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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Primary preventive potential for stroke by avoidance of major lifestyle risk factors: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Because primary prevention of stroke is a priority, our aim was to assess the primary preventive potential of major lifestyle risk factors for stroke in middle-aged women and men.
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European consensus proposal for immunoglobulin therapies.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The use of immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations (intravenous, IVIg, subcutaneous, SCIg) for replacement and immunomodulation therapy worldwide has tripled in the past 20 years and represents an ever-increasing cost factor for healthcare organizations. The limited access to the starting material of this essential medicinal product is currently the driving force for human plasma collection. Increasing awareness and improved diagnosis of human primary immunodeficiencies and a broadening of immunomodulatory indications are responsible for this development, and on a longer run might lead to plasma supply shortages. Consensus recommendations for the optimal use of Ig in clinical practice, including priority rankings for the most urgent indications, are therefore urgently needed. During a recent meeting in Kreuth, Germany, expert nominees from 36 Council of Europe states, together with colleagues from observer countries and regulatory agencies came up with this consensus statement.
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Primary preventive potential of major lifestyle risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in men: an analysis of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the preventive potential of major lifestyle risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in middle-aged men. Among 10,981 men in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, aged 40.2-65.8 years when recruited, 378 developed first-ever AMI during a median follow-up period of 11.4 years. Current smoking, excess body weight, being physically inactive, but not high alcohol consumption, were identified as the major lifestyle risk factors for AMI using Cox regression analysis. A competing AMI risk model built from cause-specific Cox regression models and considering the risk of death predicted 353 AMI cases, 182 (51.6%) of which were estimated as preventable through adherence to a healthy lifestyle profile (never smoking, normal body weight, physically active, and moderate alcohol consumption). The calculated age-specific 5-year incidence rates for AMI in the actual cohort and in a hypothetical, comparable cohort with all men following the healthy lifestyle profile were 128 and 39, respectively, per 100,000 person-years for the age group 40-44, increasing to 468 and 307 per 100,000 person-years for the age group 65-69. The estimated AMI incidence rates for men with the healthy lifestyle profile are still somewhat higher than the average rates reported for documented low-incidence regions, such as parts of Japan. Our analysis confirms the strong primary preventive potential for AMI based on avoidance of smoking and excess body weight, and on regular physical activity.
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Sulforaphane decreases kidney injury after transplantation in rats: role of mitochondrial damage.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Sulforaphane is a naturally occuring antioxidative and anti-inflammatory isothiocyanat. In this study, its impact on experimental kidney transplantation was evaluated.
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The calcimimetic R-568 prevents podocyte loss in uninephrectomized ApoE-/- mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Calcimimetics are indicated for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease, and some data have suggested their protective role for progression of renal damage. We aimed to evaluate whether a calcimimetic can slow the progression of kidney damage in uninephrectomized apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. To this end, we compared its effect with that of calcitriol. Male ApoE-/- mice (12 wk old) were randomized to undergo sham operation (sham) or unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) and subsequently received the calcimimetic R-568 (4 ?g·kg?¹·day?¹), calcitriol (0.03 ?g·kg?¹·day?¹), or vehicle intraperitoneally. Glomerular number and volume, damage indexes (glomerular, vascular, and interstitial), and glomerular (podocytes, mesangial, and endothelial) cell number and volume were assessed in perfused kidneys after a 12-wk treatment period. Lower numbers of podocytes per glomerulus were observed in the UNX + vehicle group compared with the sham group, and this was prevented in the UNX + R-568 group but not in the UNX + calcitriol group. In parallel, albuminuria was higher in the untreated UNX group compared with the sham group, and the increase was prevented in the UNX + R-568 group. Interstitial fibrosis was more prevalent in the vehicle-treated UNX group compared with the sham group, and this was prevented in the UNX group treated with R-568 and less effectively with calcitriol treatment. In all UNX groups, the weight of the residual kidney was significantly higher compared with all sham groups. No differences were observed in serum ionized calcium and systolic blood pressure between the groups. The calcimimetic R-568 prevented interstial fibrosis and podocyte loss after uninephrectomy in ApoE-/- mice. Minor renal dysfunction, lack of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and hypertension in this model support the hypothesis of direct effects of this compound on glomerular cells.
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Erythropoietin combined with ACE inhibitor prevents heart remodeling in 5/6 nephrectomized rats independently of blood pressure and kidney function.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Heart remodeling in CKD comprises mainly interstitial fibrosis and capillary loss. Beyond correcting renal anemia, erythropoietin (Epo) has potentially beneficial pleiotropic effects on heart remodeling.
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Dietary alleviation of maternal obesity and diabetes: increased resistance to diet-induced obesity transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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According to the developmental origins of health and diseases (DOHaD), and in line with the findings of many studies, obesity during pregnancy is clearly a threat to the health and well-being of the offspring, later in adulthood. We previously showed that 20% of male and female inbred mice can cope with the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks after weaning, remaining lean. However the feeding of a control diet (CD) to DIO mice during the periconceptional/gestation/lactation period led to a pronounced sex-specific shift (17% to 43%) from susceptibility to resistance to HFD, in the female offspring only. Our aim in this study was to determine how, in the context of maternal obesity and T2D, a CD could increase resistance on female fetuses. Transcriptional analyses were carried out with a custom-built mouse liver microarray and by quantitative RT-PCR for muscle and adipose tissue. Both global DNA methylation and levels of pertinent histone marks were assessed by LUMA and western blotting, and the expression of 15 relevant genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes was analyzed in tissues presenting global epigenetic changes. Resistance was associated with an enhancement of hepatic pathways protecting against steatosis, the unexpected upregulation of neurotransmission-related genes and the modulation of a vast imprinted gene network. Adipose tissue displayed a pronounced dysregulation of gene expression, with an upregulation of genes involved in lipid storage and adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia in obese mice born to lean and obese mothers, respectively. Global DNA methylation, several histone marks and key epigenetic regulators were also altered. Whether they were themselves lean (resistant) or obese (sensitive), the offspring of lean and obese mice clearly differed in terms of several metabolic features and epigenetic marks suggesting that the effects of a HFD depend on the leanness or obesity of the mother.
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Estrogen receptor alpha expression in podocytes mediates protection against apoptosis in-vitro and in-vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women have a significantly better prognosis in chronic renal diseases compared to men. This suggests critical influences of gender hormones on glomerular structure and function. We examined potential direct protective effects of estradiol on podocytes.
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Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offsprings kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life.
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Benfotiamine protects against peritoneal and kidney damage in peritoneal dialysis.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Residual renal function and the integrity of the peritoneal membrane contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Glucose and its degradation products likely contribute to the deterioration of the remnant kidney and damage to the peritoneum. Benfotiamine decreases glucose-induced tissue damage, suggesting the potential for benefit in peritoneal dialysis. Here, in a model of peritoneal dialysis in uremic rats, treatment with benfotiamine decreased peritoneal fibrosis, markers of inflammation, and neovascularization, resulting in improved characteristics of peritoneal transport. Furthermore, rats treated with benfotiamine exhibited lower expression of advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor in the peritoneum and the kidney, reduced glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage, and less albuminuria. Increased activity of transketolase in tissue and blood contributed to the protective effects of benfotiamine. In primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells, the addition of benfotiamine led to enhanced transketolase activity and decreased expression of advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that benfotiamine protects the peritoneal membrane and remnant kidney in a rat model of peritoneal dialysis and uremia.
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Stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor stabilizes the podocyte cytoskeleton, improves cell survival, and reduces toxin-induced glomerulosclerosis.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Calcimimetics increase the sensitivity of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor to extracellular calcium for efficient control of hyperparathyroidism. Recent studies suggest that there are beneficial effects of calcimimetics beyond the control of bone and mineral homeostasis. Here, we tested whether the calcium-sensing receptor is also expressed and functionally relevant in podocytes. Analysis of microarray data using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis found that the calcimimetic R-568 influenced various pathways related to oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, cell proliferation, and survival in cultured podocytes. R-568 induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of the ERK1/2-P90RSK-CREB signaling cascade, and induced pro-survival phosphorylation of BAD and Bcl-xl, thus reducing puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte apoptosis by half. Moreover, R-568 preserved the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes exposed to PAN and improved recovery from exposure to cytochalasin D, a reversible inhibitor of actin polymerization. In rats, co-administration of R-568 prevented the proteinuria caused by a single dose of PAN and attenuated the glomerulosclerosis and loss of GFR caused by repetitive puromycin treatment. Hence, calcimimetics limit podocyte damage by antiapoptotic and cytoskeleton-stabilizing effects and may constitute a new approach in the prevention and treatment of glomerular disease.
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Transforming growth factor ?? oppositely regulates the hypertrophic and contractile response to ?-adrenergic stimulation in the heart.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Neuroendocrine activation and local mediators such as transforming growth factor-?? (TGF-??) contribute to the pathobiology of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We aimed to characterize the functional network involving TGF-??, the renin-angiotensin system, and the ?-adrenergic system in the heart.
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Carnosine treatment largely prevents alterations of renal carnosine metabolism in diabetic mice.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Recently, we identified an allelic variant of human carnosinase 1 (CN1) that results in increased enzyme activity and is associated with susceptibility for diabetic nephropathy in humans. Investigations in diabetic (db/db) mice showed that carnosine ameliorates glucose metabolism effectively. We now investigated the renal carnosinase metabolism in db/db mice. Kidney CN1 activity increased with age and was significantly higher in diabetic mice compared to controls. Increased CN1 activity did not affect renal carnosine levels, but anserine concentrations were tenfold lower in db/db mice compared to controls (0.24±0.2 vs. 2.28±0.3 nmol/mg protein in controls; p<0.001). Homocarnosine concentrations in kidney tissue were low in both control and db/db mice (below 0.1 nmol/mg protein, p=n.s.). Carnosine treatment for 4 weeks substantially decreased renal CN1 activity in diabetic mice (0.32±0.3 in non-treated db/db vs. 0.05±0.05 ?mol/mg/h in treated db/db mice; p<0.01) close to normal activities. Renal anserine concentrations increased significantly (0.24±0.2 in non-treated db/db vs. 5.7±1.2 ?mol/mg/h in treated db/db mice; p<0.01), while carnosine concentrations remained unaltered (53±6.4 in non-treated vs. 61±15 nmol/mg protein in treated db/db mice; p=n.s.). Further, carnosine treatment halved proteinuria and reduced vascular permeability to one-fifth in db/db mice. In renal tissue of diabetic mice carnosinase activity is significantly increased and anserine concentrations are significantly reduced compared to controls. Carnosine treatment largely prevents the alterations of renal carnosine metabolism.
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High-dose enalapril treatment reverses myocardial fibrosis in experimental uremic cardiomyopathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Patients with renal failure develop cardiovascular alterations which contribute to the higher rate of cardiac death. Blockade of the renin angiotensin system ameliorates the development of such changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent ACE-inhibitors can also reverse existing cardiovascular alterations. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high dose enalapril treatment on these alterations.
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Effect of paricalcitol and calcitriol on aortic wall remodeling in uninephrectomized ApoE knockout mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Despite an only minor reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, uninephrectomy (UNX) markedly accelerates the rate of growth of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-/- mice. It has been suggested that vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation exerts an antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells, but the side effects may limit its use. To assess a potentially different spectrum of actions, we compared the effects of paricalcitol and calcitriol on remodeling and calcification of the aortic wall in sham-operated and UNX ApoE-/- mice on a diet with normal cholesterol content. Sham-operated and UNX mice were randomly allotted to treatment with solvent, calcitriol (0.03 ?g/kg) or paricalcitol (0.1 ?g/kg) 5 times/wk intraperitoneally for 10 wk. Semithin (0.6 ?m) sections of the aorta were analyzed by 1) morphometry, 2) immunohistochemistry, and 3) Western blotting of key proteins involved in vascular calcification and growth. Compared with sham-operated animals (5.6 ± 0.24), the wall-to-lumen ratio (x100) of the aorta was significantly higher in solvent- and calcitriol-treated UNX animals (6.64 ± 0.27 and 7.17 ± 0.81, respectively, P < 0.05), but not in paricalcitol-treated UNX (6.1 5 ± 0.32). Similar differences were seen with respect to maximal plaque height. Expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in aortic intima/plaque was also significantly higher in UNX solvent and UNX calcitriol compared with sham-operated and UNX paricalcitol animals. Treatment with both paricalcitol and calcitriol caused significant elevation of VDR expression in the aorta. While at the dose employed paricalcitol significantly reduced TGF-? expression in plaques, calcitriol in contrast caused significant vascular calcification and elevated expression of related proteins (BMP2, RANKL, and Runx2).
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In renal transplants with delayed graft function chemokines and chemokine receptor expression predict long-term allograft function.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Chronic loss of renal allograft function is associated with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). Independent of the underlying reason, one initial step in the development of fibrosis is chemokine-driven invasion of leukocytes from the blood vessels into the allograft. We studied the role of chemokines in kidney allografts with delayed graft function and the subsequent long-term outcome of renal function and fibrosis.
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An integrative approach for the transplantation of high-risk sensitized patients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Sensitized patients have a lower chance of receiving a crossmatch-negative kidney and, if transplanted, are at risk of antibody-mediated allograft rejection.
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Does borderline kidney allograft rejection always require treatment?
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Borderline rejection (Bord-R) is a frequent diagnosis in renal transplantation, and there is increasing evidence that regulatory T lymphocytes are involved in its pathogenesis. Current histopathologic practice does not differentiate between graft-protecting and -damaging T lymphocytes, and patients with Bord-R routinely receive rejection treatment. We analyzed Treg-associated forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) gene expression in Bord-R and more severe forms of acute rejection episodes (ARE).
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Sex- and diet-specific changes of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse placenta under a high-fat diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Changes in imprinted gene dosage in the placenta may compromise the prenatal control of nutritional resources. Indeed monoallelic behaviour and sensitivity to changes in regional epigenetic state render imprinted genes both vulnerable and adaptable.
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Elevated systemic TGF-beta impairs aortic vasomotor function through activation of NADPH oxidase-driven superoxide production and leads to hypertension, myocardial remodeling, and increased plaque formation in apoE(-/-) mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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The role of circulating, systemic TGF-beta levels in endothelial function is not clear. TGF-beta(1) may cause endothelial dysfunction in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice via stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) system and aggravate aortic and heart remodeling and hypertension. Thoracic aorta (TA) were isolated from 4-mo-old control (C57Bl/6), apoE(-/-), TGF-beta(1)-overexpressing (TGFbeta(1)), and crossbred apoE(-/-) x TGFbeta(1) mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was measured before and after incubation with apocynin (NOX inhibitor) or superoxide dismutase (SOD; ROS scavenger). Superoxide production within the vessel wall was determined by dihydroethidine staining under confocal microscope. In 8-mo-old mice, aortic and myocardial morphometric changes, plaque formation by en face fat staining, and blood pressure were determined. Serum TGF-beta(1) levels (ELISA) were elevated in TGFbeta(1) mice without downregulation of TGF-beta-I receptor (immunohistochemistry). In the aortic wall, superoxide production was enhanced and NO-dependent relaxation diminished in apoE(-/-) x TGFbeta(1) mice but improved significantly after apocynin or SOD. Myocardial capillary density was reduced, fibrocyte density increased, aortic wall was thicker, combined lesion area was greater, and blood pressure was higher in the apoE(-/-) x TGFbeta vs. C57Bl/6 mice. Our results demonstrate that elevated circulating TGF-beta(1) causes endothelial dysfunction through NOX activation-induced oxidative stress, accelerating atherosclerosis and hypertension in apoE(-/-) mice. These findings may provide a mechanism explaining accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with elevated plasma TGFbeta(1).
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Expression and function of matrix Gla protein in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with peritoneal calcification. Studies in vascular tissue suggest that ectopic calcification is not merely a passive but a regulated process resembling bone mineralization. We investigated whether peritoneal calcification is controlled by matrix Gla protein (MGP) secreted by peritoneal mesothelial cells.
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Uremia aggravates left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Renal failure is a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. We hypothesized that uremia negatively affects post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function and examined the pathohistological correlations.
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Spontaneous arterial dissection: phenotype and molecular pathogenesis.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Arterial dissection (AD) is defined as the longitudinal splitting up of the arterial wall caused by intramural bleeding. It can occur as a spontaneous event in all large and medium sized arteries. The histological hallmark of AD is medial degeneration. Histological investigations, gene expression profiling and proteome studies of affected arteries reveal disturbances in many different biological processes including inflammation, proteolytic activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractile function. Medial degeneration can be caused by various rare dominant Mendelian disorders. Genetic linkage analysis lead to the identification of mutations in different disease-causing genes involved in the biosynthesis of the extracellular matrix (FBN1, COL3A1), in transforming growth factor (TGF) beta signaling (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2) and in the SMC contractile system (ACTA2, MYH11). Genome wide association studies suggest that the CDKN2A/CDKN2B locus plays a role in the etiology AD and other arterial diseases.
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Glucose degradation products result in cardiovascular toxicity in a rat model of renal failure.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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It has been shown that glucose degradation products (GDP) generated during heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids impair the peritoneal membrane locally, then enter the systemic circulation and cause damage to the remnant kidney. Here we examined in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats whether GDP also affect the cardiovascular system. Materials and
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[Regulatory consequences for the use of monoclonal antibodies].
Med Sci (Paris)
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
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Köhler and Milstein published a method for the manufacture of mouse monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity 1975 [1], a work rewarded with the Nobel Prize 1984. Since then, the field has developed rapidly with new production methods such as recombinant DNA technology, phage display and genetically engineered animals. Following the first clinical applications with a mouse monoclonal antibody, new classes as chimaeric, humanized and human monoclonal antibodies appeared, with the advantages of less adverse reactions and better efficacy. The development over more than 30 years resulted in more than 25 approved products on the market for various therapeutic applications, e.g. for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases, heart disease and transplantation, and medicines for many more applications are currently under development.
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Increased renoprotection with ACE inhibitor plus aldosterone antagonist as compared to monotherapies--the effect on podocytes.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) does not completely prevent progression of renal disease. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade provides additional renoprotection over ACE-inhibition monotherapy. We examined the mechanisms underlying superior renoprotection in the subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) model.
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Chronic low-dose isotretinoin treatment limits renal damage in subtotally nephrectomized rats.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Retinoids are anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory compounds. We had previously shown that retinoids alleviate kidney damage in acute models of renal disease. We now examined whether retinoids are also effective in a chronic renal ablation model. Subtotally nephrectomized rats (SNx; two-third ablation) were compared to sham-operated controls (sham). SNx rats were administered either 10 mg/kg b.w. (low dose, LD) or 40 mg/kg b.w. (high dose, HD) isotretinoin or vehicle (n = 10 per group). The experiment was terminated after 16 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after SNx compared to sham but lower in SNx with LD isotretinoin (vs. SNx + vehicle). Compared to SNx + vehicle, SNx + LD isotretinoin had lower glomerular cell numbers, less glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis, and less interstitial expansion. Morphological improvement in SNx + LD isotretinoin was accompanied by improvement in creatinine clearance and reduced urinary albumin excretion. In contrast, HD isotretinoin caused aggravation of renal damage with fibrinoid necroses of vessels and elevated urinary albumin excretion despite lower blood pressure. The dichotomous effects of isotretinoin are at least in part due to time- and dose-dependent alterations of transforming growth factor beta1 and collagen IV gene expression as also suggested by cell-culture studies in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, isotretinoin affected the systemic and the renal renin-angiotensin system (which was further analyzed in a model of angiotensin II infusion of the rat). Isotretinoin failed to cumulate at LD but cumulated at HD in SNx. We conclude that LD isotretinoin attenuates progressive renal damage, whereas HD isotretinoin cumulates and aggravates renal damage independent of blood pressure reduction.
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Role of FTY720 on M1 and M2 macrophages, lymphocytes, and chemokines in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Renal injury is accompanied by the presence of infiltrating inflammatory cells in the glomerulus and tubulointerstitium. FTY720 modifies lymphocyte migration into injured tissues by lymphocyte sequestration to secondary lymphoid organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of FTY720 to influence the inflammatory response in a nonimmunological model of renal failure. Sham-operated and 5/6 nephrectomized (SNX) Sprague-Dawley rats received two different doses of FTY720 or vehicle orally for 14 wk. Treatment with FTY720 reduced glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in SNX rats but failed to stabilize creatinine clearance. The increase in gene expression of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 in kidneys of vehicle-treated SNX rats was significantly attenuated by high-dose FTY720. Treatment with high-dose FTY720 tended to normalize RANTES and MCP-1 renal gene expression. FTY720 affected not only glomerular and tubulointerstitial lymphocytes, but M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages were also reduced. FTY720 significantly reduced key mediators of renal inflammation and fibrosis. FTY720 also decreased immunoregulation of M2 macrophages, which are beneficial for tissue remodeling and repair.
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Calcitriol ameliorates capillary deficit and fibrosis of the heart in subtotally nephrectomized rats.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Remodelling of the heart, characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis and capillary/myocyte mismatch, is observed in patients with chronic renal failure. Low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the present experimental study, we studied the effects of non-hypercalcaemic doses of calcitriol on microvascular disease and interstitial fibrosis of the heart.
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Melatonin protects kidney grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of NF-kB and apoptosis after experimental kidney transplantation.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Free radicals are involved in pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, this study was designed to elucidate its effects in a model of rat kidney transplantation. Twenty Lewis rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10 animals each). Melatonin (50 mg/kg BW) dissolved in 5 mL milk was given to one group via gavage 2 hr before left donor nephrectomy. Controls were given the same volume of milk only. Kidney grafts were then transplanted into bilaterally nephrectomized syngeneic recipients after 24 hr of cold storage in Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution. Both graft function and injury were assessed after transplantation through serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, transaminases, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Biopsies were taken to evaluate tubular damage, the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), and the expression of NF-kBp65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 as indices of oxidative stress, necrosis, and apoptosis, respectively. Melatonin improved survival (P < 0.01) while decreasing BUN, creatinine, transaminases, and LDH values up to 39-71% (P < 0.05). Melatonin significantly reduced the histological index for tubular damage, induced tissue enzymatic activity of SOD while reducing LPO. At the same time, melatonin down-regulated the expression of NF-kBp65, iNOS, and caspase-3. In conclusion, donor preconditioning with melatonin protected kidney donor grafts from IRI-induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury most likely through its anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and NF-kB inhibitory capacity.
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Arterial calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), aortic calcification is more frequent and severe and it is also predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcome. The aim of the present study was to characterize aortic calcification in renal compared with non-renal patients.
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Danshen protects kidney grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury after experimental transplantation.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Danshen (DS) is used for treatment of various ischemic events in the traditional Chinese medicine. Hence, this study was designed to investigate its effect on ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) after experimental kidney transplantation (eKTx). Nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats underwent eKTx. Some animals were infused with 1.5 ml DS 10 min before surgery. Kidney grafts were transplanted after cold storage for 20 h in Histidine-Tryptophane-Ketoglutarate solution. After reperfusion blood samples were collected for blood urinary nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alanine transaminase. Further, tissue was assessed for morphologic and pathophysiologic changes. Donor preconditioning with DS (DS-d) significantly decreased BUN, creatinine, LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase to 65-97% of controls while preconditioning of the recipient (DS-r) decreased values to 58-82% (P < 0.05). Tubular damage and caspase-3 decreased significantly in both DS-d and DS-r (DS-d: 96% and 67%, DS-r: 83% and 75% of controls) while heat shock protein 72 and superoxide dismutase increased significantly (DS-d: 143% and 173%, DS-r: 166% and 194% of controls). Further, inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased (DS-d: 84% and 61%, DS-r: 79% and 67% of controls) after DS. Preconditioning of both donors and recipients with DS significantly reduces IRI and thus improves graft function after eKTx.
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Effect of insulin and glucose infusion on myocardial infarction size in uraemic rats.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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The post myocardial infarction (MI) mortality rate is high in renal patients. One possible explanation is the reduced ischemia tolerance caused by uraemia. Previous investigations showed larger MI size in uraemic rats when compared with sham-operated controls. To explore a possible link between uraemic insulin resistance syndrome and MI size in uraemia, we studied an intervention model with administration of insulin and glucose during acute MI in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats and sham-operated controls. In 16 SNX rats and 16 sham-operated controls, the left coronary artery was ligated for 60 min, followed by reperfusion for 90 min. To visualize the perfused myocardium, lissamine-green ink was injected. The nonperfused area (lissamine exclusion) and the area of total infarction (TTC stain) were assessed in sections of the left ventricle (LV) using image analysis. While eight SNX rats and eight sham-operated controls were treated with a placebo during the procedure, the other animals received an insulin bolus of 85 mU/kg and then a continuous insulin infusion of 8 mU/kg per minute. Blood glucose levels were clamped to baseline levels with an infusion of 25% glucose. Insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2) and glucose transporter (GLUT 4) were studied by western blot in another seven SNX and seven sham-operated controls without further intervention. The infarcted area, given as a proportion of the nonperfused risk area, was not different in sham-operated controls treated with a hyperinsulinaemic clamp versus untreated (0.55 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13, p = 0.477). The eight SNX animals treated with the hyperinsulinaemic clamp utilized significantly less glucose to stabilize baseline glucose levels when compared with the sham-operated controls (5,637 vs. 3,207 microl Glc 25%, p = 0.007). The infarcted area was significantly lower in SNX rats treated with the hyperinsulinaemic clamp compared to non-treated SNX animals (0.56 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.09, p < 0.001). SNX rats with the insulin clamp had the same infarcted area size as sham-operated controls (0.56 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13, p = 0.357). Western blotting did not show any change in the expression of GLUT 4 and IRS-1/IRS-2 in SNX animals when compared with sham-operated controls. The size of MI in uraemic rats is significantly reduced by a glucose/insulin infusion. The results suggest an insulin resistance in uraemic rats with similar benefits of glucose/insulin application during acute MI, as found in diabetic individuals. Further analysis did not reveal a down regulation in GLUT 4 and IRS-1/IRS-2.
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Selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition reduces neointimal hyperplasia in rat carotid arteries after surgical endarterectomy.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Long-term results of surgical vessel reconstruction are compromised by restenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia. Recent studies suggest that reduced cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling is associated with neointima formation. In a rat model of endarterectomy, we investigated the effect of pharmacologic inhibition of cyclic guanosine monophosphate degradation on neointima formation by using the selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil.
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A calcimimetic (R-568), but not calcitriol, prevents vascular remodeling in uremia.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Renal insufficiency increases cardiovascular risk, accelerates atherogenesis, and causes vascular wall remodeling. Here we evaluated the effect of the calcimimetic R-568 and non-hypercalcemic doses of calcitriol on vascular structure. Subtotal nephrectomy was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats followed by treatment with R-568, calcitriol, or vehicle for 12 weeks. The aortic wall was significantly thicker in vehicle-treated uremic rats than in those with a sham-operation but R-568-treated uremic rats had a lower value. In contrast, calcitriol increased wall thickness in both the sham-operated and uremic groups. The calcification score, measured by von Kossa staining, and the number of proliferating cells in the intima and media were significantly higher in the calcitriol-treated uremic group. The expression of the calcium sensing receptor was higher in the intima of sham-operated and uremic rats treated with R-568 compared to animals treated with vehicle or calcitriol, while the expression of the vitamin D receptor was upregulated by both calcitriol and R-568. Our study shows that in uremic rats, calcitriol increased while R-568 attenuated media calcification and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.
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Interstitial fibrosis and microvascular disease of the heart in uremia: amelioration by a calcimimetic.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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In patients with chronic renal failure, the heart undergoes remodeling, characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary/myocyte mismatch. In this study, we observed the effects of the calcimimetic agent R-568 on microvascular disease and interstitial fibrosis of the heart. Three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) or sham operation and subsequently received vehicle or R-568 under two experimental protocols, one for 1 month and the other for 3 months. Echocardiography, capillary length density, volume density of interstitial tissue, and immunohistochemistry and western blots (calcium-sensing receptor, collagen I and III, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nitrotyrosine) were assessed. After SNX, weight and wall thickness of the left and the right ventricle were elevated. The ratio of heart to body weight and interventricular septum thickness were not changed by R-568 treatment. The left ventricle fractional shortening (by echocardiography) was lower in SNX; this was ameliorated by R-568. Reduced capillary length density and increased interstitial fibrosis in SNX were improved by R-568, which also reduced the expression of TGF-beta, and collagen I and III. The calcimimetic increased the activation of ERK-1/2, normalized p38 and JNK signaling, and prevented oxidative stress. We conclude that lowering parathyroid hormone with a calcimimetic significantly improves cardiac histology and function but not the left ventricular mass in SNX.
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Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta.
PLoS ONE
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Males and females responses to gestational overnutrition set the stage for subsequent sex-specific differences in adult onset non communicable diseases. Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes. According to our previous findings, a high-fat diet during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes. We further investigated the impact of diet and sex on placental histology, transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures in mice. Both basal gene expression and response to maternal high-fat diet were sexually dimorphic in whole placentas. Numerous genes showed sexually dimorphic expression, but only 11 genes regardless of the diet. In line with the key role of genes belonging to the sex chromosomes, 3 of these genes were Y-specific and 3 were X-specific. Amongst all the genes that were differentially expressed under a high-fat diet, only 16 genes were consistently affected in both males and females. The differences were not only quantitative but remarkably qualitative. The biological functions and networks of genes dysregulated differed markedly between the sexes. Seven genes of the epigenetic machinery were dysregulated, due to effects of diet, sex or both, including the Y- and X-linked histone demethylase paralogues Kdm5c and Kdm5d, which could mark differently male and female epigenomes. The DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l gene expression was affected, reminiscent of our previous observation of changes in global DNA methylation. Overall, this striking sexual dimorphism of programming trajectories impose a considerable revision of the current dietary interventions protocols.
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Exposure of pregnant rats to cigarette-smoke condensate causes glomerular abnormalities in offspring.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
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Higher blood pressure and albuminuria are found in offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. Whether or not kidney development is affected by maternal smoking is unknown.
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Cellular infiltrates and NF?B subunit c-Rel signaling in kidney allografts of patients with clinical operational tolerance.
Transplantation
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Nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) plays a potential role in tolerance by orchestrating onset and resolution of inflammation and regulatory T cell differentiation through subunit c-Rel. We characterized cellular infiltrates and expression of NF?B1, c-Rel and its upstream regulators phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/RAC-alpha serine/threonine kinase, in allograft biopsies from patients with spontaneous clinical operational tolerance (COT).
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Cellular senescence limits regenerative capacity and allograft survival.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
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Long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation remains unsatisfactory and unpredictable. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy are major contributors to late graft loss; features of tubular cell senescence, such as increased p16(INK4a) expression, associate with these tubulointerstitial changes, but it is unknown whether the relationship is causal. Here, loss of the INK4a locus in mice, which allows escape from p16(INK4a)-dependent senescence, significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and associated with improved renal function, conservation of nephron mass, and transplant survival. Compared with wild-type controls, kidneys from INK4a(-/-) mice developed significantly less interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consistently, mice that received kidney transplants from INK4a/ARF(-/-) donors had significantly better survival 21 days after life-supporting kidney transplantation and developed less tubulointerstitial changes. This correlated with higher proliferative rates of tubular cells and significantly fewer senescent cells. Taken together, these data suggest a pathogenic role of renal cellular senescence in the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and kidney graft deterioration by preventing the recovery from injury. Inhibiting premature senescence could have therapeutic benefit in kidney transplantation but has to be balanced against the risks of suspending antitumor defenses.
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Effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement on pig livers after warm ischemia.
HPB Surg
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Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70?g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250?mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2?hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3?hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40?min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8?hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8?hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8?hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-?, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis.
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TGFB2 mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections associated with mild systemic features of Marfan syndrome.
Nat. Genet.
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A predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. Genome-wide linkage analysis of two large unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease followed by whole-exome sequencing of affected relatives identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations-a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4-segregated with disease with a combined logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 7.7. Sanger sequencing of 276 probands from families with inherited thoracic aortic disease identified 2 additional TGFB2 mutations. TGFB2 encodes transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2, and the mutations are predicted to cause haploinsufficiency for TGFB2; however, aortic tissue from cases paradoxically shows increased TGF-?2 expression and immunostaining. Thus, haploinsufficiency for TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting that the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-?2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-?2 production in the diseased aorta.
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Does pregnancy or pregnancy loss increase later maternal risk of diabetes?
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
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Evidence that childbearing is associated with future development of diabetes remains conflicting and the role of pregnancy loss in this association has not been investigated. We aimed to examine whether pregnancy and/or pregnancy loss (miscarriage, abortion, or stillbirth) are associated with maternal higher risk of diabetes later in life, using a population-based prospective cohort study (mean follow-up = 10.7 years), including 13,612 women (aged 35-65 at baseline). We found pregnancy per se did not change the risk of diabetes after considering the effect of education, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, waist/hip ratio, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia (fully-adjusted OR: 1.04, 95 % CI: 0.82-1.31). Having more than four live births was associated with around two times higher risk of diabetes later in life (fully-adjusted OR: 1.77, 95 % CI: 1.12-2.80). Having more than two miscarriages was associated with about two-fold higher risk of diabetes (fully-adjusted Odd ratio (OR): 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.17-2.93). After further adjustment for parity, the higher risk of diabetes in those who had history of more than two miscarriages did not change substantially (OR: 1.82; 95 % CI: 1.15-2.88), but the association between more than four live births and diabetes disappeared when the role of pregnancy loss was considered (fully-adjusted HR: 1.06; 95 % CI: 0.54-2.08). No significant association was found between abortion, stillbirth and risk of maternal diabetes. Pregnancy per se did not increase risk of diabetes. Women who experience more than two miscarriages are at around two times higher risk of diabetes later in life. The association between high parity and diabetes is mediated by history of miscarriages and known risk factors of diabetes. The underlying reason for association between miscarriage and diabetes needs further investigation.
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High salt intake causes adverse fetal programming--vascular effects beyond blood pressure.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
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High salt intake causes hypertension, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and potentially also blood pressure (BP)-independent target organ damage. Excess salt intake in pregnancy is known to affect BP in the offspring. The present study was designed to assess whether high salt intake in pregnancy affects BP and vascular morphology in the offspring.
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