JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described.
Related JoVE Video
Pre- to post-diagnosis weight change and associations with physical functional limitations in breast cancer survivors.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated pre- to post-diagnosis weight change and functional limitations in a cohort of breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Race and breast cancer survival by intrinsic subtype based on PAM50 gene expression.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate whether differences in PAM50 breast cancer (BC) intrinsic (Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal-like, and HER2-enriched) subtypes help explain the Black-White BC survival disparity. Utilizing a stratified case-cohort design, this study included 1,635 women from the Pathways and Life After Cancer Epidemiology cohorts, selecting women with tumors based upon IHC classification, recurrences, and deaths.One millimeter punches were obtained from tumor tissue, and expression of the PAM50 genes for molecular subtype was determined by RT-qPCR of extracted RNA. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between race and BC outcomes, adjusted for PAM50 BC subtype. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Black women had a higher prevalence of the Basal-like BC subtype. Adjusted for potential confounding variables and disease characteristics at diagnosis, Black women had higher risks of recurrence (HR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.06-2.57) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.02-2.86) than White women, but adjusting further for subtype did not attenuate survival disparities. By contrast, Hispanic women had a lower risk of recurrence (HR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.96) than Whites. Among those with the Basal-like subtype, Black women had a similar recurrence risk as women in other race groups but a higher recurrence risk for all other subtypes. Hispanic women had a lower recurrence risk within each subtype, though associations were not significant, given limited power. Although Black women had a higher risk of the Basal-like subtype, which has poor prognosis, this did not explain the Black-White BC survival disparity.
Related JoVE Video
Intrinsic subtypes from the PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer survivor cohort: prognostication of short- and long-term outcomes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The PAM50, a gene expression assay to categorize breast tumors into intrinsic subtypes, has not been previously used to examine short- and long-term prognostication in a population-based cohort where treatment patterns and time of initial follow-up vary.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity and mortality after breast cancer by race/ethnicity: the california breast cancer survivorship consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model-estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ?40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI-mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable consumption and breast cancer outcomes: a report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from U.S. and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I-III invasive breast cancer (1990-2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months postdiagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95% CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference = lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93-1.25), 1.01 (0.87-1.18), and 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for recurrence (P(trend) = 0.34) and 1.01 (0.88-1.15), 0.97 (0.84-1.11), and 0.99 (0.86-1.13) for total mortality (P(trend) = 0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by estrogen receptor status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Postdiagnosis supplement use and breast cancer prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis is common, but little is known about long-term effects on recurrence and survival. We examined postdiagnosis supplement use and risk of death or recurrence in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of four cohorts of 12,019 breast cancer survivors from the United States and China. Post-treatment supplement use (vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and multivitamins) was assessed 1-5 years postdiagnosis. Associations with risk of recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, or total mortality were analyzed in Cox proportional hazards models separately by cohort. Individual cohort results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Interactions with smoking, treatment, and hormonal status were examined. In multivariate models, vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (RR: 0.88; 95 % CI 0.79-0.99), and vitamin C with decreased risk of death (RR: 0.81; 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). However, when supplements were mutually adjusted, all associations were attenuated. There were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer mortality. The use of antioxidant supplements (multivitamins, vitamin C, or E) was not associated with recurrence, but was associated with a 16 % decreased risk of death (95 % CI 0.72-0.99). In addition, vitamin D was associated with decreased risk of recurrence among ER positive, but not ER negative tumors (p-interaction = 0.01). In this large consortium of breast cancer survivors, post-treatment use of vitamin supplements was not associated with increased risk of recurrence or death. Post-treatment use of antioxidant supplements was associated with improved survival, but the associations with individual supplement were difficult to determine. Stratification by ER status and considering antioxidants as a group may be more clinically relevant when evaluating associations with cancer risk and mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Patient-physician interaction and quality of life in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have explored how patient-physician interactions influence patients quality of life (QOL). In a prospective cohort study of 1,855 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program from 2006 to 2011, we examined associations between patient-physician interactions during cancer treatment and QOL, overall and by racial/ethnic group. Participants completed the interpersonal processes of care (IPC) survey at approximately 8 months post-diagnosis to assess specific domains of the patient-physician interaction during the months after cancer diagnosis. Domains included: compassion, elicited concerns, explained results, decided together, lack of clarity, discrimination due to race/ethnicity, and disrespectful office staff. The functional assessment of cancer therapy-breast cancer was completed concurrently to measure QOL. Linear regression models examined the association of IPC with QOL, first adjusting for patient covariates including age, race, clinical factors, and psychosocial measures and then for physician characteristics such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specialty. For all participants (n = 1,855), IPC scores suggesting greater lack of clarity, discrimination due to race/ethnicity, and disrespectful office staff in patient-physician interactions were associated with lower QOL (P< 0.01). IPC scores suggesting physicians demonstrating compassion, eliciting concerns, or explaining results were associated with higher QOL (P< 0.01). Among Whites (n = 1,306), only the associations with higher QOL remained. African Americans (n = 110) who reported higher scores on physician compassion and elicited concerns had higher QOL, whereas higher scores for disrespectful office staff had lower QOL. No associations were observed among Asians (n = 201) and Hispanics (n = 186). After further adjustment for physician factors, the associations among Whites remained, whereas those among African Americans disappeared. In the breast cancer treatment setting, characteristics of the patient-physician interaction as perceived by the patient are associated with QOL, yet were not specific to patient race/ethnicity.
Related JoVE Video
High- and low-fat dairy intake, recurrence, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary fat in dairy is a source of estrogenic hormones and may be related to worse breast cancer survival. We evaluated associations between high- and low-fat dairy intake, recurrence, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Related JoVE Video
The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American, and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95 % CI 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95 % CI 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95 % CI 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Pre-diagnosis body mass index and survival after breast cancer in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obese and underweight women who develop breast cancer may have poorer survival compared with normal-weight women. However, the optimal weight for best prognosis is still under study. We conducted a prospective investigation of pre-diagnosis body mass index (BMI) and mortality among 14,948 breast cancer patients in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. Breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2006 with AJCC Stage I-III breast tumors were drawn from four prospective cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the associations of BMI categories (World Health Organization international classifications) with recurrence and mortality were estimated using delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models. Obese (30 to < 35 kg/m(2)), severely obese (35 to < 40 kg/m(2)), and morbidly obese (? 40 kg/m(2)) were examined. After a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 2,140 deaths and 2,065 recurrences were documented. Both underweight (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.13) and morbidly obese women (HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.32) had the greatest risk of overall mortality compared with normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) women. Severe obesity (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.36) and obesity (HR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.27) were related to small non-significant increased risks. Overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) was not associated with any excess risk compared with normal weight. Similar associations were found for breast cancer death and non-breast cancer death but not recurrence. Women who were underweight and morbidly obese before breast cancer diagnosis were at the greatest risk of all-cause mortality. Morbidly obese women were also at increased risk of death from breast cancer. These results suggest that degree of obesity confers differential risk on survival.
Related JoVE Video
Clinician awareness and knowledge of breast cancer-related lymphedema in a large, integrated health care delivery setting.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer survivors have reported dissatisfaction regarding their education on risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) from clinicians. We describe clinician knowledge and treatment referral of patients with BCRL among active oncologists, surgeons, and primary care physicians in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program. A total of 887 oncologists, surgeons, and primary care clinicians completed a 10-minute web survey from May 2, 2010 to December 31, 2010 on BCRL knowledge, education, and referral patterns. A knowledge score of BCRL was calculated based on clinician responses. Multivariable regression models were used to determine the associations of selected covariates with BCRL knowledge score and clinician referral, respectively. Compared with primary care clinicians, oncologists had the highest mean score followed closely by surgeons (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, being female, an oncologist or surgeon, and recently receiving BCRL materials were each significantly associated with higher BCRL knowledge scores. About 44% of clinicians (n = 381) indicated they had ever made a BCRL referral (100% oncologists, 79% surgeons, and 36% primary care clinicians). Clinicians with a higher knowledge score were more likely to make referrals. In stratified analyses by specialty, the significant associated factors remained for primary care but became non-significant for oncology and surgery. These results can inform educational interventions to strengthen clinician knowledge of the clinical management of BCRL, especially among primary care clinicians. With the growing number of breast cancer survivors, increasing clinician education about BCRL across all specialties is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Meeting the physical activity guidelines and survival after breast cancer: findings from the after breast cancer pooling project.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 2008 Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines recommend engaging in at least 2.5 h (10 MET-hours/week) of moderate intensity PA per week (defined as 4 METs) to reduce risk of morbidity and mortality. This analysis was conducted to investigate whether this recommendation can be extended to breast cancer survivors. Data from four studies of breast cancer survivors measuring recreational PA from semi-quantitative questionnaires a median of 23 months post-diagnosis (interquartile range 18-32 months) were pooled in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project (n = 13,302). Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models were applied in data analysis with adjustment for age, post-diagnosis body mass index, race/ethnicity, menopausal status, TNM stage, cancer treatment, and smoking history. Engaging in at least 10 MET-hours/week of PA was associated with a 27% reduction in all-cause mortality (n = 1,468 events, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.66-0.82) and a 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality (n = 971 events, HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.85) compared with women who did not meet the PA Guidelines (<10 MET-hours/week). Risk of breast cancer recurrence (n = 1,421 events) was not associated with meeting the PA Guidelines (HR = 0.96, 95% CI, 0.86-1.06). These data suggest that adhering to the PA guidelines may be an important intervention target for reducing mortality among breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise in patients with lymphedema: a systematic review of the contemporary literature.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Controversy exists regarding the role of exercise in cancer patients with or at risk for lymphedema, particularly breast. We conducted a systematic review of the contemporary literature to distill the weight of the evidence and provide recommendations for exercise and lymphedema care in breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Change in physical activity during active treatment in a prospective study of breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physical activity offers many benefits to breast cancer survivors, yet research on physical activity during the immediate period following a breast cancer diagnosis is limited. In a prospective cohort study of 1,696 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program from 2006-2009, we describe change in self-reported physical activity levels from around diagnosis to 6 months post-diagnosis and determine factors associated with change. Participants completed a comprehensive physical activity questionnaire at baseline (2 months post-diagnosis) and at follow-up (8 months post-diagnosis). Predictors of physical activity change were determined by multivariable linear regression. Reductions in all physical activity levels were observed (P < 0.0001); mean (SD) change (h/week) of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was -1.28 (4.48) and sedentary behavior was -0.83 (6.95). In fully-adjusted models, overweight and obesity were associated with greater declines in MVPA of -1.58 h/week (SD = 0.92) and -1.29 h/week (SD = 0.93), respectively (P = 0.0079). Receipt of chemotherapy only was also associated with a greater decrease in MVPA (-2.12 h/week; SD = 0.92; P < 0.0001), specifically for recreational activities (-1.62 h/week; SD = 0.64; P = 0.0001). These data suggest challenges in maintaining physical activity levels during active treatment among women with breast cancer. Interventions to encourage physical activity in breast cancer survivors should be pursued.
Related JoVE Video
The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project: rationale, methodology, and breast cancer survivor characteristics.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors, supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breast cancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breast cancer survivors (three US-based and one from Shanghai, China) for 18,314 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1976 and 2006. Most participants were diagnosed with stage I-II breast cancer (84.7%). About 60% of breast tumors were estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+; 21% were ER-/PR-. Among 8,118 participants with information on HER-2 tumor status, 74.8% were HER-2- and 18.5% were HER-2+. At 1-2 years post-diagnosis (on average), 17.9% of participants were obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2), 32.6% were overweight (BMI 25-29 kg/m2), and 59.9% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (? 2.5 h per week of moderate activity). During follow-up (mean = 8.4 years), 3,736 deaths (2,614 from breast cancer) and 3,564 recurrences have been documented. After accounting for differences in year of diagnosis and timing of post-diagnosis enrollment, five-year overall survival estimates were similar across cohorts. This pooling project of 18,000 breast cancer survivors enables the evaluation of associations of post-diagnosis lifestyle factors, QOL, and breast cancer outcomes with an adequate sample size for investigation of heterogeneity by hormone receptor status and other clinical predictors. The project sets the stage for international collaborations for the investigation of modifiable predictors for breast cancer outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidant supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) cohort.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is concern that antioxidant supplement use during chemotherapy and radiation therapy may decrease treatment effects, yet the effects of such supplements on recurrence and survival are largely unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Multivitamin use and breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the relation of multivitamin use to breast cancer outcomes. 2,236 women diagnosed from 1997 to 2000 with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I ? 1 cm, II, or IIIA) were enrolled about 2 years post-diagnosis, primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (83%). Multivitamin use pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis was assessed via mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were ascertained yearly by self-report and verified by medical record review. Delayed-entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, and lifestyle factors. Overall, 54 and 72% of the cohort reported using multivitamins pre- and post-diagnosis, respectively. A total of 380 recurrences, 212 breast cancer deaths, and 396 total deaths were confirmed. Compared to never use, multivitamin use after diagnosis was not associated with any outcome (recurrence HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.20; total mortality HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19). Compared to never use, persistent use of multivitamins from pre- to post-diagnosis was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.06) and total mortality (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.12). The protective associations were limited to women who had been treated by radiation only (P for trend = 0.048 and 0.083 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively) and both radiation and chemotherapy (P for trend = 0.015 and 0.095 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively). In stratified analyses, women who consistently used multivitamins before and after diagnosis and ate more fruits/vegetables (P for trend = 0.008) and were more physically active (P for trend = 0.034) had better overall survival. Multivitamin use along with practice of other health-promoting behaviors may be beneficial in improving breast cancer outcomes in select groups of survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of physical activity with quality of life and functional ability in breast cancer patients during active adjuvant treatment: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physical activity can improve quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors but little is known about associations of physical activity and QOL during active cancer therapy. We examine associations between activity levels and QOL in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Women with invasive, non-metastatic breast cancer (n=2,279) were enrolled between 2006 and 2009 from a managed care organization; assessment were done during active therapy. A physical activity frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the average weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours spent in moderate and vigorous activity during active treatment. QOL was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer. Linear regression models tested cross-sectional associations of QOL and functional well-being with physical activity and covariates [socio-demographics, comorbidity, body mass index (BMI), clinical variables, social support, and assessment timing]. Physical activity had a significant positive unadjusted association with all QOL sub-scales (except emotional well-being) (all P values < 0.01). Overall QOL was 4.6 points higher for women in the highest quartile of moderate and vigorous activity versus women in the lowest quartile (P<0.001). In regression models, higher activity was associated with better overall QOL and functional well-being, controlling for covariates (P<0.05). Increasing BMI was also independently but inversely associated with overall QOL (P<0.001) but did not explain the relationship of activity and QOL. White women reported the higher levels of activity than minority women and activity was associated with QOL for Whites but not for minority women. Greater physical activity is associated with small but clinically meaningful increases in QOL during active breast cancer care therapy for Whites but this effect is not seen for minority women. If confirmed in longitudinal analyses, these differences may have implications for disparities research.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study.
Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the incidence of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) during the early survivorship period as well as demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors associated with BCRL development.
Related JoVE Video
A practical method for collecting food record data in a prospective cohort study of breast cancer survivors.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple-day diet records can be unsuitable for cohort studies because of high administrative and analytical costs. Costs could be reduced if a subsample of participants were analyzed in a nested case-control study. However, completed records are usually reviewed ("documented") with participants to correct errors and omissions before analysis. The authors evaluated the suitability of using undocumented 3-day food records in 2 samples of women in a Northern California cohort study of breast cancer survivorship (2006-2009). One group of participants (n = 130) received an introduction to the food record at enrollment, while another (n = 70) received more comprehensive instruction. Food records were mailed to participants 6 months later for follow-up and were analyzed as received and after phone documentation. Error rates for adequate completion were high in the first group but substantially lower among persons receiving instruction; prevalences of missing data on serving size and incomplete food descriptions changed from 30% to 4% and from 32% to 6%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Correlations between nutrient intakes calculated from undocumented and documented records were 0.72-0.93 in the first group and were significantly stronger (0.84-0.99) among persons receiving instruction. Documentation had little effect on intraclass correlation coefficients across days, but training increased the coefficients for many nutrients. When participants receive proper instruction, undocumented food records can be satisfactory for large epidemiologic studies.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer: the life after cancer epidemiology study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association of alcohol consumption after breast cancer diagnosis with recurrence and mortality among early-stage breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Early discontinuation and non-adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy are associated with increased mortality in women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the benefit of adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) on mortality among women with breast cancer (BC), many women are non-adherent with its use. We investigated the effects of early discontinuation and non-adherence to HT on mortality in women enrolled in Kaiser Permanente of Northern California (KPNC). We identified women diagnosed with hormone-sensitive stage I-III BC, 1996-2007, and used automated pharmacy records to identify prescriptions and dates of refill. We categorized patients as having discontinued HT early if 180 days elapsed from the prior prescription. For those who continued, we categorized patients as adherent if the medication possession ratio was ?80%. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between discontinuation and non-adherence with all-cause mortality. Among 8,769 women who filled at least one prescription for HT, 2,761 (31%) discontinued therapy. Of those who continued HT, 1,684 (28%) were non-adherent. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 813 women died. Estimated survival at 10 years was 80.7% for women who continued HT versus 73.6% for those who discontinued (P < 0.001). Of those who continued, survival at 10 years was 81.7 and 77.8% in women who adhered and non-adhered, respectively (P < 0.001). Adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, both early discontinuation (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.46) and non-adherence (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23-1.81), among those who continued, were independent predictors of mortality. Both early discontinuation and non-adherence to HT were common and associated with increased mortality. Interventions to improve continuation of and adherence to HT may be critical to improve BC survival.
Related JoVE Video
Breast cancer DNA methylation profiles are associated with tumor size and alcohol and folate intake.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although tumor size and lymph node involvement are the current cornerstones of breast cancer prognosis, they have not been extensively explored in relation to tumor methylation attributes in conjunction with other tumor and patient dietary and hormonal characteristics. Using primary breast tumors from 162 (AJCC stage I-IV) women from the Kaiser Division of Research Pathways Study and the Illumina GoldenGate methylation bead-array platform, we measured 1,413 autosomal CpG loci associated with 773 cancer-related genes and validated select CpG loci with Sequenom EpiTYPER. Tumor grade, size, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and triple negative status were significantly (Q-values <0.05) associated with altered methylation of 209, 74, 183, 69, and 130 loci, respectively. Unsupervised clustering, using a recursively partitioned mixture model (RPMM), of all autosomal CpG loci revealed eight distinct methylation classes. Methylation class membership was significantly associated with patient race (P<0.02) and tumor size (P<0.001) in univariate tests. Using multinomial logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, patient age and tumor size, as well as known disease risk factors of alcohol intake and total dietary folate, were all significantly (P<0.0001) associated with methylation class membership. Breast cancer prognostic characteristics and risk-related exposures appear to be associated with gene-specific tumor methylation, as well as overall methylation patterns.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life among women recently diagnosed with invasive breast cancer: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have assessed quality of life (QOL) of women diagnosed with breast cancer within the first few weeks of their initial diagnosis. We describe QOL among 950 women recently diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Starting in January 2006, we invited women aged > or =21 years who were diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) to enroll in the Pathways Study, a prospective study of breast cancer survivorship. QOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B), along with sociodemographic and social support information. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the KPNC cancer registry and electronic medical record. We used multivariable linear regression models to identify factors associated with QOL scores calculated from the FACT-B. The mean age +/- SD of the sample was 59.6 years (+/-11.9 years), and the mean time +/-SD from diagnosis until interview was 8.0 weeks (+/-3.2 weeks). Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower scores in all QOL domains (P < 0.01), and later stage at diagnosis was associated with lower scores in all domains (P < 0.05) except for social well-being. Higher levels of social support were associated with higher QOL except for physical well-being (P < 0.05). These associations were stronger within 2 months of breast cancer diagnosis. Quality of life as influenced by a diagnosis of breast cancer is an important factor in cancer survivorship. Age, stage at diagnosis, and social support are key factors in this important variable.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal diet and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Public Health Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine environmental factors, including maternal diet, may play an etiologic role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a common childhood cancer. Expanding on previous findings from phase 1 of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS), a population-based case-control study, we sought to further elucidate and replicate the relationships between maternal diet and ALL risk.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary patterns and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and mortality of early-stage breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Pure and predominantly pure intralymphatic breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: an unusual and adverse pattern of residual disease.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Patients who achieve a pathologic complete response have a more favorable outcome than those who do not; however, a standard system for classifying residual disease has not been adopted. Various definitions of complete response exist, some of which allow for minimal residual invasive or in situ carcinoma. The pattern of residual carcinoma restricted to lymphatic spaces without stromal invasion, herein called pure intralymphatic carcinoma, has not been well addressed. Neither has the pattern of minimal residual stromal invasive cancer accompanied by an extensive intralymphatic component, herein called predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma. We report the incidence, clinicopathologic features, and clinical significance of pure and predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma in a cohort of 146 neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer patients. We also evaluate the use of the immunohistochemical lymphatic marker D2-40 in these tissues exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Six patients (4%) had residual pure intralymphatic carcinoma. No gross abnormalities were present in the mastectomy specimens except for 1 case that had a discrete mass, corresponding to residual in situ carcinoma. Residual intralymphatic tumor size ranged from 0.2 to 6 cm. All but one had residual positive lymph nodes. Residual predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma was found in 5/146 (4%) patients. A discrete gross mass was observed in 3/5 specimens. Whereas residual stromal invasive carcinoma ranged in size from 0.1 to 1.8 cm, the intralymphatic component ranged from 6 to 9.3 cm. All had residual positive lymph nodes. D2-40 adequately marked lymphatic endothelium in all cases tested. Death occurred in 6/11 (55%) versus 17/135 (13%) patients with or without pure/predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma, respectively. After controlling for tumor stage, the presence of either of these residual intralymphatic patterns was associated with a 3-fold increase in death (Cox proportional hazards ratio=3.59, 95% confidence interval, 1.29, 9.99, P=0.014). Elevated risk for disease progression was also observed but this was not statistically significant. We conclude that pure/predominantly pure intralymphatic carcinoma is a clinically significant pattern of residual disease. This may be an underrecognized pattern because of the discordance between gross and microscopic findings and because of challenges in diagnosing intralymphatic carcinoma. D2-40 immunostaining is useful in this setting. Current staging criteria should be clarified to define whether extensive intralymphatic tumor should be incorporated in tumor stage assignment.
Related JoVE Video
Soy isoflavones and risk of cancer recurrence in a cohort of breast cancer survivors: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soy isoflavones, structurally similar to endogenous estrogens, may affect breast cancer through both hormonally mediated and non-hormonally related mechanisms. Although the effects of soy are not well understood, some breast cancer survivors increase their soy intake post-diagnosis in attempt to improve their prognosis. Therefore, we examined the role of soy isoflavone intake and the risk of breast cancer recurrence by hormone receptor status, menopausal status, and tamoxifen therapy. A cohort of 1,954 female breast cancer survivors, diagnosed during 1997-2000, was prospectively followed for 6.31 years and 282 breast cancer recurrences were ascertained. Isoflavone intake was assessed by mailing modified Block and supplemental soy food frequency questionnaires to participants, on average 23 months post-diagnosis. Risk of breast cancer recurrence, measured by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), was estimated using multivariable delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models. Suggestive trends for a reduced risk of cancer recurrence were observed with increasing quintiles of daidzein and glycetin intake compared to no intake among postmenopausal women (P for trend: P = 0.08 for daidzein, P = 0.06 for glycetin) and among tamoxifen users (P = 0.10 for daidzein, P = 0.05 for glycetin). Among postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen, there was an approximately 60% reduction in breast cancer recurrence comparing the highest to the lowest daidzein intakes (>1,453 vs. <7.7 microg/day; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21-0.79, P = 0.008). Soy isoflavones consumed at levels comparable to those in Asian populations may reduce the risk of cancer recurrence in women receiving tamoxifen therapy and moreover, appears not to interfere with tamoxifen efficacy. Further confirmation is required in other large prospective studies before recommendations regarding soy intake can be issued to breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Complementary and alternative therapy use before and after breast cancer diagnosis: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many women use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to maintain or improve their health. We describe CAM use among the first 1,000 participants enrolled in the Pathways Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC). Participants, identified by rapid case ascertainment in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, are women > or = 21 years diagnosed with first invasive BC. Comprehensive baseline data are collected on CAM use through in-person interviews. Study participants include 70.9% non-Hispanic whites, 10.2% Hispanics, 9.0% Asians, 6.5% African-Americans, and 3.4% others. Most women (82.2%) were diagnosed with AJCC stage I/II BC at average (+/-SD) age 59.5 (+/-12.0) years and reported prior use of at least one form of CAM (96.5% of participants). In the 5 years before diagnosis, CAM therapies used at least weekly by >20% of women included green tea, glucosamine, omega-3 fatty acids, prayer and religion. CAM use was high (86.1% of participants) in the period immediately following diagnosis; 47.5% used botanical supplements, 47.2% used other natural products, 28.8% used special diets, 64.2% used mind-body healing, and 26.5% used body/energy/other treatments. In multivariable analyses, frequent use of each CAM modality before and after diagnosis was associated with use of other CAM modalities and other health behaviors (i.e., high fruit/vegetable intake, lower BMI). CAM use before and after BC diagnosis is common in this diverse group of women. Our results emphasize the need for clinicians to discuss CAM use with all BC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Physical activity and risk of recurrence and mortality in breast cancer survivors: findings from the LACE study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying modifiable factors that reduce the risk of recurrence and improve survival in breast cancer survivors is a pressing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity following diagnosis and treatment with the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality and all-cause mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer studies within a large health maintenance organization.
Related JoVE Video
Postdiagnosis alcohol consumption and breast cancer prognosis in the after breast cancer pooling project.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for incident breast cancer. However, its role in breast cancer prognosis remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Social networks, social support, and burden in relationships, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in the Life After Breast Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Larger social networks have been associated with lower breast cancer mortality. The authors evaluated how levels of social support and burden influenced this association. We included 2,264 women from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study who were diagnosed with early-stage, invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2000, and provided data on social networks (spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, time socializing with friends, and number of first-degree female relatives), social support, and caregiving. 401 died during a median follow-up of 10.8 years follow-up with 215 from breast cancer. We used delayed entry Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, social isolation was unrelated to recurrence or breast cancer-specific mortality. However, socially isolated women had higher all-cause mortality (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.73) and mortality from other causes (HR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.19-2.68). Levels of social support and burden modified associations. Among those with low, but not high, levels of social support from friends and family, lack of religious/social participation (HR = 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.07-2.36, p = 0.02, p interaction = 0.01) and lack of volunteering (HR = 1.78, 95 % CI: 1.15-2.77, p = 0.01, p interaction = 0.01) predicted higher all-cause mortality. In cross-classification analyses, only women with both small networks and low levels of support (HR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.10-2.38) had a significantly higher risk of mortality than women with large networks and high levels of support; women with small networks and high levels of support had no higher risk of mortality (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 0.74-1.72). Social networks were also more important for caregivers versus noncaregivers. Larger social networks predicted better prognosis after breast cancer, but associations depended on the quality and burden of family relationships.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: a prospective observational study and systematic review.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association of smoking with outcomes following breast cancer prognosis is not well understood. In a cohort study called Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE), 2,265 women diagnosed with breast cancer were followed for a median of 12 years. We used multivariable proportional-hazards models to determine whether smoking, assessed approximately two years post-diagnosis, was associated with risk of death among these women. We also undertook a systematic review of all cohort studies to date that have examined the association between smoking and breast cancer mortality. Compared with never smokers, women who were current smokers had a twofold higher rate of dying from breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.27-3.18] and an approximately fourfold higher rate of dying from competing (non-breast cancer) causes (HR = 3.84, 95 % CI 2.50-5.89). Among seven studies that met the inclusion criteria in the systematic review, three studies and our own reported significantly increased risk of breast cancer death with current smoking. We found little evidence of an association between former smoking and breast cancer mortality (HR = 1.24, 95 % CI 0.94-1.64). Consistent with findings from our prospective observational study, the systematic review of seven additional studies indicates positive association of current smoking with breast cancer mortality, but weak association with former smoking. Women who smoke following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are at higher risk of death both from breast cancer and other causes.
Related JoVE Video
Employment status and quality of life in recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors.
Psychooncology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer survivors are less likely to be employed than similar healthy women, yet effects of employment on the well being of survivors are largely unknown. In a prospective cohort study of 2013 women diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 with invasive breast cancer in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we describe associations between hours worked per week and change in employment with quality of life (QOL) from diagnosis through active treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Patient awareness and knowledge of breast cancer-related lymphedema in a large, integrated health care delivery system.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer patients have voiced dissatisfaction regarding their education on breast cancer-related lymphedema risk and risk reduction strategies from their clinicians. Informing patients about lymphedema can contribute to decrease their risk of developing the condition, or among those already affected, prevent it from progressing further. In this cross-sectional study, a lymphedema awareness score was calculated based on responses to a brief telephone interview conducted among 389 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2000 to 2008 and had a previous record of a lymphedema-related diagnosis or procedure in their electronic medical record. During the telephone interview, women self-reported a lymphedema clinical diagnosis, lymphedema symptoms but no lymphedema diagnosis, or neither a diagnosis nor symptoms, and responded to questions on lymphedema education and support services as well as health knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression [odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)] was used to determine the associations of selected sociodemographic and clinical factors with the odds of having lymphedema awareness (adequate vs. inadequate). The median (range) of the lymphedema awareness score was 4 (0-7). Compared with patients <50 years of age, patients 70+ years of age at breast cancer diagnosis had lower odds of adequate lymphedema awareness (OR 0.25; 95 % CI 0.07, 0.89), while patients 50-59 and 60-69 years had greater odds of adequate awareness although not statistically significant (OR 2.05; 95 % CI 0.88, 4.78 and OR 1.55; 95 % CI 0.60, 4.02, respectively; p for trend = 0.09). Higher educational level and greater health literacy were suggestive of adequate awareness yet were not significant. These results can help inform educational interventions to strengthen patient knowledge of lymphedema risk and risk reduction practices, particularly in an integrated health care delivery setting. With the growing population of breast cancer survivors, increasing patient awareness and education about lymphedema risk reduction and care after cancer diagnosis is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Identifying primary and recurrent cancers using a SAS-based natural language processing algorithm.
J Am Med Inform Assoc
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Significant limitations exist in the timely and complete identification of primary and recurrent cancers for clinical and epidemiologic research. A SAS-based coding, extraction, and nomenclature tool (SCENT) was developed to address this problem.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of AJCC TNM staging for breast tumors diagnosed before 2004 in cancer registries.
Cancer Causes Control
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor (T), Nodal (N), and Metastatic (M) staging is commonly used in clinical practice for treatment decisions, yet before 2004, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-affiliated cancer registries did not routinely include TNM staging defined by AJCC criteria, reporting instead SEER Summary Staging.
Related JoVE Video
Weight change and survival after breast cancer in the after breast cancer pooling project.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weight change after a breast cancer diagnosis has been linked to lower survival. To further understand effects of postdiagnostic weight variation on survival, we examined the relationship by comorbid status and initial body mass index (BMI).
Related JoVE Video
Soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: an in-depth analysis of combined evidence from cohort studies of US and Chinese women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soy isoflavones have antiestrogenic and anticancer properties but also possess estrogen-like properties, which has raised concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer survivors.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic impact of comorbidity among long-term breast cancer survivors: results from the LACE study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the long-term impact of comorbidity among women with breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.