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Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges between PV and CA17, we have developed a model of recombination, making it possible to rescue defective PV RNA genomes with a short deletion by cotransfecting cells with the defective PV genome and CA17 genomic RNA. Numerous recombinants were found, including homologous PV/CA17 recombinants, but mostly nonhomologous recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in particular regions. Long duplications were excised by passages in cultured cells or in mice, generating diverse homologous recombinants. Recombination leading to nonhomologous recombinants, which evolve into homologous recombinants, may therefore be seen as a model of genetic plasticity in enteroviruses and, possibly, in other RNA viruses.
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Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.
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First full genome sequence of a human enterovirus a120, isolated in madagascar.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined.
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Molecular comparison and evolutionary analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences of new African human enterovirus 71 isolates reveal a wide genetic diversity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Most circulating strains of Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have been classified primarily into three genogroups (A to C) on the basis of genetic divergence between the 1D gene, which encodes the VP1 capsid protein. The aim of the present study was to provide further insights into the diversity of the EV-A71 genogroups following the recent description of highly divergent isolates, in particular those from African countries, including Madagascar. We classified recent EV-A71 isolates by a large comparison of 3,346 VP1 nucleotidic sequences collected from GenBank. Analysis of genetic distances and phylogenetic investigations indicated that some recently-reported isolates did not fall into the genogroups A-C and clustered into three additional genogroups, including one Indian genogroup (genogroup D) and 2 African ones (E and F). Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provided consistent data showing that the genogroup D isolates share a recent common ancestor with the members of genogroup E, while the isolates of genogroup F evolved from a recent common ancestor shared with the members of the genogroup B. Our results reveal the wide diversity that exists among EV-A71 isolates and suggest that the number of circulating genogroups is probably underestimated, particularly in developing countries where EV-A71 epidemiology has been poorly studied.
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[Eradication of poliomyelitis and emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses: from Madagascar to Cameroon].
Med Sci (Paris)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network.
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Recombination between poliovirus and coxsackie A viruses of species C: a model of viral genetic plasticity and emergence.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Genetic recombination in RNA viruses was discovered many years ago for poliovirus (PV), an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, and studied using PV or other picornaviruses as models. Recently, recombination was shown to be a general phenomenon between different types of enteroviruses of the same species. In particular, the interest for this mechanism of genetic plasticity was renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. Most of these cVDPVs had mosaic genomes constituted of mutated poliovaccine capsid sequences and part or all of the non-structural sequences from other human enteroviruses of species C (HEV-C), in particular coxsackie A viruses. A study in Madagascar showed that recombinant cVDPVs had been co-circulating in a small population of children with many different HEV-C types. This viral ecosystem showed a surprising and extensive biodiversity associated to several types and recombinant genotypes, indicating that intertypic genetic recombination was not only a mechanism of evolution for HEV-C, but an usual mode of genetic plasticity shaping viral diversity. Results suggested that recombination may be, in conjunction with mutations, implicated in the phenotypic diversity of enterovirus strains and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, little is known about the rules and mechanisms which govern genetic exchanges between HEV-C types, as well as about the importance of intertypic recombination in generating phenotypic variation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of evolution of PV, in particular recombination events leading to the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs.
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Genetic relationship between cocirculating Human enteroviruses species C.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Recombination events between human enteroviruses (HEV) are known to occur frequently and to participate in the evolution of these viruses. In a previous study, we reported the isolation of a panel of viruses belonging to the Human enterovirus species C (HEV-C) that had been cocirculating in a small geographic area of Madagascar in 2002. This panel included type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (PV) that had caused several cases of acute flaccid paralysis in humans. Previous partial sequencing of the genome of these HEV-C isolates revealed considerable genetic diversity, mostly due to recombination. In the work presented herein, we carried out a more detailed characterization of the genomes of viruses from this collection. First, we determined the full VP1 sequence of 41 of these isolates of different types. These sequences were compared with those of HEV-C isolates obtained from other countries or in other contexts. The sequences of the Madagascan isolates of a given type formed specific clusters clearly differentiated from those formed by other strains of the same type isolated elsewhere. Second, we sequenced the entire genome of 10 viruses representing most of the lineages present in this panel. All but one of the genomes appeared to be mosaic assemblies of different genomic fragments generated by intra- and intertypic recombination. The location of the breakpoints suggested potential preferred genomic regions for recombination. Our results also suggest that recombination between type HEV-99 and other HEV-C may be quite rare. This first exhaustive genomic analysis of a panel of non-PV HEV-C cocirculating in a small human population highlights the high frequency of inter and intra-typic genetic recombination, constituting a widespread mechanism of genetic plasticity and continually shifting the HEV-C biodiversity.
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The frequency and biodiversity of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus strains isolated from healthy children living in a limited area in Romania.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The risk of importation and transmission of poliovirus strains to small susceptible groups within populations will remain until polio is eradicated globally. We investigated the circulation and biodiversity of enteroviruses in a group of children under 6 years of age with low vaccine coverage against polio. Only vaccine Sabin strains and viruses of the human enterovirus species B were isolated from the group. Evidence of inter-human circulation of Sabin strains was found.
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Recombination between polioviruses and co-circulating Coxsackie A viruses: role in the emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Ten outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have recently been reported in different regions of the world. Two of these outbreaks occurred in Madagascar. Most cVDPVs were recombinants of mutated poliovaccine strains and other unidentified enteroviruses of species C. We previously reported that a type 2 cVDPV isolated during an outbreak in Madagascar was co-circulating with coxsackieviruses A17 (CA17) and that sequences in the 3 half of the cVDPV and CA17 genomes were related. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these CA17 isolates can act as recombination partners of poliovirus and subsequently to evaluate the major effects of recombination events on the phenotype of the recombinants. We first cloned the infectious cDNA of a Madagascar CA17 isolate. We then generated recombinant constructs combining the genetic material of this CA17 isolate with that of the type 2 vaccine strain and that of the type 2 cVDPV. Our results showed that poliovirus/CA17 recombinants are viable. The recombinant in which the 3 half of the vaccine strain genome had been replaced by that of the CA17 genome yielded larger plaques and was less temperature sensitive than its parental strains. The virus in which the 3 portion of the cVDPV genome was replaced by the 3 half of the CA17 genome was almost as neurovirulent as the cVDPV in transgenic mice expressing the poliovirus cellular receptor gene. The co-circulation in children and genetic recombination of viruses, differing in their pathogenicity for humans and in certain other biological properties such as receptor usage, can lead to the generation of pathogenic recombinants, thus constituting an interesting model of viral evolution and emergence.
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High frequency and diversity of species C enteroviruses in Cameroon and neighboring countries.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are endemic worldwide and among the most common viruses infecting humans. Nevertheless, there are very limited data on the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs in developing countries and sub-Saharan Africa in particular. We investigated the circulation and genetic diversity of HEVs among 436 healthy children in a limited area of the far north region of Cameroon in 2008 and 2009. We also characterized the genetic biodiversity of 146 nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) isolates obtained throughout the year 2008 from stool specimens of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Cameroon, Chad, and Gabon. We found a high rate of NPEV infections (36.9%) among healthy children in the far north region of Cameroon. Overall, 45 different HEV types were found among healthy children and AFP patients. Interestingly, this study uncovered a high rate of HEVs of species C (HEV-C) among all typed NPEVs: 63.1% (94/149) and 39.5% (49/124) in healthy children and AFP cases, respectively. Besides extensive circulation, the most prevalent HEV-C type, coxsackievirus A-13, featured a tremendous intratypic diversity. Africa-specific HEV lineages were discovered, including HEV-C lineages and the recently reported EV-A71 "genogroup E." Virtually all pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) that have been fully characterized were recombinants between oral poliovaccine (OPV) strains and cocirculating HEV-C strains. The extensive circulation of diverse HEV-C types and lineages in countries where OPV is massively used constitutes a major viral factor that could promote the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs in the Central African subregion.
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Molecular characterization of human enteroviruses in the Central African Republic: uncovering wide diversity and identification of a new human enterovirus A71 genogroup.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Human enteroviruses (HEV) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. Their circulation has been widely studied in most parts of the world but not in sub-Saharan Africa, where poliomyelitis remains prevalent. We report here the molecular characterization of 98 nonpoliovirus (non-PV) HEV strains isolated from 93 randomly selected cell culture-positive supernatants from stool samples collected from 1997 through 2006 from children with acute flaccid paralysis living in the Central African Republic (CAR). The isolates were typed by sequencing the VP1 coding region and sequenced further in the VP2 coding region, and phylogenetic studies were carried out. Among the 98 VP1 sequences, 3, 74, 18, and 3 were found to belong to the HEV-A, -B, -C, and -D species, respectively. Overall, 42 types were detected. In most cases, the VP2 type was correlated with that of the VP1 region. Some of the isolates belonged to lineages that also contain viruses isolated in distant countries, while others belonged to lineages containing viruses isolated only in Africa. In particular, one isolate (type EV-A71) did not fall into any of the genogroups already described, indicating the existence of a previously unknown genogroup for this type. These results illustrate the considerable diversity of HEV isolates from the stools of paralyzed children in the CAR. The presence of diverse HEV-C types makes recombination between poliovirus and other HEV-C species possible and could promote the emergence of recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses similar to those that have been implicated in repeated poliomyelitis outbreaks in several developing countries.
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