membrane and thereby interact with the genetic material of the cells or even facilitate the entrance of other compounds of the venom that can act on the DNA. Another possible explanation for the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the venom can be the presence of substances able to trigger inflammatory process and, consequently, generate oxygen reactive species that can interact with the DNA of the exposed cells.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptomic profiling of the four adenosine receptors in human leukocytes of heart failure patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study the transcriptomic profiling of adenosine receptors (ARs) in human leukocytes of heart failure (HF) patients as a function of clinical severity, assessing the possible changes with respect to healthy subjects (C), was evaluated. Total RNA was extracted from leukocytes of C (n = 8) and of HF patients (NYHA I-II n = 9; NYHA III-IV n = 14) with a PAXgene Blood RNA Kit. An increase as a function of clinical severity was observed in each AR (A1R: C = 0.02 ± 0.009, NYHA I-II = 0.21 ± 0.09, NYHA III-IV = 3.6 ± 1.3, P = 0.03 C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.02 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2aR: C = 0.2 ± 0.05, NYHA I-II = 0.19 ± 0.04, NYHA III-IV = 1.32 ± 0.33, P = 0.005 C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.003 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2bR: C = 1.78 ± 0.36, NYHA I-II = 1.35 ± 0.29, NYHA III-IV = 4.07 ± 1.21, P = 0.03: NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A3R: C = 0.76 ± 0.21, NYHA I-II = 0.94 ± 0.19, NYHA III-IV = 3.14 ± 0.77, P = 0.01 C versus NYHA III-IV and NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV, resp.). The mRNA expression of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) and the ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73) were also evaluated. They resulted up-regulated. These findings show that components of adenosine metabolism and signalling are altered to promote adenosine production and signalling in HF patients. Thus, HF may benefit from adenosine-based drug therapy after confirmation by clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of the addition of basil essential oil on the degradation of palm olein during repeated deep frying of French fries.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential antioxidant power of basil essential oil under frying conditions was explored. Two concentrations (200 or 500 ppm) were added to palm olein (PO) to evaluate their effect on fat oxidation/degradation during repeated frying of French fries at 180 °C. A higher oxidative stability index was detected for PO with basil essential oil at 200 ppm. Both concentrations showed lower p-anisidine values than PO without basil essential oil after 5 d of frying. Addition at 500 ppm resulted in the lowest total polar compounds and free fatty acids contents. Thus, the addition of basil essential oil improved the performance of PO during repeated frying of French fries.
Related JoVE Video
Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.
Related JoVE Video
Adenosine receptor expression in an experimental animal model of myocardial infarction with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adenosine, a purine nucleoside and a "retaliatory metabolite" in ischemia, is ubiquitous in the body and increases 100-fold during ischemia. Its biological actions are mediated by four adenosine receptors (ARs): A1, A2A, A2B and A3. The aim of this study was to determine possible myocardial alterations in AR expression in an experimental animal model of myocardial infarction (MI) with a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. LV tissue was collected from sexually mature male farm pigs with MI (n = 6) induced by permanent surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and from five healthy pigs (C). mRNA expression of A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R and TNF-? was determined by real-time PCR in tissue collected from border (BZ) and remote zones (RZ) of the infarcted area and from LV of C. BZ, RZ and samples of C were stained immunohistochemically to investigate A3R immunoreaction. After 4 weeks a different regulation of ARs was observed. A1R mRNA expression was significantly lower in the infarct regions than in controls (C = 0.75 ± 0.2, BZ = 0.05 ± 0.2, RZ = 0.07 ± 0.02 p = 0.0025, p = 0.0016, C vs. BZ and RZ, respectively). Conversely A3R was higher in infarct areas (C = 0.94 ± 0.2, BZ = 2.85 ± 0.5, RZ = 3.48 ± 1.0, p = 0.048 C vs. RZ). No significant differences were observed for A2AR (C = 1.58 ± 0.6, BZ = 0.42 ± 0.1, RZ = 1.37 ± 0.6) and A2BR (C = 1.66 ± 0.2, BZ = 1.54 ± 0.5, RZ = 1.25 ± 0.4). A3R expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis and was principally localized in cardiomyocytes. TNF-? mRNA results were: C 0.41 ± 0.25; BZ 1.60 ± 0.19; RZ 0.17 ± 0.04. The balance between A1R and A3R as well as between A2AR and A2BR was consistent with adaptative retaliatory anti-ischemic adenosinergic changes in the infarcted heart with preserved LV function.
Related JoVE Video
Biotreatment of textile effluent in static bioreactor by Curvularia lunata URM 6179 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium URM 6181.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Investigations on biodegradation of textile effluent by filamentous fungi strains Curvularia lunata URM 6179 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium URM 6181 were performed in static bioreactors under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Spectrophotometric, HPLC/UV and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed as for to confirm, respectively, decolourisation, biodegradation and identity of compounds in the effluent. Enzymatic assays revealed higher production of enzymes laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) by P. chrysosporium URM 6181 in aerated bioreactor (2020; 39 and 392 U/l, respectively). Both strains decolourised completely the effluent after ten days and biodegradation of the most predominant indigo dye was superior in aerated bioreactor (96%). Effluent treated by P. chrysosporium URM 6181 accumulated a mutagenic metabolite derived from indigo. The C. lunata URM 6179 strain, showed to be more successful for assure the environmental quality of treated effluent. These systems were found very effective for efficient fungal treatment of textile effluent.
Related JoVE Video
Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of a latex agglutination test for the detection of Trichinella infections in pigs.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An antigen detection kit (Trichin-L), based on latex agglutination and developed by the Bio-Rad company was validated at five European laboratories. The validation parameters included specificity, sensitivity, robustness and reproducibility. Specificity was evaluated by testing parasite antigens from five non-Trichinella parasites in addition to the Trichinella genus. To evaluate sensitivity, 10 pork samples spiked with 1, 3, 6 or 15 Trichinella larvae were tested in each laboratory. To evaluate the robustness of the test, the solubilized antigens were maintained at room temperature and tested at different times. Reproducibility was assessed in each laboratory using 40, 100g minced pork samples, each spiked with Trichinella spiralis. The use of larval homogenates obtained from the Trichin-L kit as a template for parasite identification at the species level by a multiplex PCR, was also evaluated. The results showed a high specificity and sensitivity where solubilized antigens maintained their stability and reactivity for up to three days. Reproducibility was high, as similar results were obtained in the five laboratories. The larval homogenates obtained using the Trichin-L kit were successfully used in multiplex PCRs to identify Trichinella species.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme decreases skeletal muscle fibrosis in dystrophic mice by a diminution in the expression and activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2).
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), through angiotensin II and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases characterized by the replacement of normal tissue by an accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) presents fibrosis and a decrease in muscle strength produced by chronic damage. The mdx mouse is a murine model of DMD and develops the same characteristics as dystrophic patients when subjected to chronic exercise. The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-?), which are overexpressed in muscular dystrophies, play a major role in many progressive scarring conditions. We have tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition decreases fibrosis in dystrophic skeletal muscle by treatment of mdx mice with the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Both sedentary and exercised mdx mice treated with enalapril showed improvement in gastrocnemius muscle strength explained by a reduction in both muscle damage and ECM accumulation. ACE inhibition decreased CTGF expression in sedentary or exercised mdx mice and diminished CTGF-induced pro-fibrotic activity in a model of CTGF overexpression by adenoviral infection. Enalapril did not have an effect on TGF-?1 expression or its signaling activity in sedentary or exercised dystrophic mice. Thus, ACE inhibition might improve muscle strength and decrease fibrosis by diminishing specifically CTGF expression and activity without affecting TGF-?1 signaling. Our data provide insights into the pathogenic events in dystrophic muscle. We propose ACE as a target for developing therapies for DMD and related diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Novel mutations in the fukutin gene in a boy with asymptomatic hyperCKemia.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the fukutin gene were first identified in Japanese patients with classic Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy associated with cobblestone lissencephaly and ocular defects. Patients of different ethnicities and with milder phenotypes, including limb girdle muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy without brain impairment, have also been reported. The hallmark of this disorder, regardless of the clinical outcome, is moderate-to-severe hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan in muscle sections. We describe the case of a boy harboring two novel mutations in fukutin gene and presenting a five-year history of asymptomatic hyperCKemia, without overt muscle, brain or ocular involvement. Genetic investigations, guided by the presence of moderate myopathic changes on muscle biopsy with loss of immunodetectable alpha-dystroglycan, led to a definitive diagnosis. Cardiac and echocardiographic examinations at follow-up disclosed low normal left ventricular function but no active cardiovascular symptoms. We suggest that fukutin mutations should be sought in asymptomatic hyperCKemia and subclinical heart dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Thermal inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis PT 30 in almond kernels as influenced by water activity.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salmonellosis outbreaks related to consumption of raw almonds have encouraged the scientific community to study the inactivation kinetics of pathogens in this dry commodity. However, the low moisture content of the product presents a challenge for thermal control, because the time required to achieve the desired thermal inactivation of microorganisms increases sharply with reduced moisture content and water activity. In this study, we explored and modeled the heat inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT 30 in almond cultivar Nonpareil kernel flour at four water activity (a(w)) values (0.601, 0.720, 0.888, and 0.946) using four temperatures for each a(w). The results showed that the inactivation was well fitted by both Weibull distribution (R(2) = 0.93 to 1.00) and first-order kinetics (R(2) = 0.82 to 0.96). At higher a(w) values, the rate of inactivation increased and less time was needed to achieve the required population reduction. These results suggest that, to avoid deterioration of product quality, shorter process times at lower temperatures may be used to achieve desired inactivation levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 by simply increasing the moisture content of almonds. These goals could be achieved with the use of existing procedures already practiced by the food industry, such as washing or prewetting scalding before heat inactivation.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer in kidney transplant patients in a Spanish population in the Mediterranean region.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent malignancy in organ transplant recipients. The aetiology of NMSC after transplant is multifactorial. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and environmental factors involved in the development of NMSC in a Spanish kidney transplant population from the Mediterranean region. A total of 289 patients who had received a kidney transplant during the period January 1996 to December 2010 were included in the study. Both prospective and retrospective data were used. All patients underwent a structured interview and a complete examination of the skin. After a median follow-up of 72 months (range 12-180 months), 73 of the 289 patients (25.2%) developed 162 tumours. The ratio of basal cell carcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma was 2.21:1. The cumulative incidence of NMSC increased with the duration of immunosuppression, from 20.78% at 5 years, to 37.35% at 10 years to 53.08% at 15 years after transplantation. Age at the time of transplant, phototype and occupational sun exposure were associated with a higher risk of NMSC. NMSC is a significant clinical problem in kidney transplant recipients. This has implications for the development of prevention and surveillance strategies. Clinical and environmental factors may be used to identify those patients who are at risk for NMSC.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of specific miRNAs enhances the expression of the gene Smoothened and contributes to T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma development.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inappropriate activation of the GLI/hedgehog (GLI/Hh) signalling occurs in several human cancers, including haematological neoplasms. However, little is known about its relevance in precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas (T-LBL) development. Moreover, the mechanisms whereby GLI/Hh signalling is activated in haematological malignancies are not fully clear. Here, we show that the gene Smoothened (SMO), the only non-redundant gene of this pathway, is up-regulated in mouse and human T-LBL. Interestingly, down-regulation of micro-RNAs mmu-miR-30a and mmu-miR-141 as well as hsa-miR-193b clearly contributes to enhance the expression of this gene in mouse and human lymphomas and, subsequently, to activate the GLI/Hh signalling. Activation of the GLI/Hh signalling in T-LBL promotes cell survival and proliferation, since inhibition of the pathway using short-hairpin-RNA-mediated SMO knockdown, or cyclopamine as a specific antagonist, significantly reduces these cellular processes. These findings suggest that sustained SMO up-regulation may contribute to T-LBL development and advocate the use of specific SMO inhibitors or microRNAs-based therapies as an attractive possibility to treat an important subset of T-LBL.
Related JoVE Video
Inappropriateness of cardiovascular radiological imaging testing; a tertiary care referral center study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiological inappropriateness in medical imaging leads to loss of resources and accumulation of avoidable population cancer risk. Aim of the study was to audit the appropriateness rate of different cardiac radiological examinations.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of an excretory/secretory antigen based-ELISA for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis felineus infection in humans from low trematode endemic areas.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since opisthorchiasis does not show pathognomonic signs or symptoms, physicians can have serious problems to make a differential diagnosis of this infection in non endemic areas, in particular when there is a simultaneous occurrence with other seasonal infections. Moreover, symptomatic infections due to O. felineus can last a few weeks and then the signs and symptoms disappear, but the worms survive in the bile ducts for years causing hepatobiliary diseases including hepatomegaly, cholangitis, fibrosis of the periportal system, cholecystitis, and gallstones. Consequently, an early diagnosis prevents chronicity and loss of working days. The detection of specific antibodies has been considered as a complementary tool to the fecal examination to establish the definitive diagnosis of this infection and for the follow up. Therefore the aim of this work was the development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) from O. felineus adult worms to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera. A total of 370 human sera were tested: 144 sera from persons with a confirmed diagnosis of opisthorchiasis, 110 sera from healthy Italian people, and 116 sera from people with other parasitic or non-parasitic infections. Results were analyzed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The accuracy of the test, calculated by the area under curve (AUC), yielded a 0.999 value, indicating the high performance of the test. The sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 97.40% to 100%) and no false-negative sera were detected; the specificity was 99.09% (95% CI: 95.02% to 99.83%). The validated ELISA shows a good performance in terms of sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility, and it is suitable to detect anti-Opisthorchis IgG in human sera for diagnostic purposes and for the follow up to assess the efficacy of drug treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF LUNGWORM (NEMATA: METASTRONGYLOIDEA) FROM AKODON MOLLIS THOMAS, 1894 (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE) IN PERU.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Akodonema luzsarmientae n.g. n.sp. (Nemata: Metastrongyloidea) is described from the pulmonary arteries and heart from several individuals of Akodon mollis "soft grass mouse" (Rodentia: Cricetidae) collected in the region of Ancash, Peru. The new genus and species is distinguished by having a dorsal ray consisting of only two small widely separated papillae.
Related JoVE Video
Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the risk of uveal melanoma.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the association between occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and the risk of uveal melanoma using international data of a case-control study from nine European countries.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.