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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
Andrew R Wood, Tonu Esko, Jian Yang, Sailaja Vedantam, Tune H Pers, Stefan Gustafsson, Audrey Y Chu, Karol Estrada, Jian'an Luan, Zoltan Kutalik, Najaf Amin, Martin L Buchkovich, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Yanan Duan, Tove Fall, Rudolf Fehrmann, Teresa Ferreira, Anne U Jackson, Juha Karjalainen, Ken Sin Lo, Adam E Locke, Reedik Mägi, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Joshua C Randall, André Scherag, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Thomas W Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jing Hua Zhao, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Denise Anderson, Jeffrey Baron, Marian Beekman, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Ross M Fraser, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne E Justice, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Julian C Lui, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Michael A Nalls, Dale R Nyholt, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Uzma Afzal, Johan Arnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Jennifer L Bolton, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Brendan M Buckley, Steven Buyske, Ida H Caspersen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Matthew Cooper, E Warwick Daw, Pim A de Jong, Joris Deelen, Graciela Delgado, Josh C Denny, Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Marcus Dörr, Niina Eklund, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Alan S Go, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Christopher J Groves, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Göran Hallmans, Anke Hannemann, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Gibran Hemani, Anjali K Henders, Hans L Hillege, Mark A Hlatky, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir Holmen, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Alan L James, Janina Jeff, Berit Johansen, Asa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Juhani Junttila, Abel N Kho, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Thomas Kocher, Wolfgang Kratzer, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, Yingchang Lu, Valeriya Lyssenko, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Marc Maillard, Wendy L McArdle, Colin A McKenzie, Stela McLachlan, Paul J McLaren, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Narisu Narisu, Matthias Nauck, Ilja M Nolte, Markus M Nöthen, Laticia Oozageer, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Ronan Roussel, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, Heribert Schunkert, Robert A Scott, Joban Sehmi, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Karri Silventoinen, Johannes H Smit, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen Stirrups, David J Stott, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O Tayo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Suzanne van Dijk, Natasja M van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Diana van Heemst, Floor V A van Oort, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Melanie Waldenberger, Roman Wennauer, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Reiner Biffar, John Blangero, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Paolo Brambilla, Morris J Brown, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rory Collins, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Alain Golay, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, David W Haas, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Manfred Kayser, Frank Kee, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Sara Lupoli, Pamela A F Madden, Satu Mannisto, Paolo Manunta, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Frans L Moll, Grant W Montgomery, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Gerard Pasterkamp, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Marylyn Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Peter E H Schwarz, Sylvain Sebert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P Stolk, Jean-Claude Tardif, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, , Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, M Geoffrey Hayes, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, J Wouter Jukema, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimäki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Joseph E Powell, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Eva Reinmaa, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Henry Völzke, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Panos Deloukas, Iris M Heid, Cecilia M Lindgren, Karen L Mohlke, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Inês Barroso, Caroline S Fox, Kari E North, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Sonja I Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Mark I McCarthy, Andres Metspalu, Kari Stefansson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lude Franke, Cristen J Willer, Alkes L Price, Guillaume Lettre, Ruth J F Loos, Michael N Weedon, Erik Ingelsson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Daniel I Chasman, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Joel N Hirschhorn, Timothy M Frayling.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ?2,000, ?3,700 and ?9,500 SNPs explained ?21%, ?24% and ?29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/?-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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Meta-analysis identifies loci affecting levels of the potential osteoarthritis biomarkers sCOMP and uCTX-II with genome wide significance.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Research for the use of biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) is promising, however, adequate discrimination between patients and controls may be hampered due to innate differences. We set out to identify loci influencing levels of serum cartilage oligomeric protein (sCOMP) and urinary C-telopeptide of type II collagen (uCTX-II).
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Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.
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Genome-wide association meta-analysis of human longevity identifies a novel locus conferring survival beyond 90 years of age.
Joris Deelen, Marian Beekman, Hae-Won Uh, Linda Broer, Kristin L Ayers, Qihua Tan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Anna M Bennet, Riin Tamm, Stella Trompet, Daníel F Guðbjartsson, Friederike Flachsbart, Giuseppina Rose, Alexander Viktorin, Krista Fischer, Marianne Nygaard, Heather J Cordell, Paolina Crocco, Erik B van den Akker, Stefan Böhringer, Quinta Helmer, Christopher P Nelson, Gary I Saunders, Maris Alver, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Marie E Breen, Ruud van der Breggen, Amke Caliebe, Miriam Capri, Elisa Cevenini, Joanna C Collerton, Serena Dato, Karen Davies, Ian Ford, Jutta Gampe, Paolo Garagnani, Eco J C de Geus, Jennifer Harrow, Diana van Heemst, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Albert Hofman, Bernard Jeune, Palmi V Jonsson, Mark Lathrop, Doris Lechner, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Susan E McNerlan, Evelin Mihailov, Alberto Montesanto, Simon P Mooijaart, Anne Murphy, Ellen A Nohr, Lavinia Paternoster, Iris Postmus, Fernando Rivadeneira, Owen A Ross, Stefano Salvioli, Naveed Sattar, Stefan Schreiber, Hreinn Stefansson, David J Stott, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gonneke Willemsen, Nilesh J Samani, Pilar Galán, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, J Wouter Jukema, Irene Maeve Rea, Giuseppe Passarino, Anton J M de Craen, Kaare Christensen, Almut Nebel, Kari Stefansson, Andres Metspalu, Patrik Magnusson, Hélène Blanché, Lene Christiansen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Cornelia M van Duijn, Claudio Franceschi, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ? 25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (? 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ? 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.
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Severe osteoarthritis of the hand associates with common variants within the ALDH1A2 gene and with rare variants at 1p31.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is a major cause of pain and disability in the elderly. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of osteoarthritis of the hand, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in subjects with severe hand osteoarthritis, using variants identified through the whole-genome sequencing of 2,230 Icelanders. We found two significantly associated loci in the Icelandic discovery set: at 15q22 (frequency of 50.7%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, P = 3.99 × 10(-10)) in the ALDH1A2 gene and at 1p31 (frequency of 0.02%, OR = 50.6, P = 9.8 × 10(-10)). Among the carriers of the variant at 1p31 is a family with several members in whom the risk allele segregates with osteoarthritis. The variants within the ALDH1A2 gene were confirmed in replication sets from The Netherlands and the UK, yielding an overall association of OR = 1.46 and P = 1.1 × 10(-11) (rs3204689).
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Leukocyte telomere length associates with prospective mortality independent of immune-related parameters and known genetic markers.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Human leukocyte telomere length (LTL) decreases with age and shorter LTL has previously been associated with increased prospective mortality. However, it is not clear whether LTL merely marks the health status of an individual by its association with parameters of immune function, for example, or whether telomere shortening also contributes causally to lifespan variation in humans.
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Aging as accelerated accumulation of somatic variants: whole-genome sequencing of centenarian and middle-aged monozygotic twin pairs.
Twin Res Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
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Meta-analysis on blood transcriptomic studies identifies consistently coexpressed protein-protein interaction modules as robust markers of human aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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The bodily decline that occurs with advancing age strongly impacts on the prospects for future health and life expectancy. Despite the profound role of age in disease etiology, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving the process of aging in humans is limited. Here, we used an integrative network-based approach for combining multiple large-scale expression studies in blood (2539 individuals) with protein-protein Interaction (PPI) data for the detection of consistently coexpressed PPI modules that may reflect key processes that change throughout the course of normative aging. Module detection followed by a meta-analysis on chronological age identified fifteen consistently coexpressed PPI modules associated with chronological age, including a highly significant module (P = 3.5 × 10(-38) ) enriched for T-cell activation marking age-associated shifts in lymphocyte blood cell counts (R(2)  = 0.603; P = 1.9 × 10(-10) ). Adjusting the analysis in the compendium for the T-cell activation module showed five consistently coexpressed PPI modules that robustly associated with chronological age and included modules enriched for Translational elongation, Cytolysis and DNA metabolic process. In an independent study of 3535 individuals, four of five modules consistently associated with chronological age, underpinning the robustness of the approach. We found three of five modules to be significantly enriched with aging-related genes, as defined by the GenAge database, and association with prospective survival at high ages for one of the modules including ASF1A. The hereby-detected age-associated and consistently coexpressed PPI modules therefore may provide a molecular basis for future research into mechanisms underlying human aging.
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Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.
Twin Res Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research.
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Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study.
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Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease.
Veryan Codd, Christopher P Nelson, Eva Albrecht, Massimo Mangino, Joris Deelen, Jessica L Buxton, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Krista Fischer, Tonu Esko, Ida Surakka, Linda Broer, Dale R Nyholt, Irene Mateo Leach, Perttu Salo, Sara Hägg, Mary K Matthews, Jutta Palmen, Giuseppe D Norata, Paul F O'Reilly, Danish Saleheen, Najaf Amin, Anthony J Balmforth, Marian Beekman, Rudolf A de Boer, Stefan Böhringer, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Anton J M de Craen, Matthew Denniff, Yanbin Dong, Konstantinos Douroudis, Elena Dubinina, Johan G Eriksson, Katia Garlaschelli, Dehuang Guo, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Anjali K Henders, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Laura Kananen, Lennart C Karssen, Johannes Kettunen, Norman Klopp, Vasiliki Lagou, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Pamela A Madden, Reedik Mägi, Patrik K E Magnusson, Satu Mannisto, Mark I McCarthy, Sarah E Medland, Evelin Mihailov, Grant W Montgomery, Ben A Oostra, Aarno Palotie, Annette Peters, Helen Pollard, Anneli Pouta, Inga Prokopenko, Samuli Ripatti, Veikko Salomaa, H Eka D Suchiman, Ana M Valdes, Niek Verweij, Ana Viñuela, Xiaoling Wang, H-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Gonneke Willemsen, Margaret J Wright, Kai Xia, Xiangjun Xiao, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Alberico L Catapano, Martin D Tobin, Alistair S Hall, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Wiek H van Gilst, Haidong Zhu, Cardiogram Consortium, Jeanette Erdmann, Muredach P Reilly, Sekar Kathiresan, Heribert Schunkert, Philippa J Talmud, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Willem Ouwehand, Jaakko Kaprio, Nicholas G Martin, Cornelia M van Duijn, Iiris Hovatta, Christian Gieger, Andres Metspalu, Dorret I Boomsma, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, P Eline Slagboom, John R Thompson, Tim D Spector, Pim van der Harst, Nilesh J Samani.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci, including five new loci, associated with mean LTL (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Five of the loci contain candidate genes (TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1) that are known to be involved in telomere biology. Lead SNPs at two loci (TERC and TERT) associate with several cancers and other diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, a genetic risk score analysis combining lead variants at all 7 loci in 22,233 coronary artery disease cases and 64,762 controls showed an association of the alleles associated with shorter LTL with increased risk of coronary artery disease (21% (95% confidence interval, 5-35%) per standard deviation in LTL, P = 0.014). Our findings support a causal role of telomere-length variation in some age-related diseases.
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The Genome of the Netherlands: design, and project goals.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Within the Netherlands a national network of biobanks has been established (Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure-Netherlands (BBMRI-NL)) as a national node of the European BBMRI. One of the aims of BBMRI-NL is to enrich biobanks with different types of molecular and phenotype data. Here, we describe the Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL), one of the projects within BBMRI-NL. GoNL is a whole-genome-sequencing project in a representative sample consisting of 250 trio-families from all provinces in the Netherlands, which aims to characterize DNA sequence variation in the Dutch population. The parent-offspring trios include adult individuals ranging in age from 19 to 87 years (mean=53 years; SD=16 years) from birth cohorts 1910-1994. Sequencing was done on blood-derived DNA from uncultured cells and accomplished coverage was 14-15x. The family-based design represents a unique resource to assess the frequency of regional variants, accurately reconstruct haplotypes by family-based phasing, characterize short indels and complex structural variants, and establish the rate of de novo mutational events. GoNL will also serve as a reference panel for imputation in the available genome-wide association studies in Dutch and other cohorts to refine association signals and uncover population-specific variants. GoNL will create a catalog of human genetic variation in this sample that is uniquely characterized with respect to micro-geographic location and a wide range of phenotypes. The resource will be made available to the research and medical community to guide the interpretation of sequencing projects. The present paper summarizes the global characteristics of the project.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.118.
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Identifying the genomic determinants of aging and longevity in human population studies: progress and challenges.
Bioessays
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Human lifespan variation is mainly determined by environmental factors, whereas the genetic contribution is 25-30% and expected to be polygenic. Two complementary fields go hand in hand in order to unravel the mechanisms of biological aging: genomic and biomarker research. Explorative and candidate gene studies of the human genome by genetic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic approaches have resulted in the identification of a limited number of interesting positive linkage regions, genes, and pathways that contribute to lifespan variation. The possibilities to further exploit these findings are rapidly increasing through the use of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing. Genomic research is progressively being integrated with biomarker studies on aging, including the application of (noninvasive) deep phenotyping and omics data - generated using novel technologies - in a wealth of studies in human populations. Hence, these studies may assist in obtaining a more holistic perspective on the role of the genome in aging and lifespan regulation.
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Lipidomics of familial longevity.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Middle-aged offspring of nonagenarians, as compared to their spouses (controls), show a favorable lipid metabolism marked by larger LDL particle size in men and lower total triglyceride levels in women. To investigate which specific lipids associate with familial longevity, we explore the plasma lipidome by measuring 128 lipid species using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in 1526 offspring of nonagenarians (59 years ± 6.6) and 675 (59 years ± 7.4) controls from the Leiden Longevity Study. In men, no significant differences were observed between offspring and controls. In women, however, 19 lipid species associated with familial longevity. Female offspring showed higher levels of ether phosphocholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) species (3.5-8.7%) and lower levels of phosphoethanolamine PE (38:6) and long-chain triglycerides (TG) (9.4-12.4%). The association with familial longevity of two ether PC and four SM species was independent of total triglyceride levels. In addition, the longevity-associated lipid profile was characterized by a higher ratio of monounsaturated (MUFA) over polyunsaturated (PUFA) lipid species, suggesting that female offspring have a plasma lipidome less prone to oxidative stress. Ether PC and SM species were identified as novel longevity markers in females, independent of total triglycerides levels. Several longevity-associated lipids correlated with a lower risk of hypertension and diabetes in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort. This sex-specific lipid signature marks familial longevity and may suggest a plasma lipidome with a better antioxidant capacity, lower lipid peroxidation and inflammatory precursors, and an efficient beta-oxidation function.
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A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
Eleonora Porcu, Marco Medici, Giorgio Pistis, Claudia B Volpato, Scott G Wilson, Anne R Cappola, Steffan D Bos, Joris Deelen, Martin den Heijer, Rachel M Freathy, Jari Lahti, Chunyu Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Stella Trompet, Alice Arnold, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian Beekman, Stefan Böhringer, Suzanne J Brown, Brendan M Buckley, Clara Camaschella, Anton J M de Craen, Gail Davies, Marieke C H de Visser, Ian Ford, Tom Forsén, Timothy M Frayling, Laura Fugazzola, Martin Gögele, Andrew T Hattersley, Ad R Hermus, Albert Hofman, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Richard A Jensen, Eero Kajantie, Margreet Kloppenburg, Ee M Lim, Corrado Masciullo, Stefano Mariotti, Cosetta Minelli, Braxton D Mitchell, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Romana T Netea-Maier, Aarno Palotie, Luca Persani, Maria G Piras, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, J Brent Richards, Fernando Rivadeneira, Cinzia Sala, Mona M Sabra, Naveed Sattar, Beverley M Shields, Nicole Soranzo, John M Starr, David J Stott, Fred C G J Sweep, Gianluca Usala, Melanie M van der Klauw, Diana van Heemst, Alies van Mullem, Sita H Vermeulen, W Edward Visser, John P Walsh, Rudi G J Westendorp, Elisabeth Widén, Guangju Zhai, Francesco Cucca, Ian J Deary, Johan G Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Caroline S Fox, J Wouter Jukema, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Peter P Pramstaller, David Schlessinger, Alan R Shuldiner, Eline P Slagboom, André G Uitterlinden, Bijay Vaidya, Theo J Visser, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Jerome I Rotter, Tim D Spector, Andrew A Hicks, Daniela Toniolo, Serena Sanna, Robin P Peeters, Silvia Naitza.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
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Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity: Genetics of Healthy Aging Study.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian sibling pairs that have been enrolled in 15 study centers of 11 European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses, we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD = 3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD = 2.95), chromosome 19p13.3-p13.11 (LOD = 3.76), and chromosome 19q13.11-q13.32 (LOD = 3.57). To fine map these regions linked to longevity, we performed association analysis using GWAS data in a subgroup of 1228 unrelated nonagenarian and 1907 geographically matched controls. Using a fixed-effect meta-analysis approach, rs4420638 at the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 gene locus showed significant association with longevity (P-value = 9.6 × 10(-8) ). By combined modeling of linkage and association, we showed that association of longevity with APOE?4 and APOE?2 alleles explain the linkage at 19q13.11-q13.32 with P-value = 0.02 and P-value = 1.0 × 10(-5) , respectively. In the largest linkage scan thus far performed for human familial longevity, we confirm that the APOE locus is a longevity gene and that additional longevity loci may be identified at 14q11.2, 17q12-q22, and 19p13.3-p13.11. As the latter linkage results are not explained by common variants, we suggest that rare variants play an important role in human familial longevity.
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Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9)) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer.
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Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19,713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19,713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (?=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ?55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age.
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How to deal with the early GWAS data when imputing and combining different arrays is necessary.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Genotype imputation has become an essential tool in the analysis of genome-wide association scans. This technique allows investigators to test association at ungenotyped genetic markers, and to combine results across studies that rely on different genotyping platforms. In addition, imputation is used within long-running studies to reuse genotypes produced across generations of platforms. Typically, genotypes of controls are reused and cases are genotyped on more novel platforms yielding a case-control study that is not matched for genotyping platforms. In this study, we scrutinize such a situation and validate GWAS results by actually retyping top-ranking SNPs with the Sequenom MassArray platform. We discuss the needed quality controls (QCs). In doing so, we report a considerable discrepancy between the results from imputed and retyped data when applying recommended QCs from the literature. These discrepancies appear to be caused by extrapolating differences between arrays by the process of imputation. To avoid false positive results, we recommend that more stringent QCs should be applied. We also advocate reporting the imputation quality measure (R(T)(2)) for the post-imputation QCs in publications.
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Gene set analysis of GWAS data for human longevity highlights the relevance of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling and telomere maintenance pathways.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, single SNP analysis is still the most applied approach. However, the identified SNPs have small effects and provide limited biological insight. A more appropriate approach to interpret GWAS data of complex traits is to analyze the combined effect of a SNP set grouped per pathway or gene region. We used this approach to study the joint effect on human longevity of genetic variation in two candidate pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway and the telomere maintenance (TM) pathway. For the analyses, we used genotyped GWAS data of 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-lived sibships collected in the Leiden Longevity Study and 1,670 younger population controls. We analyzed 1,021 SNPs in 68 IIS pathway genes and 88 SNPs in 13 TM pathway genes using four self-contained pathway tests (PLINK set-based test, Global test, GRASS and SNP ratio test). Although we observed small differences between the results of the different pathway tests, they showed consistent significant association of the IIS and TM pathway SNP sets with longevity. Analysis of gene SNP sets from these pathways indicates that the association of the IIS pathway is scattered over several genes (AKT1, AKT3, FOXO4, IGF2, INS, PIK3CA, SGK, SGK2, and YWHAG), while the association of the TM pathway seems to be mainly determined by one gene (POT1). In conclusion, this study shows that genetic variation in genes involved in the IIS and TM pathways is associated with human longevity.
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Polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes in familial longevity: The Leiden Longevity Study.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Human longevity is in part genetically determined, and the insulin/IGF-1 signal transduction (IIS) pathway has consistently been implicated. In humans, type 2 diabetes is a frequent disease that results from loss of glucose homeostasis and for which new candidate polymorphisms now rapidly emerge from genome wide association studies. In the Leiden Longevity Study (n=2415), the offspring of long lived siblings ("offspring") who are genetically enriched for longevity were shown to have a more beneficial metabolic profile compared to their environmentally matched partners ("controls"), including better glucose tolerance. We tested whether the "offspring" carry a lower burden of diabetes risk alleles. Fifteen polymorphisms derived from genome wide association (GWA) scans in type 2 diabetes were tested for association with parameters of glucose metabolism in offspring and controls, and burden of risk alleles was compared between offspring and controls. Among all participants, a higher number of type 2 diabetes risk alleles associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes (P=0.011) and higher serum concentration of glucose (P<0.016) but not insulin (P=0.450). None of the polymorphisms differed in frequency between the offspring and controls (all P>0.05), nor did the mean total number of risk alleles (P=0.977). The association between polymorphisms and glucose levels did not differ between controls and offspring (Pinteraction=0.523). The better glucose tolerance of the "offspring" is not explained by a lower burden of type 2 diabetes risk alleles, suggesting that specific mechanisms determining longevity exist.
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Integrating protein-protein interaction networks with gene-gene co-expression networks improves gene signatures for classifying breast cancer metastasis.
J Integr Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Multiple studies have illustrated that gene expression profiling of primary breast cancers throughout the final stages of tumor development can provide valuable markers for risk prediction of metastasis and disease sub typing. However, the identification of a biologically interpretable and universally shared set of markers proved to be difficult. Here, we propose a method for de novo grouping of genes by dissecting the protein-protein interaction network into disjoint sub networks using pair wise gene expression correlation measures. We show that the obtained sub networks are functionally coherent and are consistently identified when applied on a compendium composed of six different breast cancer studies. Application of the proposed method using different integration approaches underlines the robustness of the identified sub network related to cell cycle and identifies putative new sub network markers for metastasis related to cell-cell adhesion, the proteasome complex and JUN-FOS signalling. Although gene selection with the proposed method does not directly improve upon previously reported cross study classification performances, it shows great promises for applications in data integration and result interpretation.
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Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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By studying the loci that contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) and 1670 younger population controls. The strongest candidate SNPs from this GWAS have been analyzed in a meta-analysis of nonagenarian cases from the Rotterdam Study, Leiden 85-plus study, and Danish 1905 cohort. Only one of the 62 prioritized SNPs from the GWAS analysis (P<1×10(-4) ) showed genome-wide significance with survival into old age in the meta-analysis of 4149 nonagenarian cases and 7582 younger controls [OR=0.71 (95% CI 0.65-0.77), P=3.39 × 10(-17) ]. This SNP, rs2075650, is located in TOMM40 at chromosome 19q13.32 close to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Although there was only moderate linkage disequilibrium between rs2075650 and the ApoE ?4 defining SNP rs429358, we could not find an APOE-independent effect of rs2075650 on longevity, either in cross-sectional or in longitudinal analyses. As expected, rs429358 associated with metabolic phenotypes in the offspring of the nonagenarian cases from the LLS and their partners. In addition, we observed a novel association between this locus and serum levels of IGF-1 in women (P=0.005). In conclusion, the major locus determining familial longevity up to high age as detected by GWAS was marked by rs2075650, which tags the deleterious effects of the ApoE ?4 allele. No other major longevity locus was found.
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Plasma protein N-glycan profiles are associated with calendar age, familial longevity and health.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The development of medical interventions for the preservation of disease-free longevity would be facilitated by markers that predict healthy aging. Altered protein N-glycosylation patterns have been found with increasing age and several disease states. Here we investigate whether glycans derived from the total glycoprotein pool in plasma mark familial longevity and distinguish healthy from unhealthy aging. Total plasma N-glycan profiles of 2396 middle aged participants in the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) were obtained by glycan release, labeling, and subsequent HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection. After normalization and batch correction, several regression strategies were applied to evaluate associations between glycan patterns, familial longevity, and healthy aging. Two N-glycan features (LC-7 and LC-8) were identified to be more abundant in plasma of the offspring of long-lived individuals as compared to controls. These results were not confounded by the altered lipid status or glucose homeostasis of the offspring. Furthermore, a decrease in levels of LC-8 was associated with the occurrence of myocardial infarction (p = 0.049, coefficient = -0.065), indicating that plasma glycosylation patterns do not only mark familial longevity but may also reflect healthy aging. In conclusion, we describe two glycan features, of which increased levels mark familial longevity and decreased levels of one of these features mark the presence of cardiovascular disease.
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Homocysteine and familial longevity: the Leiden Longevity Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Homocysteine concentrations are a read-out of methionine metabolism and have been related to changes in lifespan in animal models. In humans, high homocysteine concentrations are an important predictor of age related disease. We aimed to explore the association of homocysteine with familial longevity by testing whether homocysteine is lower in individuals that are genetically enriched for longevity. We measured concentrations of total homocysteine in 1907 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of 1309 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched with familial factors promoting longevity, and 598 partners thereof as population controls. We found that homocysteine was related to age, creatinine, folate, vitamin B levels and medical history of hypertension and stroke in both groups (all p<0.001). However, levels of homocysteine did not differ between offspring enriched for longevity and their partners, and no differences in the age-related rise in homocysteine levels were found between groups (p for interaction 0.63). The results suggest that homocysteine metabolism is not likely to predict familial longevity.
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C-reactive protein and glucose regulation in familial longevity.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Earlier, we showed that the offspring from exceptionally long-lived families have a more favorable glucose metabolism when compared with controls. As chronic low-grade inflammation has been regarded as a strong risk factor for insulin resistance, we evaluated if and to what extent the favorable glucose metabolism in offspring from long-lived families could be explained by differences in subclinical inflammation, as estimated from circulating levels of C-reactive protein. We found no difference between the two groups in C-reactive protein levels or in the distribution of C-reactive protein haplotypes. However, among controls higher levels of C-reactive protein were related to higher glucose levels, whereas among offspring levels of C-reactive protein were unrelated to glucose levels. It is a limitation of the current study that its cross-sectional nature does not allow for assessment of cause-effect relationships. One possible interpretation of these data is that the offspring from long-lived families might be able to regulate glucose levels more tightly under conditions of low-grade inflammation. To test this hypothesis, our future research will be focused on assessing the robustness of insulin sensitivity in response to various challenges in offspring from long-lived families and controls.
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Genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified disease risk alleles do not compromise human longevity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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A set of currently known alleles increasing the risk for coronary artery disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes as identified by genome-wide association studies was tested for compatibility with human longevity. Here, we show that nonagenarian siblings from long-lived families and singletons older than 85 y of age from the general population carry the same number of disease risk alleles as young controls. Longevity in this study population is not compromised by the cumulative effect of this set of risk alleles for common disease.
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A genome-wide linkage scan reveals CD53 as an important regulator of innate TNF-alpha levels.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Cytokines are major immune system regulators. Previously, innate cytokine profiles determined by lipopolysaccharide stimulation were shown to be highly heritable. To identify regulating genes in innate immunity, we analyzed data from a genome-wide linkage scan using microsatellites in osteoarthritis (OA) patients (The GARP study) and their innate cytokine data on interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1Ra, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. A confirmation cohort consisted of the Leiden 85-Plus study. In this study, a linkage analysis was followed by manual selection of candidate genes in linkage regions showing LOD scores over 2.5. An single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) gene tagging method was applied to select SNPs on the basis of the highest level of gene tagging and possible functional effects. QTDT was used to identify the SNPs associated with innate cytokine production. Initial association signals were modeled by a linear mixed model. Through these analyses, we identified 10 putative genes involved in the regulation of TNFalpha. SNP rs6679497 in gene CD53 showed significant association with TNFalpha levels (P=0.001). No association of this SNP was observed with OA. A novel gene involved in the innate immune response of TNFalpha is identified. Genetic variation in this gene may have a role in diseases and disorders in which TNFalpha is closely involved.
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Lipid metabolism in long-lived families: the Leiden Longevity Study.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Mechanisms underlying the variation in human life expectancy are largely unknown, but lipid metabolism and especially lipoprotein size was suggested to play an important role in longevity. We have performed comprehensive lipid phenotyping in the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS). By applying multiple logistic regression analysis we tested for the first time the effects of parameters in lipid metabolism (i.e., classical serum lipids, lipoprotein particle sizes, and apolipoprotein E levels) on longevity independent of each other. Parameters in lipid metabolism were measured in offspring of nonagenarian siblings from 421 families of the LLS (n?=?1,664; mean age, 59 years) and in the partners of the offspring as population controls (n?=?711; mean age, 60 years). In the initial model, where lipoprotein particles sizes, classical serum lipids and apolipoprotein E were included, offspring had larger low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle sizes (p?=?0.017), and lower triglyceride levels (p?=?0.026), indicating that they displayed a more beneficial lipid profile. After backwards regression only LDL size (p?=?0.014) and triglyceride levels (p?=?0.05) were associated with offspring from long-lived families. Sex-specific backwards regression analysis revealed that LDL particle sizes were associated with male longevity (increase in log odds ratio (OR) per unit?=?0.21; p?=?0.023). Triglyceride levels (decrease OR per unit?=?0.22; p?=?0.01), but not LDL particle size, were associated with female longevity. Due to the analysis of a comprehensive lipid profile, we confirmed an important role of lipid metabolism in human longevity, with LDL size and triglyceride levels as major predicting factors.
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Decreased levels of bisecting GlcNAc glycoforms of IgG are associated with human longevity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Markers for longevity that reflect the health condition and predict healthy aging are extremely scarce. Such markers are, however, valuable in aging research. It has been shown previously that the N-glycosylation pattern of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) is age-dependent. Here we investigate whether N-linked glycans reflect early features of human longevity.
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Low serum free triiodothyronine levels mark familial longevity: the Leiden Longevity Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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The hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis has been widely implicated in modulating the aging process. Life extension effects associated with low thyroid hormone levels have been reported in multiple animal models. In human populations, an association was observed between low thyroid function and longevity at old age, but the beneficial effects of low thyroid hormone metabolism at middle age remain elusive.
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Nonagenarian siblings and their offspring display lower risk of mortality and morbidity than sporadic nonagenarians: The Leiden Longevity Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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To compare the risk of mortality of nonagenarian siblings with that of sporadic nonagenarians (not selected on having a nonagenarian sibling) and to compare the prevalence of morbidity in their offspring with that of the offsprings partners.
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Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity.
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Human longevity and 11p15.5: a study in 1321 centenarians.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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The 11p15.5 chromosomal region (2.8 Mb) is of particular interest as it encloses five genes (HRAS1, SIRT3, TH, INS and IGF2), the variability of which was found to be associated with life extension by association studies. Mostly important, the above genes are homologous of genes that modulate lifespan in model organisms. We scanned the area in four European sample groups for a total of 1321 centenarians and 1140 younger subjects, who shared with centenarians ethnicity and geographical origin, with a set of 239 SNPs. No significant results (P<0.05) have been found on the earlier associated loci (ie, TH, IGF2, INS and HRAS1), and this study could not confirm the earlier findings on each of those genes. A meta-analysis was carried out on the SIRT3 SNP data; a total number of 2461 samples were included, but no positive association was found except for one SNP having a significant effect (rs939915). The same meta-analysis approach has been applied to the other 229 markers, and six SNPs have been found significant for the frequent genotype (rs4073591, DEAF1-rs4073590, KRTAP5-6-rs11040489, rs4930001, TSPAN32-rs800140 and rs16928120). This experience, although unable to confirm the earlier findings of the literature, highlights all the common difficulties of such studies in human longevity. Despite the rather negative findings presented here, the results derived from unprecedented studies involving such a large number of centenarians should be disseminated, thus contributing to set up adequate strategies to disentangle complex and likely heterogeneous phenotypes.
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Metabolic health in families enriched for longevity is associated with low prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and influences OA biomarker profiles.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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Individual metabolic characteristics and age-related changes may affect osteoarthritis (OA) risk as well as levels of potential OA biomarkers such as serum cartilage oligomeric protein (sCOMP) and urinary cross-linked C-telopeptide of type 2 collagen (uCTX2). We investigated hand OA and these putative OA biomarker characteristics at different ages in individuals with a propensity for healthy ageing, in controls, and in patients with OA.
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Gene expression analysis of mTOR pathway: association with human longevity.
Aging Cell
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mTOR signalling is implicated in the development of disease and in lifespan extension in model organisms. This pathway has been associated with human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but has not been investigated for its impact on longevity per se. Here, we investigated whether transcriptional variation within the mTOR pathway is associated with human longevity using whole-blood samples from the Leiden Longevity Study. This is a unique cohort of Dutch families with extended survival across generations, decreased morbidity and beneficial metabolic profiles in middle-age. By comparing mRNA levels of nonagenarians and middle-aged controls, the mTOR signalling gene set was found to associate with old age (P = 4.6 × 10(-7)). Single gene analysis showed that seven of 40 mTOR pathway genes had a significant differential expression of at least 5%. Of these, the RPTOR (Raptor) gene was found to be differentially expressed also when the offspring of nonagenarians was compared with their spouses, indicating association with familial longevity in middle-age. This association was not explained by variation between the groups in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cancer or glucose levels. Thus, the mTOR pathway not only plays a role in the regulation of disease and aging in animal models, but also in human health and longevity.
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Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
Zari Dastani, Marie-France Hivert, Nicholas Timpson, John R B Perry, Xin Yuan, Robert A Scott, Peter Henneman, Iris M Heid, Jorge R Kizer, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Christian Fuchsberger, Toshiko Tanaka, Andrew P Morris, Kerrin Small, Aaron Isaacs, Marian Beekman, Stefan Coassin, Kurt Lohman, Lu Qi, Stavroula Kanoni, James S Pankow, Hae-Won Uh, Ying Wu, Aurelian Bidulescu, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Celia M T Greenwood, Martin Ladouceur, Jonna Grimsby, Alisa K Manning, Ching-Ti Liu, Jaspal Kooner, Vincent E Mooser, Peter Vollenweider, Karen A Kapur, John Chambers, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Rune Frants, Ko Willems-Vandijk, Ben A Oostra, Sara M Willems, Claudia Lamina, Thomas W Winkler, Bruce M Psaty, Russell P Tracy, Jennifer Brody, Ida Chen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Peter P Pramstaller, David M Evans, Beate St Pourcain, Naveed Sattar, Andrew R Wood, Stefania Bandinelli, Olga D Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Stefan Böhringer, Diana van Heemst, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Kati Kristiansson, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Britt-Marie Loo, Tamara Harris, Melissa Garcia, Alka Kanaya, Margot Haun, Norman Klopp, H-Erich Wichmann, Panos Deloukas, Efi Katsareli, David J Couper, Bruce B Duncan, Margreet Kloppenburg, Linda S Adair, Judith B Borja, , James G Wilson, Solomon Musani, Xiuqing Guo, Toby Johnson, Robert Semple, Tanya M Teslovich, Matthew A Allison, Susan Redline, Sarah G Buxbaum, Karen L Mohlke, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Christie M Ballantyne, George V Dedoussis, Frank B Hu, Yongmei Liu, Bernhard Paulweber, Timothy D Spector, P Eline Slagboom, Luigi Ferrucci, Antti Jula, Markus Perola, Olli Raitakari, Jose C Florez, Veikko Salomaa, Johan G Eriksson, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew A Hicks, Terho Lehtimäki, George Davey Smith, David S Siscovick, Florian Kronenberg, Cornelia van Duijn, Ruth J F Loos, Dawn M Waterworth, James B Meigs, Josée Dupuis, J Brent Richards, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Christian Dina, Ryan P Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A McCarroll, Oliver M Hofmann, Ayellet V Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noel P Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S Elliott, Amanda L Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Caroline S Fox, Christopher S Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R Owen, Felicity Payne, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Straßburger, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M Van Dam, Timon W van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G Bragi Walters, Michael N Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N Bergman, Stéphane Cauchi, Francis S Collins, Anna L Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A Hide, Graham A Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Andrew D Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Richard M Watanabe, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bernhard O Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J Daly, Andrew T Hattersley, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Nicole Soranzo, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Reedik Mägi, Joshua Randall, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, Taina Lajunen, Alex Doney, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Nicholas J Timpson, Carina Zabena, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Yavuz Ariyurek, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Amélie Bonnefond, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Matthew J Neville, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Gunnar Sigurðsson, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Anke Tönjes, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, Ingrid B Borecki, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Kaisa Silander, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, Peter Paul Pramstaller, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Anders Hamsten, Thomas A Buchanan, Timo T Valle, Jerome I Rotter, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Robert Sladek, Kiran Musunuru, Albert V Smith, Andrew C Edmondson, Ioannis M Stylianou, Masahiro Koseki, James P Pirruccello, Daniel I Chasman, Christopher T Johansen, Sigrid W Fouchier, Gina M Peloso, Maja Barbalic, Sally L Ricketts, Joshua C Bis, Mary F Feitosa, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Xiaohui Li, Mingyao Li, Yoon Shin Cho, Min Jin Go, Young Jin Kim, Jong-Young Lee, Taesung Park, Kyunga Kim, Xueling Sim, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Leslie A Lange, Joshua D Smith, Andreas Ziegler, Weihua Zhang, Robert Y L Zee, John B Whitfield, John R Thompson, Ida Surakka, Tim D Spector, Johannes H Smit, Juha Sinisalo, James Scott, Juha Saharinen, Chiara Sabatti, Lynda M Rose, Robert Roberts, Mark Rieder, Alex N Parker, Guillaume Paré, Christopher J O'Donnell, Markku S Nieminen, Deborah A Nickerson, Grant W Montgomery, Wendy McArdle, David Masson, Nicholas G Martin, Fabio Marroni, Gavin Lucas, Robert Luben, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Guillaume Lettre, Lenore J Launer, Edward G Lakatta, Reijo Laaksonen, Kirsten O Kyvik, Inke R König, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lee M Kaplan, Asa Johansson, A Cecile J W Janssens, Wilmar Igl, G Kees Hovingh, Christian Hengstenberg, Aki S Havulinna, Nicholas D Hastie, Tamara B Harris, Talin Haritunians, Alistair S Hall, Leif C Groop, Elena González, Nelson B Freimer, Jeanette Erdmann, Kenechi G Ejebe, Angela Döring, Anna F Dominiczak, Serkalem Demissie, Panagiotis Deloukas, Ulf de Faire, Gabriel Crawford, Yii-Der I Chen, Mark J Caulfield, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Themistocles L Assimes, Thomas Quertermous, Mark Seielstad, Tien Y Wong, E-Shyong Tai, Alan B Feranil, Christopher W Kuzawa, Herman A Taylor, Stacey B Gabriel, Hilma Holm, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ronald M Krauss, José M Ordovás, Patricia B Munroe, Jaspal S Kooner, Alan R Tall, Robert A Hegele, John J P Kastelein, Eric E Schadt, David P Strachan, Muredach P Reilly, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Paul M Ridker, Daniel J Rader, Sekar Kathiresan.
PLoS Genet.
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Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10(-3), n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10(-14), n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10(-5), n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10(-3), n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10(-13), n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10(-4), n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
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Human longevity and variation in GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling, DNA damage signaling and repair and pro/antioxidant pathway genes: cross sectional and longitudinal studies.
Exp. Gerontol.
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Here we explore association with human longevity of common genetic variation in three major candidate pathways: GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling, DNA damage signaling and repair and pro/antioxidants by investigating 1273 tagging SNPs in 148 genes composing these pathways. In a case-control study of 1089 oldest-old (age 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes we found 1 pro/antioxidant SNP (rs1002149 (GSR)), 5 GH/IGF-1/INS SNPs (rs1207362 (KL), rs2267723 (GHRHR), rs3842755 (INS), rs572169 (GHSR), rs9456497 (IGF2R)) and 5 DNA repair SNPs (rs11571461 (RAD52), rs13251813 (WRN), rs1805329 (RAD23B), rs2953983 (POLB), rs3211994 (NTLH1)) to be associated with longevity after correction for multiple testing. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes we found 2 pro/antioxidant SNPs (rs10047589 (TNXRD1), rs207444 (XDH)), 1 GH/IGF-1/INS SNP (rs26802 (GHRL)) and 3 DNA repair SNPs (rs13320360 (MLH1), rs2509049 (H2AFX) and rs705649 (XRCC5)) to be associated with mortality in late life after correction for multiple testing. When examining the 11 SNPs from the case-control study in the longitudinal data, rs3842755 (INS), rs13251813 (WRN) and rs3211994 (NTHL1) demonstrated the same directions of effect (p<0.05), while rs9456497 (IGF2R) and rs1157146 (RAD52) showed non-significant tendencies, indicative of effects also in late life survival. In addition, rs207444 (XDH) presented the same direction of effect when inspecting the 6 SNPs from the longitudinal study in the case-control data, hence, suggesting an effect also in survival from middle age to old age. No formal replications were observed when investigating the 11 SNPs from the case-control study in 1613 oldest-old (age 95-110) and 1104 middle-aged Germans, although rs11571461 (RAD52) did show a supportive non-significant tendency (OR=1.162, 95% CI=0.927-1.457). The same was true for rs10047589 (TNXRD1) (HR=0.758, 95%CI=0.543-1.058) when examining the 6 SNPs from the longitudinal study in a Dutch longitudinal cohort of oldest-old (age 85+, N=563). In conclusion, the present candidate gene based association study, the largest to date applying a pathway approach, not only points to potential new longevity loci, but also underlines the difficulties of replicating association findings in independent study populations and thus the difficulties in identifying universal longevity polymorphisms.
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Transcriptional profiling of human familial longevity indicates a role for ASF1A and IL7R.
PLoS ONE
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The Leiden Longevity Study consists of families that express extended survival across generations, decreased morbidity in middle-age, and beneficial metabolic profiles. To identify which pathways drive this complex phenotype of familial longevity and healthy aging, we performed a genome-wide gene expression study within this cohort to screen for mRNAs whose expression changes with age and associates with longevity. We first compared gene expression profiles from whole blood samples between 50 nonagenarians and 50 middle-aged controls, resulting in identification of 2,953 probes that associated with age. Next, we determined which of these probes associated with longevity by comparing the offspring of the nonagenarians (50 subjects) and the middle-aged controls. The expression of 360 probes was found to change differentially with age in members of the long-lived families. In a RT-qPCR replication experiment utilizing 312 controls, 332 offspring and 79 nonagenarians, we confirmed a nonagenarian specific expression profile for 21 genes out of 25 tested. Since only some of the offspring will have inherited the beneficial longevity profile from their long-lived parents, the contrast between offspring and controls is expected to be weak. Despite this dilution of the longevity effects, reduced expression levels of two genes, ASF1A and IL7R, involved in maintenance of chromatin structure and the immune system, associated with familial longevity already in middle-age. The size of this association increased when controls were compared to a subfraction of the offspring that had the highest probability to age healthily and become long-lived according to beneficial metabolic parameters. In conclusion, an "aging-signature" formed of 21 genes was identified, of which reduced expression of ASF1A and IL7R marked familial longevity already in middle-age. This indicates that expression changes of genes involved in metabolism, epigenetic control and immune function occur as a function of age, and some of these, like ASF1A and IL7R, represent early features of familial longevity and healthy ageing.
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Evidence from case-control and longitudinal studies supports associations of genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6 with human longevity.
Age (Dordr)
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In this study, we investigated 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the common genetic variation in 16 genes recurrently regarded as candidates for human longevity: APOE; ACE; CETP; HFE; IL6; IL6R; MTHFR; TGFB1; APOA4; APOC3; SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. In a case-control study of 1,089 oldest-old (ages 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes, the minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs769449 (APOE) was significantly decreased in the oldest-old, while the MAF of rs9923854 (CETP) was significantly enriched. These effects were supported when investigating 1,613 oldest-old (ages 95-110) and 1,104 middle-aged Germans. rs769449 was in modest linkage equilibrium (R (2)=0.55) with rs429358 of the APOE-?4 haplotype and adjusting for rs429358 eliminated the association of rs769449, indicating that the association likely reflects the well-known effect of rs429358. Gene-based analysis confirmed the effects of variation in APOE and CETP and furthermore pointed to HSPA14 as a longevity gene. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes, only one SNP, rs2069827 (IL6), was borderline significantly associated with survival from age 92 (P-corrected=0.064). This advantageous effect of the minor allele was supported when investigating a Dutch longitudinal cohort (N=563) of oldest-old (age 85+). Since rs2069827 was located in a putative transcription factor binding site, quantitative RNA expression studies were conducted. However, no difference in IL6 expression was observed between rs2069827 genotype groups. In conclusion, we here support and expand the evidence suggesting that genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6, and possible HSPA14, is associated with human longevity.
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