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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Obesity and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus: a mendelian randomization study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Data from observational studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) is causally related to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, the relationships may be affected by bias and confounding.
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Integrative post-genome-wide association analysis of CDKN2A and TP53 SNPs and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) in Western countries has increased markedly in recent decades. Although several risk factors have been identified for EA and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), including reflux, Caucasian race, male gender, obesity, and smoking, less is known about the role of inherited genetic variation. Frequent somatic mutations in the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and TP53 were recently reported in EA tumors, while somatic alterations at 9p (CDKN2A) and 17p (TP53) have been implicated as predictors of progression from BE to EA. Motivated by these findings, we used data from a genome-wide association study of 2515 EA cases and 3207 controls to analyze 37 germline single nucleotide polymorphisms at the CDKN2A and TP53 loci. Three CDKN2A polymorphisms were nominally associated (P < 0.05) with reduced risk of EA: rs2518720 C>T [intronic, odds ratio 0.90, P = 0.0121, q = 0.3059], rs3088440 G>A (3'UTR, odds ratio 0.84, P = 0.0186, q = 0.3059), and rs4074785 C>T (intronic, odds ratio 0.85, P = 0.0248, q = 0.3059). None of the TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms reached nominal significance. Two of the CDKN2A variants identified were also associated with reduced risk of progression from BE to EA, when assessed in a prospective cohort of 408 BE patients: rs2518720 (hazard ratio 0.57, P = 0.0095, q = 0.0285) and rs3088440 (hazard ratio 0.34, P = 0.0368, q = 0.0552). In vitro functional studies of rs3088440, a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the seed sequence of a predicted miR-663b binding site, suggested a mechanism whereby the G>A substitution may attenuate miR-663b-mediated repression of the CDKN2A transcript. This study provides the first evidence that germline variation at the CDKN2A locus may influence EA susceptibility.
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Genetic variation in cell cycle regulatory gene AURKA and association with intrinsic breast cancer subtype.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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AURKA is a putative low-penetrance tumor susceptibility gene due to its prominent role in cell cycle regulation and centrosomal function. Germline variation in AURKA was evaluated for association with breast cancer and intrinsic breast cancer subtypes in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case-control study of African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (Cau). Tag and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on AURKA were genotyped in 1946 cases and 1747 controls. In race-stratified analyses adjusted for age and African ancestry, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate SNP associations with breast cancer. In a race-combined analysis with similar adjustment, these associations were also examined by intrinsic breast cancer subtype. Using dominant models, most AURKA SNPs demonstrated no association with breast cancer in the race-stratified analyses. Among AA, rs6092309 showed an inverse association with breast cancer (OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.53-0.90). In the race-combined analyses, rs6099128 had reduced ORs for luminal A (OR?=?0.76, 95% CI?=?0.60-0.95) and basal-like breast cancer (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI?=?0.37-0.80). Rs6092309 showed a similar pattern of association with each subtype. Three SNPs (rs6014711, rs911162, rs1047972) had positive associations with basal-like breast cancer, and ORs reduced or close to 1.00 for other subtypes. Our results suggest inverse associations between some AURKA SNPs and overall breast cancer in AA. We found differential associations by specific subtypes and by race. Replication of these findings in larger AA populations would allow more powerful race-stratified subtype analyses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A genome-wide association study of early-onset breast cancer identifies PFKM as a novel breast cancer gene and supports a common genetic spectrum for breast cancer at any age.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages ? 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470 EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC (P < 4 × 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P < 6 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P < 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer.
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Risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma decreases with height, based on consortium analysis and confirmed by mendelian randomization.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Risks for some cancers increase with height. We investigated the relationship between height and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE).
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Post-diagnosis physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Physical activity (PA) is associated with physiological responses thought to beneficially affect survival after breast cancer diagnosis, yet few studies have considered the entire survivorship experience. Effects of post-diagnosis activity on survival were examined in a cohort of 1,423 women diagnosed with in situ or invasive breast cancer in 1996-1997. Subjects were interviewed soon after diagnosis and again after approximately 5 years to assess breast cancer-related factors, including recreational PA before and after diagnosis. Date and cause of death through 2009 were determined from the National Death Index. Adjusted estimates were obtained using proportional hazards regression and a selection model to account for missing data. Survival was improved among women who were highly active after diagnosis (>9.0 MET h/week) compared to inactive women (0 MET h/week) for all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) (95 % credible interval): 0.33 (0.22, 0.48)] and breast cancer-specific mortality [HR: 0.27 (0.15, 0.46)]. The association of PA with overall mortality appeared stronger in the first 2 years after diagnosis [HR: 0.14 (0.03, 0.44)] compared to 2+ years since diagnosis [HR: 0.37 (0.25, 0.55)]. These findings show that post-diagnosis PA is associated with improved survival among women with breast cancer.
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Particulate air pollution and susceptibility to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis disease in North Carolina: an ecological study.
Int J Environ Health Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), environmental factors may influence disease progression. Ecologic studies conducted in countries outside the USA with high levels of air pollution and PTB have suggested a link between active disease and ambient air pollution. The present investigation is the first to examine the ambient air pollution-PTB association in a country, where air pollution levels are comparatively lower. We used Poisson regression models to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants, PM10 and PM2.5 with rates of PTB in North Carolina residents during 1993-2007. Results suggest a potential association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and PTB disease. In view of the high levels of air pollution and high rates of PTB worldwide, a potential association between ambient air pollution and tuberculosis warrants further study.
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Gastroesophageal reflux in relation to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: a pooled analysis from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have evidenced an association between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). It is unknown to what extent these associations vary by population, age, sex, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, or whether duration and frequency of symptoms interact in predicting risk. The Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) allowed an in-depth assessment of these issues.
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Germline Genetic Contributions to Risk for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma, Barretts Esophagus, and Gastroesophageal Reflux.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is an increasingly common cancer with poor survival. Barretts esophagus (BE) is the main precursor to EA, and every year 0.12% to 0.5% of BE patients progress to EA. BE typically arises on a background of chronic gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), one of the risk factors for EA.
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Imputation method for lifetime exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiologic studies.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Environmental epidemiology, when focused on the life course of exposure to a specific pollutant, requires historical exposure estimates that are difficult to obtain for the full time period due to gaps in the historical record, especially in earlier years. We show that these gaps can be filled by applying multiple imputation methods to a formal risk equation that incorporates lifetime exposure. We also address challenges that arise, including choice of imputation method, potential bias in regression coefficients, and uncertainty in age-at-exposure sensitivities.
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A genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barretts esophagus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with rising incidence and poor survival. Most such cancers arise in a specialized intestinal metaplastic epithelium, which is diagnostic of Barretts esophagus. In a genome-wide association study, we compared esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (n = 2,390) and individuals with precancerous Barretts esophagus (n = 3,175) with 10,120 controls in 2 phases. For the combined case group, we identified three new associations. The first is at 19p13 (rs10419226: P = 3.6 × 10(-10)) in CRTC1 (encoding CREB-regulated transcription coactivator), whose aberrant activation has been associated with oncogenic activity. A second is at 9q22 (rs11789015: P = 1.0 × 10(-9)) in BARX1, which encodes a transcription factor important in esophageal specification. A third is at 3p14 (rs2687201: P = 5.5 × 10(-9)) near the transcription factor FOXP1, which regulates esophageal development. We also refine a previously reported association with Barretts esophagus near the putative tumor suppressor gene FOXF1 at 16q24 and extend our findings to now include esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The mechanisms driving the inverse association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and breast cancer risk are complex. While exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production it may also improve damage repair systems, particularly those that operate on single-strand breaks including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR). Of these repair pathways, the role of MMR in breast carcinogenesis is least investigated. Polymorphisms in MMR or other DNA repair gene variants may modify the association between RPA and breast cancer incidence. We investigated the individual and joint effects of variants in three MMR pathway genes (MSH3, MLH1 and MSH2) on breast cancer occurrence using resources from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. We additionally characterized interactions between RPA and genetic polymorphisms in MMR, BER and NER pathways. We found statistically significant multiplicative interactions (p < 0.05) between MSH2 and MLH1, as well as between postmenopausal RPA and four variants in DNA repair (XPC-Ala499Val, XPF-Arg415Gln, XPG-Asp1104His and MLH1-lle219Val). Significant risk reductions were observed among highly active women with the common genotype for XPC (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.81) and XPF (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87), as well as among active women who carried at least one variant allele in XPG (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77) and MLH1 (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.71). Our data show that women with minor alleles in both MSH2 and MLH1 could be at increased breast cancer risk. RPA may be modified by genes in the DNA repair pathway, and merit further investigation.
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Use of Self-Care and Practitioner-Based Forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine before and after a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Purpose. We examine factors associated with self-care, use of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and their timing in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Methods. Study participants were women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Self-care is defined as the use of multivitamins, single vitamins, botanicals, other dietary supplements, mind-body practices, special diets, support groups, and prayer. Within each modality, study participants were categorized as continuous users (before and after diagnosis), starters (only after diagnosis), quitters (only before diagnosis), or never users. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the main analyses. Results. Of 764 women who provided complete data, 513 (67.2%) initiated a new form of self-care following breast cancer diagnosis. The most popular modalities were those that are ingestible, and they were commonly used in combination. The strongest predictor of continuous use of one type of self-care was continuous use of other types of self-care. Healthy behaviors, including high fruit/vegetable intake and exercise, were more strongly associated with continuously using self-care than starting self-care after diagnosis. Conclusions. Breast cancer diagnosis was associated with subsequent behavioral changes, and the majority of women undertook new forms of self-care after diagnosis. Few women discontinued use of modalities they used prior to diagnosis.
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Nutrient pathways and breast cancer risk: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The relative importance of biochemical pathways has not been previously examined when considering the influence of diet on breast cancer risk. To address this issue, we used interview data from a population-based sample of 1463 breast cancer cases and 1500 controls. Dietary intake was assessed shortly after diagnosis using a 101-item food frequency questionnaire. Age- and energy-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for individual micro- and macronutrients were estimated with logistic regression. Hierarchical modeling was used to account for biologically plausible nutrient pathways (1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, glycemic control, and phytoestrogens). Effect estimates from hierarchical modeling were more precise and plausible compared to those from multivariable models. The strongest relationship observed was for the glycemic control pathway, but confidence intervals (CI) were wide [OR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.62, 1.21)]. Little or no effect was observed for the 1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, and phytoestrogen pathways. Associations were similar when stratified by supplement use. Our approach that emphasizes biochemical pathways, rather than individual nutrients, revealed that breast cancer risk may be more strongly associated with glycemic control factors than those from other pathways considered. Our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for multiple nutrient pathways when examining associations between dietary intake and breast cancer.
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Genetic variation in multiple biologic pathways, flavonoid intake, and breast cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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We previously reported an inverse association between flavonoid intake and breast cancer incidence, which has been confirmed by others, but no studies have considered simultaneously potential interactions of flavonoids with multiple genetic polymorphisms involved in biologically relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and one-carbon metabolism).
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Diet and lifestyle factors and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers: classification tree analysis.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Although risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus (EA), gastric cardia (GC), and other (noncardia) gastric (OG) sites have been identified, little is known about interactions among risk factors. We sought to examine interactions of diet, other lifestyle, and medical factors with risks of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers.
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Exposure to fogger trucks and breast cancer incidence in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project: a case-control study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Few studies have supported an association between breast cancer and DDT, usually assessed with biomarkers that cannot discern timing of exposure, or differentiate between the accumulation of chronic low-dose versus acute high-dose exposures in the past. Previous studies suggest that an association may be evident only among women exposed to DDT during biologically susceptible windows, or among those diagnosed with estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer subtypes. Self-reported acute exposure to a fogger truck, which sprayed DDT prior to 1972, was hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer, particularly among women exposed at a young age or diagnosed with ER+PR+ breast cancer.
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Associations between methylation of paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Cytology-based screening for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) lacks sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) likely to persist or progress from cases likely to resolve. Genome-wide approaches have been used to identify DNA methylation marks associated with CIN persistence or progression. However, associations between DNA methylation marks and CIN or ICC remain weak and inconsistent. Between 2008-2009, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study among 213 Tanzania women with CIN 1/2/3 or ICC. We collected questionnaire data, biopsies, peripheral blood, cervical scrapes, Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV-1 infection status. We assessed PEG3 methylation status by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI 95%) for associations between PEG3 methylation status and CIN or ICC. After adjusting for age, gravidity, hormonal contraceptive use and HPV infection, a 5% increase in PEG3 DNA methylation was associated with increased risk for ICC (OR?=?1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1). HPV infection was associated with a higher risk of CIN1-3 (OR?=?15.7; 95% CI 5.7-48.6) and ICC (OR?=?29.5, 95% CI 6.3-38.4). Infection with high risk HPV was correlated with mean PEG3 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) methylation (r?=?0.34 p<0.0001), while the correlation with low risk HPV infection was weaker (r?=?0.16 p?=?0.047). Although small sample size limits inference, these data support that PEG3 methylation status has potential as a molecular target for inclusion in CIN screening to improve prediction of progression. Impact statement: We present the first evidence that aberrant methylation of the PEG3 DMR is an important co-factor in the development of Invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), especially among women infected with high risk HPV. Our results show that a five percent increase in DNA methylation of PEG3 is associated with a 1.6-fold increase ICC risk. Suggesting PEG3 methylation status may be useful as a molecular marker for CIN screening to improve prediction of cases likely to progress.
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The influence of one-carbon metabolism on gene promoter methylation in a population-based breast cancer study.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Abnormal methylation in gene promoters is a hallmark of the cancer genome; however, factors that may influence promoter methylation have not been well elucidated. As the one-carbon metabolism pathway provides the universal methyl donor for methylation reactions, perturbation of this pathway might influence DNA methylation and, ultimately, affect gene functions. Utilizing approximately 800 breast cancer tumor tissues from a large population-based study, we investigated the relationships between dietary and genetic factors involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and promoter methylation of a panel of 13 breast cancer-related genes. We found that CCND2, HIN1 and CHD1 were the most "dietary sensitive" genes, as methylation of their promoters was associated with intakes of at least two out of the eight dietary methyl factors examined. On the other hand, some micronutrients (i.e., B 2 and B 6) were more "epigenetically active" as their intake levels correlated with promoter methylation status in 3 out of the 13 breast cancer genes evaluated. Both positive (hypermethylation) and inverse (hypomethylation) associations with high micronutrient intake were observed. Unlike what we saw for dietary factors, we did not observe any clear patterns between one-carbon genetic polymorphisms and the promoter methylation status of the genes examined. Our results provide preliminary evidence that one-carbon metabolism may have the capacity to influence the breast cancer epigenome. Given that epigenetic alterations are thought to occur early in cancer development and are potentially reversible, dietary modifications may offer promising venues for cancer intervention and prevention.
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The use of complete-case and multiple imputation-based analyses in molecular epidemiology studies that assess interaction effects.
Epidemiol Perspect Innov
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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In molecular epidemiology studies biospecimen data are collected, often with the purpose of evaluating the synergistic role between a biomarker and another feature on an outcome. Typically, biomarker data are collected on only a proportion of subjects eligible for study, leading to a missing data problem. Missing data methods, however, are not customarily incorporated into analyses. Instead, complete-case (CC) analyses are performed, which can result in biased and inefficient estimates.
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Prognostic significance of gene-specific promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The association between promoter methylation status and survival was investigated in a large cohort of women with breast cancer, participants in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Archived tumor tissues (n = 839) were collected from women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997. Vital status was followed through the end of 2005 with a mean follow-up time of 8 years. Promoter methylation of eight breast cancer-related genes was assessed by MethyLight. The frequencies of methylation for HIN1, RASSF1A, DAPK1, GSTP1, CyclinD2, TWIST, CDH1 and RAR? were 62.9, 85.2, 14.1, 27.8, 19.6, 15.3, 5.8 and 27.6%, respectively. Since survival rates of in situ and invasive breast cancers are substantially different, survival analyses were conducted within 670 invasive cases with complete data on all genes. Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models revealed that GSTP1, TWIST and RAR? methylation was significantly associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality. Methylation of GSTP1 and RAR? was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality. To investigate the relationship between the number of methylated genes and breast cancer-specific mortality, we included previously published MethyLight data on p16 and APC methylation status. Breast cancer-specific mortality increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing number of methylated genes (P (trend) = 0.002), although confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that promoter methylation, particularly for a panel of genes, has the potential to be used as a biomarker for predicting prognosis in breast cancer.
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Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like, 679 luminal A) of 2311 cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case-control study of whites and African Americans. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Genotype odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Haplotype ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using Hapstat. Interactions with waist-hip ratio were evaluated using a multiplicative interaction term. Ancestry was estimated from 144 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and included in models to control for population stratification. Candidate SNPs LEPR K109R (rs1137100) and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were positively associated with luminal A breast cancer, whereas ADIPOQ +45 T/G (rs2241766), ADIPOQ +276 G/T (rs1501299), and LEPR K656N (rs8129183) were not associated with either subtype. Few patterns were observed among tag SNPs, with the exception of 3 LEPR SNPs (rs17412175, rs9436746, and rs9436748) that were in moderate LD and inversely associated with basal-like breast cancer. However, no SNP associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplotypes in LEP and LEPR were associated with both basal-like and luminal A subtypes. There was no evidence of interaction with waist-hip ratio. Data suggest associations between LEPR candidate SNPs and luminal A breast cancer in the CBCS and LEPR intron 2 tag SNPs and basal-like breast cancer. Replication in additional studies where breast cancer subtypes have been defined is necessary to confirm these potential associations.
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Alcohol intake and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis from the BEACON Consortium.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Alcohol intake is a strong and well established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) or adjacent tumours of the oesophagogastric junction (OGJA), remains unclear. Therefore, the association of alcohol intake with OSCC, OA, and OGJA was determined in nine case-control studies and two cohort studies of the Barretts Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON).
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Possible association between a genetic polymorphism at 8q24 and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Over recent years, genome-wide association studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic susceptibility to sporadic cancer. In this study, we assessed the association between upper gastrointestinal cancer risk and four genome-wide association studies-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), implicated earlier in prostate and colorectal cancer susceptibility. Genotyping for each SNP was performed in two independent Caucasian population-based case-control studies. The first study comprised 290 gastric cancer cases and 374 controls. The second study included 185 noncardia gastric cancers, 123 cardia cancers, 158 oesophageal cancers and 209 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding variables. An inverse association was observed between the SNP rs1447295, located at 8q24, and gastric cancer risk in the first study population (OR=0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.97). A positive association was observed for the same SNP and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the second study population (OR=7.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-49.98). No significant associations were detected in either study for the three remaining SNPs (rs6983297, rs10505477 and rs719725). Our data represent novel findings on heritable susceptibility to gastric and oesophageal cancer and warrant validation in additional populations.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use reduces risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in a pooled analysis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Regular use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been reported to reduce risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA). However, individual studies have been too small to accurately assess the effects of medication type, frequency, or duration of use. We performed a pooled analysis to investigate these associations.
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Risk factors by molecular subtypes of breast cancer across a population-based study of women 56 years or younger.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Differences in incidence, prognosis, and treatment response suggest gene expression patterns may discern breast cancer subtypes with unique risk factor profiles; however, previous results were based predominantly on older women. In this study, we examined similar relationships in women ? 56 years, classified by immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 for 890 breast cancer cases and 3,432 frequency-matched population-based controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tumor subtypes were calculated using multivariate polytomous regression models. A total of 455 (51.1%) tumors were considered luminal A, 72 (8.1%) luminal B, 117 (13.1%) non-luminal HER-2/neu+, and 246 (27.6%) triple negative. Triple negative tumors were associated with breast feeding duration (per 6 months: OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90). Among premenopausal women, increasing body size was more strongly associated with luminal B (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.77) and triple negative tumors (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.22-2.28). A history of benign breast disease was associated only with increased risk of luminal A tumors (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.50). A family history of breast cancer was a risk factor for luminal A tumors (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.70) regardless of age, and triple negative tumors with higher risks for women <45 (OR = 5.02, 95% CI 2.82-8.92; P for age interaction = 0.005). We found that little-to-no breastfeeding and high BMI were associated with increased risk of triple negative breast cancer. That some risk factors differ by molecular subtypes suggests etiologic heterogeneity in breast carcinogenesis among young women.
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Replication and functional genomic analyses of the breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1 generalize its importance in women of chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive association for rs2046210 and breast cancer risk in Chinese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.22-1.38) and 1.64 (1.50-1.80) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 1.54 × 10?³?], Japanese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.13-1.52) and 1.37 (1.06-1.76), P for trend = 2.51 × 10??], and European-ancestry American women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.18 (1.04-1.34), P for trend = 0.0069]. No association with this SNP, however, was observed in African American women [ORs (95% CI) = 0.81 (0.63-1.06) and 0.85 (0.65-1.11) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 0.4027]. In vitro functional genomic studies identified a putative functional variant, rs6913578. This SNP is 1,440 bp downstream of rs2046210 and is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2046210 in Chinese (r(2) = 0.91) and European-ancestry (r² = 0.83) populations, but not in Africans (r² = 0.57). SNP rs6913578 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese and European-ancestry American women. After adjusting for rs2046210, the association of rs6913578 with breast cancer risk in African Americans approached borderline significance. Results from this large consortium study confirmed the association of rs2046210 with breast cancer risk among women of Chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry. This association may be explained in part by a putatively functional variant (rs6913578) identified in the region.
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ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 polymorphisms in relation to serum adiponectin levels and BMI in black and white women.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few studies have included black participants. Using cross-sectional interview data and blood samples collected from 990 black and 977 white women enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) from 2002 to 2006, we examined 25 SNPs in ADIPOQ, 19 in ADIPOR1, and 27 in ADIPOR2 in relation to serum adiponectin levels and BMI using race-stratified linear regression models adjusted for age and percentage African ancestry. SNP rs17366568 in ADIPOQ was significantly associated with serum adiponectin levels in white women only (adjusted mean adiponectin levels = 15.9 for G/G genotype, 13.7 for A/G, and 9.3 for A/A, P = 0.00036). No other SNPs were associated with adiponectin or BMI among blacks or whites. Because adiponectin levels as well as obesity are highly heritable and vary by race but associations with polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genes have been few in this and other studies, future work including large populations from diverse racial groups is needed to detect additional genetic variants that influence adiponectin and BMI.
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Genetic variation in the prostate stem cell antigen gene and upper gastrointestinal cancer in white individuals.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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An association between gastric cancer and the rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism in the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene has been reported for several Asian populations. We set out to determine whether such an association exists in white individuals.
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Cigarette smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: a pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Previous studies that showed an association between smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction were limited in their ability to assess differences by tumor site, sex, dose-response, and duration of cigarette smoking cessation.
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A Bayesian proportional hazards regression model with non-ignorably missing time-varying covariates.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Missing covariate data are common in observational studies of time to an event, especially when covariates are repeatedly measured over time. Failure to account for the missing data can lead to bias or loss of efficiency, especially when the data are non-ignorably missing. Previous work has focused on the case of fixed covariates rather than those that are repeatedly measured over the follow-up period, hence, here we present a selection model that allows for proportional hazards regression with time-varying covariates when some covariates may be non-ignorably missing. We develop a fully Bayesian model and obtain posterior estimates of the parameters via the Gibbs sampler in WinBUGS. We illustrate our model with an analysis of post-diagnosis weight change and survival after breast cancer diagnosis in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project follow-up study. Our results indicate that post-diagnosis weight gain is associated with lower all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival among women diagnosed with new primary breast cancer. Our sensitivity analysis showed only slight differences between models with different assumptions on the missing data mechanism yet the complete-case analysis yielded markedly different results.
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Serum adiponectin in relation to body mass index and other correlates in black and white women.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2010
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Adiponectin is a promising biomarker linking obesity and disease risk; however, limited data are available regarding adiponectin in black women among whom obesity is highly prevalent.
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Multiple genetic variants in telomere pathway genes and breast cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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To explore the etiologic role of genetic variants in telomere pathway genes and breast cancer risk.
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Common genetic variations in the LEP and LEPR genes, obesity and breast cancer incidence and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Obesity is a strong risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women and adverse prognostic indicator regardless of menopausal status. Leptin is an important regulator of adipose tissue mass and has been associated with tumor cell growth. Leptin exerts its effects through interaction with the leptin receptor (LEPR). We investigated whether genetic variations in the leptin (LEP) and LEPR genes are associated with risk of breast cancer, or once diagnosed, with survival. The polymorphisms LEP G-2548A and LEPR Q223R were characterized in population-based study consisting of mostly European-American women. The study examined 1,065 women diagnosed with first, primary invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997. Controls were 1,108 women frequency matched to the cases by 5-year age group. A modest increase in risk of developing breast cancer was associated with the LEP -2548AA genotype when compared to the LEP -2548GG genotype (age-adjusted OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.01-1.66). This association was stronger among postmenopausal women who were obese (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.95-3.64) although the interaction was of borderline statistical significance (P = 0.07). We found no evidence of an association with polymorphisms of either LEP or LEPR in relation to all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality among women with breast cancer (mean follow-up time = 66.7 months). The effects of these genotypes on breast cancer risk and mortality did not vary significantly when stratified by menopausal status. In summary, our results show that a common variant in LEP may be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer supporting the hypothesis that leptin is involved in breast carcinogenesis.
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BRCA1 promoter methylation is associated with increased mortality among women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Promoter-CpG island hypermethylation has been proposed as an alternative mechanism to inactivate BRCA1 in the breast where somatic mutations of BRCA1 are rare. To better understand breast cancer etiology and progression, we explored the association between BRCA1 promoter methylation status and prognostic factors as well as survival among women with breast cancer. Promoter methylation of BRCA1 was assessed in 851 archived tumor tissues collected from a population-based study of women diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997, and who were followed for vital status through the end of 2002. About 59% of the tumors were methylated at the promoter of BRCA1. The BRCA1 promoter methylation was more frequent in invasive cancers (P = 0.02) and among premenopausal cases (P = 0.05). BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (age-adjusted HR 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.78) and all-cause mortality (age-adjusted HR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.02-2.18). Neither dietary methyl intakes in the year prior to the baseline interview nor the functional polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism were associated with BRCA1 methylation status. Our study is the first epidemiological investigation on the prognostic value of BRCA1 promoter methylation in a large population-based cohort of breast cancer patients. Our results indicate that BRCA1 promoter methylation is an important factor to consider in predicting breast cancer survival.
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High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Choline and betaine provide methyl groups for one-carbon metabolism. Humans obtain these nutrients from a wide range of foods. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor, choline. Although animal studies have implied a causal relationship between choline deficiency and carcinogenesis, the role of these two nutrients in human carcinogenesis and tumor progression is not well understood. We investigated the associations of dietary intakes of choline and betaine and breast cancer risk and mortality in the population-based Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Among the 1508 case-group women, 308 (20.2%) deaths occurred, among whom 164 (53.2%) died of breast cancer by December 31, 2005. There was an indication that a higher intake of free choline was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer (P(trend)=0.04). Higher intakes of betaine, phosphocholine, and free choline were associated with reduced all-cause as well as breast cancer-specific mortality in a dose-dependent fashion. We also explored associations of polymorphisms of three key choline- and betaine-metabolizing genes and breast cancer mortality. The betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase gene (BHMT) rs3733890 polymorphism was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.97). Our study supports the important roles of choline and betaine in breast carcinogenesis. It suggests that high intake of these nutrients may be a promising strategy to prevent the development of breast cancer and to reduce its mortality.
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IGF2R polymorphisms and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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The mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) encodes a protein that plays a critical role in tumor suppression, in part by modulating bioavailability of a potent mitogen, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2). We tested the hypothesis that the common nonsynonymous genetic variants in M6P/IGF2R c.901C > G (Leu > Val) in exon 6 and c.5002G > A (Gly > Arg) in exon 34 are associated with risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Study participants in this population-based study comprise 197 controls and 182 cases, including 105 with esophageal-gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (EGA), 57 with noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma and 20 with esophageal squamous (ES) cell carcinoma. Among white males, odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in relation to carrying at least 1 c.901C > G allele for EGA [OR = 1.9; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.0-3.6] and noncardia gastric cancer (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.2-5.5), but not ES. Exploratory subgroup analyses suggested that associations between EGA and this variant were stronger among irregular or nonusers of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.2) and cigarette smokers (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.2). An association between carrying the c.5002G > A genotype and EGA was not evident. These findings suggest that nonsynonymous polymorphisms in M6P/IGF2R may contribute to the risks of EGA and noncardia adenocarcinomas. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings.
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Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures and p53 mutations in breast tumors.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Previous studies have suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be associated with breast cancer. However, the carcinogenicity of PAHs on the human breast remains unclear. Certain carcinogens may be associated with specific mutation patterns in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, thereby contributing information about disease etiology.Objectives: We hypothesized that associations of PAH-related exposures with breast cancer would differ according to tumor p53 mutation status, effect, type, and number.
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Gene promoter methylation is associated with increased mortality among women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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To better understand breast cancer etiology and progression, we explored the association between promoter methylation status of three breast cancer-related genes (BRCA1, APC, and p16) and survival in a large cohort of women with breast cancer. About 800 archived tumor tissues were collected from women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997. The vital status of the participants was followed through the end of year 2005 with a mean follow-up time of 8.0 years. Promoter methylation was assessed by methylation-specific PCR (for BRCA1) and MethyLight (for APC and p16). The association of promoter methylation and breast cancer mortality was evaluated by Cox-proportional hazards models. Methylated promoters were found in 59.0, 48.4, and 3.6% of the tumor samples for BRCA1, APC, and p16, respectively. Breast cancer-specific mortality was strongly associated with promoter methylation of p16 [HR and 95% CI: 3.53 (1.83-6.78)], whereas the associations with of BRCA1 and APC were less pronounced [HR and 95% CI: 1.81 (1.18-2.78) and 1.46 (0.98-2.17), respectively]. Similar associations were observed with all-cause mortality. As the number of methylated genes increased, the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality also increased in a dose-dependent manner (P, trend = 0.01). Importantly, even with our results stratified by hormone receptor status, promoter methylation of the three genes remained predictive of mortality. Our results suggest that promoter methylation could be promising epigenetic markers to be considered for breast cancer survival.
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Mutations in p53, p53 protein overexpression and breast cancer survival.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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p53 is an important tumour suppressor gene that encodes p53 protein, a molecule involved in cell cycle regulation and has been inconsistently linked to breast cancer survival. Using archived tumour tissue from a population-based sample of 859 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, we determined p53 mutations in exons 5-8 and p53 protein overexpression. We examined the association of p53 mutations with overexpression and selected tumour clinical parameters. We assessed whether either p53 marker was associated with survival through 2002, adjusting for other tumour markers and prognostic factors. The prevalence of protein overexpression in the tumour was 36% (307/859) and of any p53 mutation was 15% (128/859). p53 overexpression was positively associated with the presence of any p53 mutation (odds ratio [OR]= 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.5-3.2), particularly missense mutations (ER = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.6-13.7). Negative oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status was positively associated with both p53 protein overexpression (= 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7-4.0) and p53 mutation (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.4-6.5). Any p53 mutation and missense mutations, but not p53 protein overexpression, were associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8; HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4; HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4, respectively); nonsense mutations were associated only with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.1-8.1). These associations however did not remain after adjusting for ER/PR status. Thus, in this population-based cohort of women with breast cancer, although p53 protein overexpression and p53 mutations were associated with each other, neither independently impacted breast cancer-specific or all-causing mortality, after considering ER/PR status.
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Cigarette smoking, body mass index, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers by P53 overexpression.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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A number of risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers have emerged, yet little is known whether risk factors map to molecular tumor markers such as overexpression of the tumor suppressor TP53. Using a US multicenter, population-based case-control study (170 cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 147 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, 220 non-cardia gastric adenocarcinomas, and 112 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas), we examined whether the risk associated with cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use varied by P53 overexpression. We defined P53 overexpression through immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded tumor tissues, using cutpoints based on percent of cells positive. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess differences between each case group (defined by tumor subtype and P53 expression) and the control group by risk factors. The proportion of cases overexpressing P53 by tumor subtype was 72% for esophageal adenocarcinoma, 69% for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, 52% for non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and 67% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. For most tumor subtypes, we found little difference in risk factors by tumor P53 overexpression. For non-cardia gastric cancer however, an association with cigarette smoking was suggested for tumors that do not overexpress P53, whereas larger BMI was related to adenocarcinomas that overexpress P53 versus no overexpression. Overall, this study did not find a clear relationship between P53 protein overexpression and the known risk factors for subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers. Further research on these tumors is needed to identify molecular markers associated with variations in the risk factor profiles.
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Prevalence and predictors of antioxidant supplement use during breast cancer treatment: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Although many patients take antioxidant dietary supplements during breast cancer treatment, the benefits of such supplementation are unproven. The authors of this report analyzed the prevalence of and factors associated with antioxidant supplement use during breast cancer (BC) treatment among women who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.
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Association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Vitamin D has been associated with decreased risk of several cancers. In experimental studies, vitamin D has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce differentiation and apoptosis in normal and malignant breast cells. Using a population-based case-control study on Long Island, New York, we examined the association of breast cancer with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels, a measure of vitamin D body stores. In-person interviews and blood specimens were obtained from 1,026 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in 1996 to 1997 and 1,075 population-based controls. Plasma 25-OHD was measured in batched, archived specimens by Diasorin RIA. The mean (SD) plasma 25-OHD concentration was 27.1 (13.0) and 29.7 (15.1) ng/mL in the cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.0001). Plasma 25-OHD was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in a concentration-dependent fashion (P(trend) = 0.002). Compared with women with vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD, <20 ng/mL), levels above 40 ng/mL were associated with decreased breast cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.78). The reduction in risk was greater among postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.83), and the effect did not vary according to tumor hormone receptor status. In summary, these results add to a growing body of evidence that adequate vitamin D stores may prevent breast cancer development. Whereas circulating 25-OHD levels of >32 ng/mL are associated with normal bone mineral metabolism, our data suggest that the optimal level for breast cancer prevention is >or=40 ng/mL. Well-designed clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation is effective for breast cancer chemoprevention.
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PAH-DNA adducts, cigarette smoking, GST polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may increase breast cancer risk, and the association may be modified by inherited differences in deactivation of PAH intermediates by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Few breast cancer studies have investigated the joint effects of multiple GSTs and a PAH biomarker.
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CD14-159C/T and TLR9-1237T/C polymorphisms are not associated with gastric cancer risk in Caucasian populations.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Host genetic factors play an important role in modifying the risk of human disease, including cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, with increasing interest in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and the impact of genetic polymorphisms in these systems. The CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms have previously been shown to be associated with various inflammatory conditions including Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Caucasian populations. In this study, we assessed the association of these two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms with gastric cancer in two independent Caucasian population-based case-control studies of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer, initially in 312 noncardia gastric carcinoma cases and 419 controls and then in 184 noncardia gastric carcinomas, 123 cardia carcinomas, 159 esophageal cancers, and 211 frequency-matched controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding factors. No significant association was found between the CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms and increased risk of gastric cancer. Neither single nucleotide polymorphism has been assessed in a Caucasian gastric cancer case-control study before; although the CD14-159C/T polymorphism has been reported to show no apparent association with H. pylori-related gastric malignancy in a Taiwanese Chinese population. In conclusion, although our earlier preliminary studies suggested that the CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms increase the risk of precancerous outcomes, they do not seem to increase the risk of gastric cancer itself. This discrepancy merits further examination.
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Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1,434 cases and 1,440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, which included 11 items pertaining to consumption of sweets (sweet beverages, added sugars, and various desserts) in the previous year. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we estimated the association between consumption of sweets and breast cancer. Consumption of a food grouping that included dessert foods, sweet beverages, and added sugars was positively associated with breast cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to the lowest quartile: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.61]. The OR was slightly higher when only dessert foods were considered (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.23-1.96). The association with desserts was stronger among pre-menopausal women (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.32-3.04) than post-menopausal women (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07-1.83), although the interaction with menopause was not statistically significant. Our study indicates that frequent consumption of sweets, particularly desserts, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These results are consistent with other studies that implicate insulin-related factors in breast carcinogenesis.
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Telomere length, oxidative damage, antioxidants and breast cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Telomeres play a critical role in maintaining the integrity and stability of the genome, and are susceptible to oxidative damage after telomere shortening to a critical length. In the present study, we explored the role of white blood cell DNA telomere length on breast cancer risk, and examined whether urinary 15-F(2)-isoprostanes (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) or dietary antioxidant intake modified the relationship between telomere length and breast cancer risk. A population-based case-control study-the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project-was conducted among 1,067 cases and 1,110 controls. Telomere length was assessed by quantitative PCR. Overall, the mean levels of telomere length (T/S ratio), 15-F(2t)-IsoP and 8-oxodG were not significantly different between cases and controls. Among premenopausal women only, carrying shorter telomeres (Q3 and Q4), as compared with the longest (Q1), was associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk. Age-adjusted OR and 95% CI were 1.71 (1.10-2.67) and 1.61 (1.05-2.45). The 5-F(2t)-IsoP and 8-oxodG biomarkers did not modify the telomere-breast cancer association. A moderate increase in breast cancer risk was observed among women with the shortest telomeres (Q4) and lower dietary and supplemental intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C or E intake [OR (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.08-2.03), 1.39 (1.01-1.92) and 1.57 (1.14-2.18), respectively], although the trend test exhibited statistical significance only within the lower vitamin E intake subgroup (p(trend) = 0.01). These results provided the strongest evidence to date that breast cancer risk may be affected by telomere length among premenopausal women or women with low dietary intake of antioxidants or antioxidant supplements.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to the National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment.
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Antioxidant intake and pancreatic cancer risk: the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study.
Cancer
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Oxidative stress causes damage to many components of human cells (ie, proteins, lipids, and DNA) and is involved in carcinogenesis. Nutrients with antioxidant properties may protect against oxidative stress. In this study, the authors examined the intake of antioxidants from diet and supplements in relation to pancreatic cancer risk among participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study.
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Types of fish consumed and fish preparation methods in relation to pancreatic cancer incidence: the VITAL Cohort Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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The associations of types of fish and fish preparation methods with pancreatic cancer risk remain unknown. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study in western Washington State among 66,616 adults, aged 50-76 years, who participated in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort study. Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Pancreatic cancer cases were identified by linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. During an average follow-up of 6.8 years, 151 participants developed pancreatic cancer (adenocarcinoma). Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and nonfried fish intake were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer incidence. When the highest and lowest tertiles of exposure were compared, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.98) (P(trend) = 0.08) for LC-PUFAs and 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.88) (P(trend) = 0.045) for nonfried fish. Docosahexaenoic acid showed a greater inverse association with pancreatic cancer than eicosapentaenoic acid. No statistically significant associations were observed with fried fish and shellfish consumption. The potential health impact of fish consumption may depend on the types of fish consumed and fish preparation methods. LC-PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, and nonfried fish, but not shellfish or fried fish, may be beneficial in the primary prevention of pancreatic cancer.
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Body mass index in relation to oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: a pooled analysis from the International BEACON Consortium.
Int J Epidemiol
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Previous studies suggest an association between obesity and oesophageal (OA) and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas (OGJA). However, these studies have been limited in their ability to assess whether the effects of obesity vary by gender or by the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD) symptoms.
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Polymorphisms in oxidative stress genes, physical activity, and breast cancer risk.
Cancer Causes Control
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The mechanisms driving the physical activity-breast cancer association are unclear. Exercise both increases reactive oxygen species production, which may transform normal epithelium to a malignant phenotype, and enhances antioxidant capacity, which could protect against subsequent oxidative insult. Given the paradoxical effects of physical activity, the oxidative stress pathway is of interest. Genetic variation in CAT or antioxidant-related polymorphisms may mediate the physical activity-breast cancer association.
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Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barretts esophagus.
Zhan Su, Laura J Gay, Amy Strange, Claire Palles, Gavin Band, David C Whiteman, Francesco Lescai, Cordelia Langford, Manoj Nanji, Sarah Edkins, Anouk van der Winkel, David Levine, Peter Sasieni, Celine Bellenguez, Kimberley Howarth, Colin Freeman, Nigel Trudgill, Art T Tucker, Matti Pirinen, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Luc J W van der Laan, Ernst J Kuipers, Joost P H Drenth, Wilbert H Peters, John V Reynolds, Dermot P Kelleher, Ross McManus, Heike Grabsch, Hans Prenen, Raf Bisschops, Kausila Krishnadath, Peter D Siersema, Jantine W P M van Baal, Mark Middleton, Russell Petty, Richard Gillies, Nicola Burch, Pradeep Bhandari, Stuart Paterson, Cathryn Edwards, Ian Penman, Kishor Vaidya, Yeng Ang, Iain Murray, Praful Patel, Weimin Ye, Paul Mullins, Anna H Wu, Nigel C Bird, Helen Dallal, Nicholas J Shaheen, Liam J Murray, Konrad Koss, Leslie Bernstein, Yvonne Romero, Laura J Hardie, Rui Zhang, Helen Winter, Douglas A Corley, Simon Panter, Harvey A Risch, Brian J Reid, Ian Sargeant, Marilie D Gammon, Howard Smart, Anjan Dhar, Hugh McMurtry, Haythem Ali, Geoffrey Liu, Alan G Casson, Wong-Ho Chow, Matt Rutter, Ashref Tawil, Danielle Morris, Chuka Nwokolo, Peter Isaacs, Colin Rodgers, Krish Ragunath, Chris MacDonald, Chris Haigh, David Monk, Gareth Davies, Saj Wajed, David Johnston, Michael Gibbons, Sue Cullen, Nicholas Church, Ruth Langley, Michael Griffin, Derek Alderson, Panos Deloukas, Sarah E Hunt, Emma Gray, Serge Dronov, Simon C Potter, Avazeh Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Mark Anderson, Claire Brooks, Jenefer M Blackwell, Elvira Bramon, Matthew A Brown, Juan P Casas, Aiden Corvin, Audrey Duncanson, Hugh S Markus, Christopher G Mathew, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Plomin, Anna Rautanen, Stephen J Sawcer, Richard C Trembath, Ananth C Viswanathan, Nicholas Wood, Gosia Trynka, Cisca Wijmenga, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Paul Atherfold, Anna M Nicholson, Nichola L Gellatly, Deborah Glancy, Sheldon C Cooper, David Cunningham, Tore Lind, Julie Hapeshi, David Ferry, Barrie Rathbone, Julia Brown, Sharon Love, Stephen Attwood, Stuart MacGregor, Peter Watson, Scott Sanders, Weronica Ek, Rebecca F Harrison, Paul Moayyedi, John de Caestecker, Hugh Barr, Elia Stupka, Thomas L Vaughan, Leena Peltonen, Chris C A Spencer, Ian Tomlinson, Peter Donnelly, Janusz A Z Jankowski, .
Nat. Genet.
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Barretts esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barretts esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in the discovery stage and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication stage. Variants at two loci were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10(-9); odds ratio (OR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-1.28), within the major histocompatibility complex locus, and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10(-10); OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.10-1.19), for which the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that many common variants of small effect contribute to genetic susceptibility to Barretts esophagus and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barretts esophagus.
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Genetic variation in C20orf54, PLCE1 and MUC1 and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in Caucasian populations.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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Recently, two large genome-wide association studies, conducted in Chinese populations, have reported associations between upper gastrointestinal cancer and the rs2274223, rs13042395 and rs4072037 polymorphisms in PLCE1, C20orf54 and MUC1, respectively. We aimed to determine whether similar associations existed for Caucasian populations. We genotyped two population-based, case-control studies of upper gastrointestinal cancer; the first study included 290 gastric cancer (GC) cases and 376 controls and the second study included 306 GC cases, 107 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cancer cases, 52 oesphageal squamous cell cancer cases and 211 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic models and adjusted for confounding variables. The rs4072037 polymorphism in MUC1 was associated with a reduced risk of GC of intestinal histological type (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) and a reduced risk of oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-1.0), but not oesphageal adenocarcinoma. Similarly, rs2274223 in PLCE1 was associated with a reduced risk of oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-1.0), but not oesphageal adenocarcinoma. We observed no association between rs13042395 in Corf54 and the risk of gastric or oesphageal cancer in either of the two studies. Our findings for rs4072037 and the risk of GC are in agreement with one previous report for a Caucasian population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between rs2274223 and rs4072037 and the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Caucasian population.
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Fat or fit: the joint effects of physical activity, weight gain, and body size on breast cancer risk.
Cancer
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Although physical activity reduces breast cancer risk, issues critical to providing clear public health messages remain to be elucidated. These include the minimum duration and intensity necessary for risk reduction and the optimal time period for occurrence, as well as subgroup effects, particularly with regard to tumor heterogeneity and body size.
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The association of diabetes with breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.
Cancer Causes Control
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Diabetes has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer in a number of epidemiologic studies, but its effects on survival among women diagnosed with breast cancer have been examined less frequently. Importantly, prior investigations have rarely considered the influence of factors associated with diabetes such as obesity, age at diabetes diagnosis, duration of diabetes, or diabetes treatments.
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Genetic polymorphisms in telomere pathway genes, telomere length, and breast cancer survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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The impact of genetic variants in telomere pathway genes on telomere length and breast cancer survival remains unclear. We hypothesized that telomere length and genetic variants of telomere pathway genes are associated with survival among breast cancer patients. A population-based cohort study of 1,026 women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer was conducted to examine telomere length and 52 genetic variants of 9 telomere pathway genes. Adjusted Cox regression analysis was employed to examine associations between telomere length, genetic variants and all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Longer telomere length was significantly correlated with all-cause mortality in the subgroup with HER-2/neu negative tumors (HR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.12-3.22). Carrying the PINX1-33 (rs2277130) G-allele was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.98). Three SNPs (TERF2-03 rs35439397, TERT-14 rs2853677, and TERT-67 rs2853669) were significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality. A similar reduced trend for breast cancer-specific mortality was observed for carrying the TERT-14 (rs2853677) T-allele (HR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.84), while carrying the POT1-18 (rs1034794) T-allele significantly increased breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.19). However, none of the associations remained significant after correction for multiple tests. A significant dose-response effect was observed with increased number of unfavorable alleles/genotypes (PINX1-33 G-allele, POT1-18 T-allele, TERF2-03 GG, TERT-14 CC, and TERT-67 TT genotypes) and decreased survival. These data suggest that unfavorable genetic variants in telomere pathway genes may help to predict breast cancer survival.
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The importance of exposure rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barretts Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol
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Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration.
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DNA methylation in peripheral blood measured by LUMA is associated with breast cancer in a population-based study.
FASEB J.
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Our purpose was to identify epigenetic markers of breast cancer risk, which can be reliably measured in peripheral blood and are amenable for large population screening. We used 2 independent assays, luminometric methylation assay (LUMA) and long interspersed elements-1 (LINE-1) to measure "global methylation content" in peripheral blood DNA from a well-characterized population-based case-control study. We examined associations between methylation levels and breast cancer risk among 1055 cases and 1101 controls and potential influences of 1-carbon metabolism on global methylation. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of LUMA methylation, those in the highest quintile had a 2.41-fold increased risk of breast cancer (95% confidence interval: 1.83-3.16; P, trend<0.0001). The association did not vary by other key tumor characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Consistent with LUMA findings, genome-wide methylation profiling of a subset of samples revealed greater promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer case participants (P=0.04); higher LUMA was associated with higher promoter methylation in the controls (P=0.05). LUMA levels were also associated with functional sodium nitroprusside in key 1-carbon metabolizing genes, MTHFR C677T (P=0.001) and MTRR A66G (P=0.018). LINE-1 methylation was associated with neither breast cancer risk nor 1-carbon metabolism. Our results show that global promoter hypermethylation measured in peripheral blood was associated with breast cancer risk.
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Postdiagnosis change in bodyweight and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.
Epidemiology
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Weight gain after diagnosis is common among women with breast cancer, yet results have been inconsistent among the few studies examining its effects on survival.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.