Immunodeficiency does not progress for prolonged periods in some HLA B57- and/or B27-positive subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection, even in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). These "controllers" have fewer HIV provirus-containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells than "non-controller" subjects, but lymphocytes that harbor latent proviruses were not specifically examined in studies to date. Provirus levels in resting memory cells that can serve as latent reservoirs of HIV in blood were compared here between controllers and ART-suppressed non-controllers. APOBEC3G (A3G), a cellular factor that blocks provirus formation at multiple steps if not antagonized by HIV virion infectivity factor (Vif), was also studied. HLA-linked HIV control was associated with less provirus and more A3G protein in resting CD4+ T central memory (Tcm) and effector memory (Tem) lymphocytes (provirus: p?=?0.01 for Tcm and p?=?0.02 for Tem; A3G: p?=?0.02 for Tcm and p?=?0.02 for Tem). Resting memory T cells with the highest A3G protein levels (>0.5 RLU per unit of actin) had the lowest levels of provirus (<1,000 copies of DNA per million cells) in vivo (p?=?0.03, Fishers exact test). Using two different experimental approaches, Vif-positive viruses with more A3G were found to have decreased virion infectivity ex vivo. These results raise the hypothesis that HIV control is associated with increased cellular A3G that may be packaged into Vif-positive virions to add that mode of inhibition of provirus formation to previously described adaptive immune mechanisms for HIV control.
APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) reduce Vif-negative HIV-1 provirus formation and cause disabling provirus G-to-A hypermutation in vitro. However, evidence conflicts about whether they negatively impact Vif-positive HIV-1, or only enhance virus genetic diversity, in vivo. We studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 19 antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected adults: 12 long-term non-progressors (LTNP) and 7 non-controllers (NC). Cells from LTNP had higher A3G and A3F mRNA levels, lower provirus burden, and more A3G-hypermutated positions in provirus sequence than cells from NC. A3G mRNA level was directly associated with its Hypermutation Index (HI) and inversely associated with provirus burden. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were inversely associated with A3G expression levels and with HI only among subjects who had HI>1. A3G HI was not associated with provirus burden. These results indicate that A3G deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.