Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain.
Short antiviral therapy has been proposed for patients with chronic hepatitis C, easy genotypes, low fibrosis score, low viral load at baseline, and rapid virological response (RVR). However, this approach is not completely accepted.
Background. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of adult-onset seizures in endemic areas, whereas it is emerging in some nonendemic areas as well because of extensive immigration. Method. We describe three cases of imported NCC recently admitted to San Bortolo Hospital in Vicenza, located in Northern Italy. Results. All patients were immigrants. One patient was human immunodeficiency virus positive with severe immunosuppression. The diagnosis of NCC was made on the basis of magnetic resonance results; failure of anti-Toxoplasma, antitubercular, and antifungal therapy; and regression of the cystic lesions after empiric therapy with albendazole. Serology was positive in only one case. In one patient, NCC was diagnosed by biopsy of the brain lesion. Conclusion. In nonendemic countries, NCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of all patients coming from endemic areas with seizures, hydrocephalus, and compatible lesions on brain imaging. Long-term follow-up is required but may be difficult to implement because these patients tend to move in search of employment. Screening of patients household contacts for Taenia solium infection should always be carried out.
Following liver injury, the wound-healing process is characterized by hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation from the quiescent fat-storing phenotype to a highly proliferative myofibroblast-like phenotype. Snail1 is a transcription factor best known for its ability to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition, to influence mesoderm formation during embryonic development, and to favor cell survival. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Snail1 in experimental and human liver fibrosis and analyzed its role in the HSC transdifferentiation process. Liver samples from patients with liver fibrosis and from mice treated by either carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) or thioacetamide (TAA) were evaluated for mRNA expression of Snail1. The transcription factor expression was investigated by immunostaining and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) on in vitro and in vivo activated murine HSC. Snail1 knockdown studies on cultured HSC and on CCl(4)-treated mice were performed by adenoviral delivery of short-hairpin RNA; activation-related genes were quantitated by real-time qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Snail1 mRNA expression resulted upregulated in murine experimental models of liver injury and in human hepatic fibrosis. In vitro studies showed that Snail1 is expressed by HSC and that its transcription is augmented in in vitro and in vivo activated HSC compared with quiescent HSC. At the protein level, we could observe the nuclear translocation of Snail1 in activated HSC. Snail1 knockdown resulted in the downregulation of activation-related genes both in vitro and in vivo. Our data support a role for Snail1 transcription factor in the hepatic wound-healing response and its involvement in the HSC transdifferentiation process.
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa and recent work has shown point-of-care (POC) ultrasound to be a diagnostic aid in the resource-limited, highly endemic setting. Its role in industrialized countries, however, has rarely been studied. With international migration, EPTB is increasingly seen in European hospitals. This study reports ultrasound findings and discusses the diagnostic relevance of EPTB in an industrialized country setting.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.