JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Assessment of sleep satisfaction in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sleep length and architecture are potential markers of progressive cognitive impairment, while neuropsychiatric symptoms and APOE4- haplotypes have been associated with more sleep complaints in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this cross-sectional study, we sought to investigate which factors might be related to sleep satisfaction in patients with AD. A total of 217 consecutive patients with AD were assessed for demographic features, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive decline, functional impairment for activities of daily living, caregiver burden, APOE haplotypes, self-reported sleep satisfaction and length of sleep. Statistical comparisons were conducted with significance at p<0.05. Concerning sleep complaints, 179 patients (82.5%) reported satisfactory sleep, while 38 (17.5%) were unsatisfied, with no relation to age, sex, APOE haplotypes, obesity, education, marital status, alcohol consumption or smoking found. Length of sleep (p=0.011) and behavioural symptoms (p=0.009) had significant associations with sleep satisfaction. Length of sleep was positively correlated with apathy (p=0.014) and scores on the Clock Drawing Test (p=0.015), and inversely correlated with anxiety (p=0.015) and independence for instrumental activities of daily living (p=0.003). Patients who were treated with memantine (p=0.02) or anti-psychotics (p<0.01) had longer duration of sleep. In conclusion, behavioural symptoms had strong associations with sleep satisfaction, which is highly correlated with length of sleep in patients with AD. Functional independence, apathy, anxiety, use of memantine or anti-psychotics, and scores on the Clock Drawing Test were significantly associated with length of sleep in this sample.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of neurotransmitter receptor gene expression identifies GABA receptor changes: a follow-up study in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A study of the gene expression levels in the blood of individuals with schizophrenia in the beginning of the disease, such as first-episode psychosis (FEP), is useful to detect gene expression changes in this disorder in response to treatment. Although a large number of genetic studies on schizophrenia have been conducted, little is known about the effects of antipsychotic treatment on gene expression. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the gene expression in the blood of antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment (N = 44) and also to verify the correlation with treatment response. In addition, we determined the correlations between differentially expressed genes and clinical variables. The expression of 40 neurotransmitter and neurodevelopment-associated genes was assessed using the RT2 Profiler PCR Array. The results indicated that the GABRR2 gene was downregulated after risperidone treatment, but no genes were associated with response to treatment and clinical variables after Bonferroni correction. GABRR2 downregulation after treatment can both suggest an effect of risperidone treatment or processes related to disease progression, either not necessarily associated with the improvement of symptoms. Despite this change was observed in blood, this decrease in GABRR2 mRNA levels might be an effect of changes in GABA concentrations or other systems interplay consequently to D2 blockage induced by risperidone, for example. Thus, it is important to consider that antipsychotics or the progression of psychotic disorders might interfere with gene expression.
Related JoVE Video
Association study of SNPs of genes IFNGR1 (rs137854905), GSTT1 (rs71748309), and GSTP1 (rs1695) in gastric cancer development in samples of patient in the northern and northeastern Brazil.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer is a multifactorial disease with a high mortality rate in Brazil and worldwide. Gastric cancer (GC) is considered the fourth type of malignancy more frequent in the population worldwide and the second leading cause of death. This work aimed to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFNGR1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes samples in gastric cancer. We analyzed 60 samples of gastric cancer, 26 diffuse and 34 intestinal types, totaling 120 alleles for each SNP. The results were obtained by PCR and allele-specific PCR. Statistical analyzes performed using BioEstat 5.0 software, applying the Fisher's exact test and chi-square. Only the SNP gene GSTP1 (rs1695) were significantly associated with gastric cancer in the samples analyzed (?(2)?=?8.73, P?
Related JoVE Video
Reduced mRNA expression levels of MBD2 and MBD3 in gastric carcinogenesis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberrant methylation has been reported in several neoplasias, including gastric cancer. The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family proteins have been implicated in the chromatin remodeling process, leading to the modulation of gene expression. To evaluate the role of MBD2 and MBD3 in gastric carcinogenesis and the possible association with clinicopathological characteristics, we assessed the mRNA levels and promoter methylation patterns in gastric tissues. In this study, MBD2 and MBD3 mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR in 28 neoplastic and adjacent nonneoplastic and 27 gastritis and non-gastritis samples. The promoter methylation status was determined by bisulfite sequencing, and we found reduced MBD2 and MBD3 levels in the neoplastic samples compared with the other groups. Moreover, a strong correlation between the MBD2 and MBD3 expression levels was observed in each set of paired samples. Our data also showed that the neoplastic tissues exhibited higher MBD2 promoter methylation than the other groups. Interestingly, the non-gastritis group was the only one with positive methylation in the MBD3 promoter region. Furthermore, a weak correlation between gene expression and methylation was observed. Therefore, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays a minor role in the regulation of MBD2 and MBD3 expression, and the presence of methylation at CpGs that interact with transcription factor complexes might also be involved in the modulation of these genes. Moreover, reduced mRNA expression of MBD2 and MBD3 is implicated in gastric carcinogenesis, and thus, further investigations about these genes should be conducted for a better understanding of the role of abnormal methylation involved in this neoplasia.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacological modulation of cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia due to Alzheimers disease.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate correlations of pharmacological treatment with cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia due to Alzheimers disease with low schooling, subjects were assessed for demographic features, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive decline, functionality, caregiver burden, APOE haplotypes and pharmacological treatment. Among 217 patients, use of cholinesterase inhibitors with or without Memantine was associated with less neuropsychiatric symptoms, while anti-psychotics and/or anti-epileptic drugs were associated with lower instrumental functionality. Anti-psychotics were also associated with more neuropsychiatric symptoms in moderately impaired patients, possibly reflecting the greater need for such treatment when behavioral symptoms are present. Patients receiving more medications were usually younger, obese, married, with higher schooling and more neuropsychiatric symptoms. APOE4+ haplotypes were correlated with earlier dementia onset, but not with pharmacological treatment. Higher caregiver burden was associated with more psychotropic drugs. A trend was found for treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and Memantine to be associated with longer lengths of dementia for moderately impaired but not for severely impaired patients, regardless of APOE haplotypes, translating into a synergistic effect among such medications for slowing cognitive decline but not for prolonging survival. Further longitudinal studies may be required to assess dose-response relationships regarding treatment with psychotropics for patients with dementia.
Related JoVE Video
Association of APOE, GCPII and MMP9 polymorphisms with common diseases and lipid levels in an older adult/elderly cohort.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The characterization of candidate gene polymorphisms in elderly populations is an important tool for the identification of risk factors for age-related diseases and conditions. We aimed to genotype the APOE polymorphisms (rs429358 and rs7412), rs61886492 (1561C>T) and rs202720 of GCPII gene and rs3918242 (-1562C>T) of MMP9 gene in an older-adult/elderly cohort from Cuiabá city, Mato Grosso Brazil as well as to characterize risk factors for morbidities and conditions affecting this cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Association of COX2 gene hypomethylation with intestinal type gastric cancer in samples of patients from northern Brazil.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To verify the methylation status of THBS1, GPX3, and COX2 genes and to evaluate their association with Helicobacter pylori in gastric adenocarcinomas. Methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR assay was performed in 16 diffuse type gastric cancer samples, 23 intestinal type, and 15 normal stomach tissue. The presence of H. pylori was performed by amplification of the fragment of the 16S rRNA. Statistical analyses were performed using Fishers exact test. The hypermethylation of GPX3, THBS1, and COX2 occurred in 18 (n?=?7), 5 (n?=?2), and 36 % (n?=?14) of gastric cancer samples, respectively, whereas in normal samples, it was found in 13, 7, and 67 %. The presence of H. pylori was detected in 67 % of gastric cancer samples and 67 % in normal gastric samples. The methylation of THBS1 and GPX3 was not significantly different between the types of tumors, normal sample, the presence of H. pylori, or clinicopathological variables studied (P?>?0.05). However, the methylation status of the gene COX2 is significantly different between normal tissue and intestinal type gastric cancer (P?=?0.02). Therefore, our results suggest that the methylation status of the gene COX2 is associated with the intestinal type of gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Neurotransmitter receptor and regulatory gene expression in peripheral blood of Brazilian drug-naïve first-episode psychosis patients before and after antipsychotic treatment.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about how genes expressed in blood relate to schizophrenia or antipsychotic use. We analyzed gene expression in 10 first-episode psychosis patients and nine controls using PCR Arrays. GABRR2 and CHRNA3 were found to be differentially expressed after risperidone treatment. These genes may be regulated by antipsychotic use.
Related JoVE Video
Is there an association between cortical thickness, age of onset, and duration of illness in schizophrenia?
CNS Spectr
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have shown cortical volume loss in frontotemporal regions in schizophrenia patients, and it is known that these reductions may be associated with disease symptoms and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to investigate possible cortical thickness correlations in frontotemporal regions in relation to age at onset and duration of illness.
Related JoVE Video
DNA and histone methylation in gastric carcinogenesis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Epigenetics refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches that target DNA methylation and histone modifications have emerged. A greater understanding of epigenetics and the therapeutic potential of manipulating these processes is necessary for gastric cancer treatment. Here, we review recent research on the effects of aberrant DNA and histone methylation on the onset and progression of gastric tumors and the development of compounds that target enzymes that regulate the epigenome.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic and predictive significance of MYC and KRAS alterations in breast cancer from women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical evolution. Several analyses have been performed to identify the risk factors for breast cancer progression and the patients who respond best to a specific treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether the hormone receptor expression, HER2 and MYC genes and their protein status, and KRAS codon 12 mutations may be prognostic or predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. Protein, gene and mutation status were concomitantly evaluated in 116 breast tumors from women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. We observed that MYC expression was associated with luminal B and HER2 overexpression phenotypes compared to luminal A (p<0.05). The presence of MYC duplication or polysomy 8, as well as KRAS mutation, were also associated with the HER2 overexpression subtype (p<0.05). MYC expression and MYC gain were more frequently observed in early-onset compared to late-onset tumors (p<0.05). KRAS mutation was a risk factor of grade 3 tumors (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that MYC amplification defined as MYC/nucleus ratio of ?2.5 was a protective factor for chemotherapy resistance. On the other hand, age and grade 2 tumors were a risk factor. Additionally, luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative tumors presented increased odds of being resistant to chemotherapy relative to luminal A tumors. Thus, breast tumors with KRAS codon 12 mutations seem to present a worse prognosis. Additionally, MYC amplification may help in the identification of tumors that are sensitive to doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment. If confirmed in a large set of samples, these markers may be useful for clinical stratification and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating levels of sTNFR1 as a marker of severe clinical course in schizophrenia.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schizophrenia (SZ) has been associated with an imbalance in the inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. The objectives of this study were to compare TNF-? and its soluble receptors serum levels in individuals with SZ with the levels found in a group of healthy volunteers and to investigate the possible association between these biomarkers and the dimensions and severity of symptoms, clinical outcomes and response to treatment in patients with SZ.
Related JoVE Video
MYC, FBXW7 and TP53 copy number variation and expression in gastric cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MYC deregulation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis, usually as a consequence of gene amplification, chromosomal translocations, or posttranslational mechanisms. FBXW7 is a p53-controlled tumor-suppressor that plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle exit and reentry via MYC degradation.
Related JoVE Video
MYC deregulation in gastric cancer and its clinicopathological implications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our study investigated the relationship between MYC alterations and clinicopathological features in gastric cancers. We evaluated the effect of MYC mRNA expression and its protein immunoreactivity, as well as copy number variation, promoter DNA methylation, and point mutations, in 125 gastric adenocarcinoma and 67 paried non-neoplastic tissues. We observed that 77% of the tumors presented MYC immunoreactivity which was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression (p<0.05). These observations were associated with deeper tumor extension and the presence of metastasis (p<0.05). MYC protein expression was also more frequently observed in intestinal-type than in diffuse-type tumors (p<0.001). Additionally, MYC mRNA and protein expression were significantly associated with its copy number (p<0.05). The gain of MYC copies was associated with late-onset, intestinal-type, advanced tumor stage, and the presence of distant metastasis (p<0.05). A hypomethylated MYC promoter was detected in 86.4% of tumor samples. MYC hypomethylation was associated with diffuse-type, advanced tumor stage, deeper tumor extension, and the presence of lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Moreover, eighteen tumor samples presented at least one known mutation. The presence of MYC mutations was associated with diffuse-type tumor (p<0.001). Our results showed that MYC deregulation was mainly associated with poor prognostic features and also reinforced the presence of different pathways involved in intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, our findings suggest that MYC may be a useful marker for clinical stratification and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Association of biomarkers and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emergence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia results in a deteriorating course and poor prognosis. Schizophrenia and depressive disorder are both associated with low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and with a longstanding low grade inflammatory state. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between these serum biomarkers and depressive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Thirty-nine individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), were included. Interviews were conducted with The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Blood samples were collected for determination of BDNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha measurements. Positive correlations between BDNF and CDSS and between IL-1beta and severity in PANSS scores were found. BDNF levels were not correlated with any cytokine or with PANSS scores. The results of this study suggest that depressive and psychotic symptoms may be associated with different profiles of biomarkers in the association between schizophrenia and depression.
Related JoVE Video
APOA4 polymorphism as a risk factor for unfavorable lipid serum profile and depression: a cross-sectional study.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster is closely involved in lipid metabolism, and its polymorphisms have been associated with coronary heart disease and lipid plasma levels. Here, we aimed to investigate associations of APOC3 (3238C>G, -482C>T, 1100C>T) and APOA4 (Gln360His, Thr347Ser) polymorphisms in 382 individuals from a cohort of a Longitudinal Brazilian Elderly Study with major age-related morbidities and with lipid and protein serum levels.
Related JoVE Video
Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies.
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes of patients with different hematological malignancies using G-band analyses to identify possible cytogenetical alterations.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-8-251T > A, Interleukin-1?-889C > T and Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in Alzheimers disease.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An inflammatory process has been involved in numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease, stroke and Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, the inflammatory response is mainly located in the vicinity of amyloid plaques. Cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), have been clearly involved in this inflammatory process. Polymorphisms of several interleukin genes have been correlated to the risk of developing AD. The present study investigated the association of AD with polymorphisms IL-8 -251T > A (rs4073) and IL-1?-889C > T (rs1800587) and the interactive effect of both, adjusted by the Apolipoprotein E genotype. 199 blood samples from patients with AD, 146 healthy elderly controls and 95 healthy young controls were obtained. DNA samples were isolated from blood cells, and the PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping. The genotype distributions of polymorphisms IL-8, IL-1? and APOE were as expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly among the three groups tested. As expected, the APOE4 allele was strongly associated with AD (p < 0.001). No association of AD with either the IL-1? or the IL-8 polymorphism was observed, nor was any interactive effect between both polymorphisms. These results confirm previous studies in other populations, in which polymorphisms IL-8 -251T > A and IL-1?-889C > T were not found to be risk factors for AD.
Related JoVE Video
Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th) day though on the 14(th) day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th) day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments.
Related JoVE Video
SMARCA5 methylation and expression in gastric cancer.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we first evaluated SMARCA5 expression and promoter DNA methylation in gastric carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific PCR were analyzed in 19 and 48 normal mucosa and in 52 and 92 gastric cancer samples, respectively. We observed higher immunoreactivity of SMARCA5 in gastric cancer samples than in normal mucosa. Moreover, SMARCA5 promoter methylation was associated with the absence of protein expression. Our findings suggest that SMARCA5 has a potential role in proliferation and malignancy in gastric carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
MYC, TP53, and chromosome 17 copy-number alterations in multiple gastric cancer cell lines and in their parental primary tumors.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated whether MYC, TP53, and chromosome 17 copy-number alterations occur in ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 gastric cancer cell lines and in their tumor counterpart. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC and TP53 genes and for chromosome 17 was applied in the 6th, 12th, 60th, and 85th passages of the cell lines and in their parental primary tumors. We observed that three and four MYC signals were the most common alterations in gastric cell lines and tumors. ACP02 presented cells with two copies of chr17 and loss of one copy of TP53 more frequently than ACP03 and AGP01. Only ACP03 and AGP01 presented clonal chr17 trisomy with three or two TP53 copies. The frequency of MYC gain, TP53 loss, and chromosome 17 trisomy seems to increase in gastric cell lines compared to their parental tumors. Our findings reveal that these cell lines retain, in vitro, the genetic alterations presented in their parental primary tumors.
Related JoVE Video
PPAR? polymorphisms as risk factors for dyslipidemia in a Brazilian population.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? is a nuclear receptor involved in the regulation of several biochemical pathways. Polymorphisms within its gene have been associated with several metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the association of L162V and Intron 7G>C polymorphisms with serum level markers and common morbidities affecting an older adult/elderly cohort from Cuiaba City, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, as well as to compare the results with a previously studied population from São Paulo City, Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Chromosome X aneuploidy in Brazilian schizophrenic patients.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients may provide clues to the genes involved in this disease. For this reason, a chromosomal analysis of samples from 62 schizophrenics and 70 controls was performed with trypsin-Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the X chromosome. A clonal pericentric inversion on chromosome 9 was detected in one male patient, and we also discovered mosaicism associated with X chromosome aneuploidy in female patients, primarily detected in schizophrenic and normal female controls over 40 years old. When compared with age-matched female controls, the frequency of X chromosome loss was not significantly different between schizophrenics and controls, except for the 40- to 49-year-old age group. Our findings suggest that the X chromosome loss seen in schizophrenic patients is inherent to the normal cellular aging process. However, our data also suggest that X chromosome gain may be correlated with schizophrenia in this Brazilian population.
Related JoVE Video
Cytogenetic molecular delineation of a terminal 18q deletion suggesting neo-telomere formation.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 is one of the most common segmental aneusomies compatible with life and usually involves a deletion of the terminal chromosomal region. However, the mechanisms implicated in the stabilization of terminal deletions are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed a girl with moderate mental retardation who had a cytogenetically visible terminal 18q deletion. In order to characterize the breakpoint in the terminal 18q region, we used fluorescence In situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and pan-telomeric probes and also the array technique based on comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). FISH with pan-telomeric probes revealed no signal in the terminal region of the deleted chromosome, indicating the absence of normal telomere repeat (TTAGGG)n sequences in 18q. We suggest that neo-telomere formation by chromosome healing was involved in the repair and stabilization of this terminal deletion.
Related JoVE Video
APOA1/A5 variants and haplotypes as a risk factor for obesity and better lipid profiles in a Brazilian Elderly Cohort.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variations in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster have been studied and proposed to be the leading key for susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases and age-associated disorders. We aimed to investigate the associations of rs12721026 (APOA1) and rs1729408 (APOA5) polymorphisms and their haplotypes with some age-related diseases, as well as with lipids and proteins serum levels in a cohort from a Brazilian Elderly Longitudinal Study (EPIDOSO). Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Statistical analyses were carried out using logistic regression analysis, Students t-test, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis. Polymorphic allele frequencies were 0.095 and 0.449 for rs12721026 and rs1729408, respectively. The C-allele of rs1729408 was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.022) and glycated hemoglobin levels (P = 0.020). We also showed that rs12721026 and rs1729408 were in LD. The GC haplotype, which is composed of the G-allele of rs12721026 and the C-allele of rs1729408, was significantly associated with obesity (P = 0.028), with higher glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.006), and fasting glucose (P = 0.0003) compared to the TT haplotype, which includes the wild-type alleles of both polymorphisms. Moreover, we found an association between the TC haplotype and higher HDL levels (P = 0.0039). This is the first time that haplotypes involving these polymorphisms were evaluated. Our results showed that these polymorphisms were involved in the development of obesity and in alterations of lipids and proteins serum levels in a Brazilian population. The present findings might also clarify the role of these polymorphisms and their haplotypes in lipids and proteins metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001) and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 gene methylation and protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate IGFBP-3 protein expression, its correlation with gene promoter methylation pattern in gastric carcinogenesis and with clinicopathological characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
hTERT methylation and expression in gastric cancer.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death worldwide. DNA methylation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis. hTERT seems to be the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase activation, which is responsible for stability and life span. hTERT hypermethylation has been associated with telomerase expression. In the present study, we investigated the promoter methylation status and hTERT protein expression in gastric cancer and normal mucosa samples. One hundred and nine gastric cancer and 53 normal mucosa samples were investigated through methylation-specific PCR. Immunohistochemistry was analysed using peroxidase in 55 gastric cancer and 18 normal gastric mucosa samples. This is the first study evaluating hTERT methylation status in gastric carcinogenesis. We did not observe hTERT protein expression in normal gastric mucosa. Moreover, hTERT expression was observed in 80% of tumours and was associated with gastric cancer (p < 0.0001). Partial methylation was the most frequent pattern in gastric samples, even in normal mucosa. The frequency of specimens presenting hypermethylation was significantly higher in tumours than in normal mucosa samples (p = 0.0002), although the presence of hypermethylated promoter was not associated with a higher frequency of hTERT expression. A low correlation between hTERT protein expression and methylation was verified in gastric cancer samples. There was a clear difference in the frequency of hTERT expression and methylation within tumoral and non-tumoral tissues. Methylation status and telomerase expression may be useful for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and may have an impact on the anti-telomerase strategy for cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
MYC insertions in diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MYC is important in gastric carcinogenesis. A few studies reported MYC translocation or insertion associated with gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Association of PPARalpha gene polymorphisms and lipid serum levels in a Brazilian elderly population.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear transcription factor strictly involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolisms. Thus, PPARalpha gene polymorphisms have been investigated as cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations of L162V and intron 7G>C polymorphisms with common morbidities affecting a Brazilian elderly cohort as well as with lipid and protein serum levels. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and allele frequencies were determined. In addition, we performed the linkage disequilibrium analysis. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, and Students t-test were used. Rare alleles for L162V and intron 7 G>C polymorphisms showed frequencies of 0.047 and 0.199, respectively. Our data showed that these polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium (p=0.0002). Intron 7 G>C polymorphism presented a tendency of association with neoplasia (p=0.053), and C allele was associated with higher HDL (p=0.010), lower triglycerides (p=0.001), and VLDL levels (p=0.003) compared to G allele. These data might suggest a protective role of intron 7 G>C polymorphism in the development of cardiovascular diseases and will help to clarify the importance of PPARalpha polymorphisms as key modulators of lipid metabolism in Brazilian population.
Related JoVE Video
Apolipoprotein A1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hypertension and obesity.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several polymorphisms in apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) gene have been associated with metabolic diseases. Increased transcription efficiency was observed in -75A allele carriers compared to -75G allele homozygotes. +83C allele was associated with higher body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in type II diabetes subjects. -75G/A and +83C/T polymorphisms were analyzed by RFLP-PCR in 334 individuals from a Brazilian elderly cohort. APOA1 polymorphisms were associated with age-related morbidities, as well as with triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, creatinine, urea, albumin, glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose serum levels. Allele frequencies were 0.102 and 0.21, respectively, for -75A and +83T. -75G allele showed significant association with hypertension (P = 0.001). An association between +83C allele and obesity was observed (P = 0.040) and this allele also showed an association with hypertension in the presence of cardiovascular disease (P = 0.047). Moreover, +83T allele was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin values (P = 0.026). To our knowledge, there is no data associating this polymorphism with glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, individuals carrying AT haplotype have lower risk for developing hypertension (P = 0.0002), while GT haplotype carriers present decreased risk to develop obesity comparing to GC haplotype (P = 0.025). APOA1 polymorphisms analysis may be a useful tool to identify risk factors for subjects and families and clarify the physiopathological role of these polymorphisms in age-related diseases, such as hypertension and obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic alterations in diffuse-type gastric cancer as shown by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric adenocarcinoma is a serious public health concern, especially in northern Brazil. Gastric cancer can be subdivided into diffuse and intestinal types. Genetic imbalances in diffuse-type gastric cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed 24 advanced diffuse-type gastric cancer samples from northern Brazil subjects using high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. We found chromosomal alterations in 75% of samples. In cancers with aneusomies, the mean genomic copy number alteration was 6.4. Losses of chromosome regions exceeded gains. The most frequent losses were located at chromosome regions 11q and 18q (five samples for each region), 1pq, 3q, 4q, 5q, 13q, and 14q (four samples), followed by 2pq, 7p, 9pq, 11p, and 16p (three samples). Our results confirm that gastric cancer has a complex pattern of chromosomal alterations that can be due to general chromosomal instability related to the advanced stage of gastric carcinogenesis. Loss of 11q and 18q were the most frequent chromosomal changes in diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma in individuals from northern Brazil. Frequent loss of 11q chromosome region in this gastric cancer may be peculiar among this population.
Related JoVE Video
Low frequency of human papillomavirus detection in prostate tissue from individuals from Northern Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) was evaluated in 65 samples of prostate tumours and six samples of prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia from individuals from Northern Brazil. We used a highly sensitive test, the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, to detect 37 high and low-risk HPV types. In this study, only 3% of tumour samples showed HPV infection. Our findings support the conclusion that, despite the high incidence of HPV infection in the geographic regions studied, HPV was not associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the frequency of HPV detection in prostatic tissue of individuals from Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Establishment and conventional cytogenetic characterization of three gastric cancer cell lines.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent type of cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Only a modest number of gastric carcinoma cell lines have been isolated thus far. Here we describe the establishment and cytogenetic characterization of three new gastric cancer cell lines obtained from primary gastric adenocarcinoma (ACP02 and ACP03) and cancerous ascitic fluid (AGP01) of individuals from northern Brazil. ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 cell lines are presently in the 60th passage. The cell lines grew in a disorganized single layer with some agglomerations and heterogeneous divisions (bipolar and multipolar). All cell lines exhibited a composite karyotype with several clonal chromosome alterations. Trisomy 8 was the most frequent alteration. Chromosome 8 aneusomy was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cell lines also exhibited trisomy 7 and deletion of chromosome arm 17p. These results suggest that, although frequent chromosome alterations are commonly observed due to culture process, the ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 cell lines and primary gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil share genetic alterations, supporting use of these cell lines as a model of gastric carcinogenesis in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated human macrophages treated with Canova.
Homeopathy
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Canova (CA) is a homeopathic medication with immunomodulatory properties, recommended for patients with a depressed immune system. CA has been reported to increase in leukocyte numbers, cellular differentiation and reduction in tumor size.
Related JoVE Video
DRD1 rs4532 polymorphism: a potential pharmacogenomic marker for treatment response to antipsychotic drugs.
Schizophr. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the association of dopamine receptor D1 gene (DRD1) rs4532 polymorphism with antipsychotic treatment response in schizophrenia. We have analyzed 124 patients with schizophrenia, consisting of 59 treatment resistant (TR) and 65 non-TR. We found an association between G-allele and TR schizophrenia (p=0.001; adjusted OR=2.71). Setting the common AA-genotype as reference, the GG-homozygous presented a five-fold risk compared to AA-homozygous (p=0.010; OR=5.56) with an intermediate result for AG-genotype (p=0.030; adjusted OR=2.64). The DRD1 rs4532 polymorphism showed a dose-response gradient with increased risk for treatment resistance and may be a potential pharmacogenetic marker for antipsychotic drug treatment response.
Related JoVE Video
Differential proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The identification of new cancer biomarkers is necessary to reduce the mortality rates through the development of new screening assays and early diagnosis, as well as new target therapies. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric neoplasias of individuals from Northern Brazil. The proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. For the identification of differentially expressed proteins, we used statistical tests with bootstrapping resampling to control the type I error in the multiple comparison analyses. We identified 111 proteins involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The computational analysis revealed several proteins involved in the energy production processes and reinforced the Warburg effect in gastric cancer. ENO1 and HSPB1 expression were further evaluated. ENO1 was selected due to its role in aerobic glycolysis that may contribute to the Warburg effect. Although we observed two up-regulated spots of ENO1 in the proteomic analysis, the mean expression of ENO1 was reduced in gastric tumors by western blot. However, mean ENO1 expression seems to increase in more invasive tumors. This lack of correlation between proteomic and western blot analyses may be due to the presence of other ENO1 spots that present a slightly reduced expression, but with a high impact in the mean protein expression. In neoplasias, HSPB1 is induced by cellular stress to protect cells against apoptosis. In the present study, HSPB1 presented an elevated protein and mRNA expression in a subset of gastric cancer samples. However, no association was observed between HSPB1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Here, we identified several possible biomarkers of gastric cancer in individuals from Northern Brazil. These biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of prognosis and stratification for therapy if validated in larger clinical study sets.
Related JoVE Video
SORL1 and SIRT1 mRNA expression and promoter methylation levels in aging and Alzheimers Disease.
Neurochem. Int.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alzheimers Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. Efforts have been made to understand the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the development of this disease. As SORL1 (sortilin-related receptor) and SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) genes have been linked to AD pathogenesis, we aimed to investigate their mRNA expression and promoter DNA methylation in post mortem brain tissues (entorhinal and auditory cortices and hippocampus) from healthy elderly subjects and AD patients. We also evaluated these levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from young, healthy elderly and AD patients, investigating whether there was an effect of age on these profiles. The comparative CT method by Real Time PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to analyze gene expression and DNA methylation, respectively. SORL1 gene was differently expressed in the peripheral blood leukocytes and might act as a marker of aging in this tissue. Furthermore, we found that SORL1 promoter DNA methylation might act as one of the mechanisms responsible for the differences in expression observed between blood and brain for both healthy elderly and AD patients groups. The impact of these studied genes on AD pathogenesis remains to be better clarified.
Related JoVE Video
hTERT, MYC and TP53 deregulation in gastric preneoplastic lesions.
BMC Gastroenterol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is a serious public health problem in Northern Brazil and in the world due to its high incidence and mortality. Despite the severity of the disease, more research is needed to better understand the molecular events involved in this intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis process. Since precancerous lesions precede intestinal-type gastric cancer, here, we evaluated the hTERT, MYC, and TP53 mRNA and protein expression, as well as TP33 copy number, in gastric preneoplastic lesions.
Related JoVE Video
hTERT and TP53 deregulation in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis in non-human primates.
Clin. Exp. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the high incidence, the molecular events involved in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We previously established an intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis model in Cebus apella, a New World monkey. In the present study, we evaluated hTERT and TP53 mRNA expression, as well as their protein immunoreactivity, in normal mucosa, non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and intestinal-type gastric cancer samples of non-human primates treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea. In addition, we evaluated the number of TP53 copies in these samples. Although hTERT immunoreactivity was only detected in gastric cancer, a continuous increase of hTERT mRNA expression was observed from non-atrophic gastritis to gastric tumors. No sample presented p53 immunoreactivity. However, we also observed a continuous decrease of TP53 mRNA expression during the sequential steps of gastric carcinogenesis. Moreover, loss of TP53 copies was observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer samples. Our study highlights that hTERT and TP53 have a key role in intestinal-type gastric cancer initiation.
Related JoVE Video
Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.
Epigenomics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical implication of 14-3-3 epsilon expression in gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate for the first time the protein and mRNA expression of 14-3-3? in gastric carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Association of interleukin 1? polymorphisms and haplotypes with Alzheimers disease.
J. Neuroimmunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our study aimed to associate IL-1? and IL-1RN polymorphisms with AD disease in comparison with elderly control group from São Paulo - Brazil. We genotyped 199 Alzheimers disease (AD) patients, 165 elderly control and 122 young control samples, concerning VNTR (IL-1RN) and -511C>T and -31T>C (IL-1?) polymorphisms. Our findings revealed that -511C/-31T/2-repetitions VNTR haplotype had a protective effect for AD when compared to EC (p=0.005), whereas -511C/-31C/1-repetition VNTR haplotype was associated as a risk factor for AD (p=0.021). Taken together, we may suggest that there is a relevant role of IL-1 genes cluster in AD pathogenesis in this Brazilian population.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.