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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Investigation of IL-23 (p19, p40) and IL-23R identifies nuclear expression of IL-23 p19 as a favorable prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: a retrospective multicenter study of 675 patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases; its role in cancer progression is controversial. Here we analyse the expression of IL-23 subunits (p40 and p19) and IL-23R in colorectal cancer with regard to disease progression, clinical-pathological and molecular aspects. Immunohistochemistry for IL-23p19, IL-23p40, IL-23R and CD8 was performed on a multi-punch tissue microarray of 195 colorectal cancers (cohort 1), matched normal tissue, adenoma and lymph node metastases. Results were compared with clinical-pathological features and CD8+ T-cell counts, then validated on two patient cohorts (cohort 2: n=341, cohort 3: n=139). Cytoplasmic/membranous expression of IL-23 (p19 and p40 subunits) and IL-23R, respectively were over-expressed in carcinomas versus adenomas and normal tissues (p<0.0001) but were reduced in lymph node metastases (p<0.0001). Nuclear IL-23p19 expression was observed in 23.1% and was associated with early TNM stage (p=0.0186), absence of venous (p=0.0124) and lymphatic invasion (p=0.01493), favorable survival (p=0.014) and absence of distant metastasis (p=0.0146; specificity: 100%). This unexpected cellular localization was confirmed by cell fractionation. The beneficial effect of nuclear IL-23p19 was restricted to tumours with CD8+ high counts. Results were validated on Cohorts 2/3. This multicenter study underlines the possible CD8(+)--dependency and beneficial effect of nuclear IL-23p19 on overall patient survival.
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Lipid droplet and early autophagosomal membrane targeting of Atg2A and Atg14L in human tumor cells.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Autophagy is a lysosomal bulk degradation pathway for cytoplasmic cargo, such as long-lived proteins, lipids, and organelles. Induced upon nutrient starvation, autophagic degradation is accomplished by the concerted actions of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Here we demonstrate that two ATGs, human Atg2A and Atg14L, colocalize at cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and are functionally involved in controlling the number and size of LDs in human tumor cell lines. We show that Atg2A is targeted to cytoplasmic ADRP-positive LDs that migrate bidirectionally along microtubules. The LD localization of Atg2A was found to be independent of the autophagic status. Further, Atg2A colocalized with Atg14L under nutrient-rich conditions when autophagy was not induced. Upon nutrient starvation and dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] generation, both Atg2A and Atg14L were also specifically targeted to endoplasmic reticulum-associated early autophagosomal membranes, marked by the PtdIns(3)P effectors double-FYVE containing protein 1 (DFCP1) and WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides 1 (WIPI-1), both of which function at the onset of autophagy. These data provide evidence for additional roles of Atg2A and Atg14L in the formation of early autophagosomal membranes and also in lipid metabolism.
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Induction of the autophagy-associated gene MAP1S via PU.1 supports APL differentiation.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The PU.1 transcription factor is essential for myeloid development. We investigated if the microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S) is a novel PU.1 target with a link to autophagy, a cellular recycling pathway. Comparable to PU.1, MAP1S expression was significantly repressed in primary AML blasts as compared to mature neutrophils. Accordingly, MAP1S expression was induced during neutrophil differentiation of CD34(+) progenitor and APL cells. Moreover, PU.1 bound to the MAP1S promoter and induced MAP1S expression during APL differentiation. Inhibiting MAP1S resulted in aberrant neutrophil differentiation and autophagy. Taken together, our findings implicate the PU.1-regulated MAP1S gene in neutrophil differentiation and autophagy control.
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CEBPA-dependent HK3 and KLF5 expression in primary AML and during AML differentiation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The basic leucine zipper transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) codes for a critical regulator during neutrophil differentiation. Aberrant expression or function of this protein contributes to the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we identified two novel unrelated CEBPA target genes, the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3) and the krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcription factor, by comparing gene profiles in two cohorts of CEBPA wild-type and mutant AML patients. In addition, we found CEBPA-dependent activation of HK3 and KLF5 transcription during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) mediated neutrophil differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Moreover, we observed direct regulation of HK3 by CEBPA, whereas our data suggest an indirect regulation of KLF5 by this transcription factor. Altogether, our data provide an explanation for low HK3 and KLF5 expression in particular AML subtype and establish these genes as novel CEBPA targets during neutrophil differentiation.
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Crizotinib inhibits migration and expression of ID1 in MET-positive lung cancer cells: implications for MET targeting in oncology.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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ID1 is an important component of the MET-SRC signaling pathway, which is a regulator of cell migration and invasion. We hypothesized that the ALK/MET inhibitor crizotinib inhibits migration via MET-SRC-ID1, rather than ALK.
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The tumor suppressor gene DAPK2 is induced by the myeloid transcription factors PU.1 and C/EBP? during granulocytic differentiation but repressed by PML-RAR? in APL.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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DAPK2 is a proapoptotic protein that is mostly expressed in the hematopoietic tissue. A detailed DAPK2 expression analysis in two large AML patient cohorts revealed particularly low DAPK2 mRNA levels in APL. DAPK2 levels were restored in APL patients undergoing ATRA therapy. PML-RARA is the predominant lesion in APL causing transcriptional repression of genes important for neutrophil differentiation. We found binding of PML-RARA and PU.1, a myeloid master regulator, to RARA and PU.1 binding sites in the DAPK2 promoter. Ectopic expression of PML-RARA in non-APL, as well as knocking down PU.1 in APL cells, resulted in a significant reduction of DAPK2 expression. Restoring DAPK2 expression in PU.1 knockdown APL cells partially rescued neutrophil differentiation, thereby identifying DAPK2 as a relevant PU.1 downstream effector. Moreover, low DAPK2 expression is also associated with C/EBP?-mutated AML patients, and we found C/EBP?-dependent regulation of DAPK2 during APL differentiation. In conclusion, we identified first inhibitory mechanisms responsible for the low DAPK2 expression in particular AML subtypes, and the regulation of DAPK2 by two myeloid transcription factors underlines its importance in neutrophil development.
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Inhibition of GATE-16 attenuates ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of APL cells and interferes with autophagosome formation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process involved in cell survival upon stress induction, but also with a newly identified function in myeloid differentiation. The autophagy-related (ATG)8 protein family, including the GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies, is crucial for autophagosome biogenesis. In order to evaluate the significance of the GABARAPs in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we compared their expression in primary AML patient samples, CD34(+) progenitor cells and in granulocytes from healthy donors. GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2/GATE-16, but not GABARAP, were significantly downregulated in particular AML subtypes compared to normal granulocytes. Moreover, the expression of GABARAPL1 and GATE-16 was significantly induced during ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (APL). Lastly, knocking down GABARAPL2/GATE-16 in APL cells attenuated neutrophil differentiation and decreased autophagic flux. In conclusion, low GABARAPL2/GATE-16 expression is associated with an immature myeloid leukemic phenotype and these proteins are necessary for neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.
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Antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition in human HCC tumor models in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a highly conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that control the activity of histone and nonhistone regulatory proteins. SIRT1 is purposed to promote longevity and to suppress the initiation of some cancers. Nevertheless, SIRT1 is reported to function as a tumor suppressor as well as an oncogenic protein. Our data show that compared with normal liver or surrounding tumor tissue, SIRT1 is strongly overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, human HCC cell lines (Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7, HLE, HLF, HepKK1, skHep1) were screened for the expression of the sirtuin family members and only SIRT1 was consistently overexpressed compared with normal hepatocytes. To determine its effect on HCC growth, SIRT1 activity was inhibited either with lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNAs or with the small molecule inhibitor, cambinol. Knockdown or inhibition of SIRT1 activity had a cytostatic effect, characterized by an altered morphology, impaired proliferation, an increased expression of differentiation markers, and cellular senescence. In an orthotopic xenograft model, knockdown of SIRT1 resulted in 50% fewer animals developing tumors and cambinol treatment resulted in an overall lower tumor burden. Taken together, our data show that inhibition of SIRT1 in HCC cells impairs their proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. These data suggest that SIRT1 expression positively influences the growth of HCC and support further studies aimed to block its activity alone or in combination as a novel treatment strategy.
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Protective autophagy is involved in resistance towards MET inhibitors in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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MET, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a receptor tyrosine kinase with an important role, both in normal cellular function as well as in oncogenesis. In many cancer types, abnormal activation of MET is related to poor prognosis and various strategies to inhibit its function, including small molecule inhibitors, are currently in preclinical and clinical evaluation. Autophagy, a self-digesting recycling mechanism with cytoprotective functions, is induced by cellular stress. This process is also induced upon cytotoxic drug treatment of cancer cells and partially allows these cells to escape cell death. Thus, since autophagy protects different tumor cells from chemotherapy-induced cell death, current clinical trials aim at combining autophagy inhibitors with different cancer treatments. We found that in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line GTL-16, where MET activity is deregulated due to receptor overexpression, two different MET inhibitors PHA665752 and EMD1214063 lead to cell death paralleled by the induction of autophagy. A combined treatment of MET inhibitors together with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or genetically impairing autophagy by knocking down the key autophagy gene ATG7 further decreased cell viability of gastric cancer cells. In general, we observed the induction of cytoprotective autophagy in MET expressing cells upon MET inhibition and a combination of MET and autophagy inhibition resulted in significantly decreased cell viability in gastric cancer cells.
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Inhibition of the miR-143/145 cluster attenuated neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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MicroRNAs can influence hematopoietic cell lineage commitment and aberrant expression of hematopoietic miRNAs contributes to AML pathology. We found that miR-143 and miR-145 expression is significantly repressed in primary AML patient samples as compared to neutrophils of healthy donors. Further analysis revealed impaired neutrophil differentiation of APL cells upon inhibition of miR-145 expression. Lastly, we identified p73 as transcriptional regulator of miR-143/145 during neutrophil differentiation of APL cells. Our data suggest that low miR-145 levels in APL, possibly due to aberrant expression of p73 transcription factors, contribute to the differentiation block seen in this disease.
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Deregulated expression of Kruppel-like factors in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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The known participation of Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLF) in cellular differentiation prompted us to investigate their expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast cells that are typically blocked in their differentiation. We determined the expression patterns of KLFs with a putative role in myeloid differentiation in a large cohort of primary AML patient samples, CD34+ progenitor cells and granulocytes from healthy donors. We found that KLF2, KLF3, KLF5 and KLF6 are significantly lower expressed in AML blast and CD34+ progenitor cells as compared to normal granulocytes. Moreover, we found markedly increased KLF levels in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received oral ATRA. Accordingly, we observed a strong induction of KLF5/6 upon ATRA-treatment in NB4 and HT93 APL but not in ATRA-resistant NB4-R cells. Lastly, knocking down KLF5 or KLF6 in NB4 cells significantly attenuated neutrophil differentiation. In conclusion, we found a significant repression of KLF transcription factors in primary AML samples as compared to mature neutrophils and further show that KLF5 and KLF6 are functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.
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Inactivation of the hypermethylated in cancer 1 tumour suppressor--not just a question of promoter hypermethylation?
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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The chromosomal region 17p13.3 is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in a variety of human cancers. It includes the hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) gene placed telomerically to the p53 tumour suppressor gene. HIC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor, and its targets identified to date are genes involved in proliferation, tumour growth and angiogenesis. In addition, HIC1 functionally cooperates with p53 to suppress cancer development. Frequent allelic loss at position 17p13.1 in human cancers often points to mutations of the tumour suppressor p53. However, in a variety of cancer types, allelic loss of the short arm of chromosome 17 may hit regions distal to p53 and, interestingly, without leading to p53 mutations. Furthermore, the neighbouring region 17p13.3 often shows loss of heterozygosity or DNA hypermethylation in various types of solid tumours and leukaemias. In line with this concept, Wales et al. described a new potential tumour suppressor in this region and named it hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Further, it was shown that in the majority of cases hypermethylation of this chromosomal region leads to epigenetic inactivation of HIC1. A role for HIC1 in tumour development is further supported by a mouse model, since various spontaneous, age- and gender-specific malignant tumours occur in heterozygous Hic1+/- knockout mice. Furthermore, exogenously delivered HIC1 leads to a significant decrease in clonogenic survival in cancer cell lines. This review highlights the role of HIC1 inactivation in solid tumours and particularly in leukaemia development.
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CLEC5A (MDL-1) is a novel PU.1 transcriptional target during myeloid differentiation.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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C-type lectin domain family 5, member A (CLEC5A), also known as myeloid DNAX activation protein 12 (DAP12)-associating lectin-1 (MDL-1), is a cell surface receptor strongly associated with the activation and differentiation of myeloid cells. CLEC5A associates with its adaptor protein DAP12 to activate a signaling cascade resulting in activation of downstream kinases in inflammatory responses. Currently, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of CLEC5A. We identified CLEC5A as one of the most highly induced genes in a microarray gene profiling experiment of PU.1 restored myeloid PU.1-null cells. We further report that CLEC5A expression is significantly reduced in several myeloid differentiation models upon PU.1 inhibition during monocyte/macrophage or granulocyte differentiation. In addition, CLEC5A mRNA expression was significantly lower in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples than in macrophages and granulocytes from healthy donors. Moreover, we found activation of a CLEC5A promoter reporter by PU.1 as well as in vivo binding of PU.1 to the CLEC5A promoter. Our findings indicate that CLEC5A expression in monocyte/macrophage and granulocytes is regulated by PU.1.
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The stem cell gene "inhibitor of differentiation 1" (ID1) is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) plays a role in cellular differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis and tumor invasion. As shown recently, ID1 is positively regulated by the tyrosine kinase SRC in lung carcinoma cell lines and with that appears as a potential new therapeutic target in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). To substantiate this hypothesis we examined ID1, SRC and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) immunohistochemically in human NSCLC specimens.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces cell death in acute myeloid leukaemia cells and supports all-trans retinoic acid-induced neutrophil differentiation via death-associated protein kinase 2.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patients are successfully treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, concurrent chemotherapy is still necessary and less toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. Earlier studies suggested that in haematopoietic neoplasms, the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) induces cell death without adversely affecting healthy cells. We aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanism of EGCG-induced cell death in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A significant increase of death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2) levels was found in AML cells upon EGCG treatment paralleled by increased cell death that was significantly reduced upon silencing of DAPK2. Moreover, combined ATRA and EGCG treatment resulted in cooperative DAPK2 induction and potentiated differentiation. EGCG toxicity of primary AML blasts correlated with 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) expression. Pretreatment of AML cells with ATRA, causing downregulation of 67LR, rendered these cells resistant to EGCG-mediated cell death. In summary, it was found that (i) DAPK2 is essential for EGCG-induced cell death in AML cells, (ii) ATRA and EGCG cotreatment significantly boosted neutrophil differentiation, and 67LR expression correlates with susceptibility of AML cells to EGCG. We thus suggest that EGCG, by selectively targeting leukaemic cells, may improve differentiation therapies for APL and chemotherapy for other AML subtypes.
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NDRG1/2 expression is inhibited in primary acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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Expression of N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is associated with growth arrest and differentiation of tumor cells. In hematopoietic cells, NDRG1 was identified in a screen for differentiation-related genes in human myelomonocytic leukemic U937 cells. In the present study, we found significantly higher NDRG1 mRNA levels in granulocytes of healthy donors than in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Another NDRG family member, NDRG2, was significantly higher expressed in normal macrophages compared to primary AML cells. Moreover, NDRG1 mRNA levels increased in two acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients as well as in NB4 and HT93 APL cells upon all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) therapy. In line with these observations, silencing of NDRG1 diminished neutrophil differentiation of leukemic cell lines. In conclusion, we found an association of low NDRG1 levels with an immature cell phenotype and provide evidence that NDRG1 is functionally involved in neutrophil maturation.
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Scavenger chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target gene of HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) that is epigenetically silenced in many human tumors and is essential for mammalian development encodes a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. The few genes that have been reported to be directly regulated by HIC1 include ATOH1, FGFBP1, SIRT1, and E2F1. HIC1 is thus involved in the complex regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. We performed genome-wide expression profiling analyses to identify new HIC1 target genes, using HIC1-deficient U2OS human osteosarcoma cells infected with adenoviruses expressing either HIC1 or GFP as a negative control. These studies identified several putative direct target genes, including CXCR7, a G-protein-coupled receptor recently identified as a scavenger receptor for the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. CXCR7 is highly expressed in human breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we demonstrated that CXCR7 was repressed in U2OS cells overexpressing HIC1. Inversely, inactivation of endogenous HIC1 by RNA interference in normal human WI38 fibroblasts results in up-regulation of CXCR7 and SIRT1. In silico analyses followed by deletion studies and luciferase reporter assays identified a functional and phylogenetically conserved HIC1-responsive element in the human CXCR7 promoter. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP upon ChIP experiments demonstrated that endogenous HIC1 proteins are bound together with the C-terminal binding protein corepressor to the CXCR7 and SIRT1 promoters in WI38 cells. Taken together, our results implicate the tumor suppressor HIC1 in the transcriptional regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR7, a key player in the promotion of tumorigenesis in a wide variety of cell types.
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The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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The Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that cooperates with p53 to suppress cancer development. We and others recently showed that HIC1 is a transcriptional target of p53. To identify additional transcriptional regulators of HIC1, we screened a set of transcription factors for regulation of a human HIC1 promoter reporter. We found that E2F1 strongly activates the full-length HIC1 promoter reporter. Promoter deletions and mutations identified two E2F responsive elements in the HIC1 core promoter region. Moreover, in vivo binding of E2F1 to the HIC1 promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human TIG3 fibroblasts expressing tamoxifen-activated E2F1. In agreement, activation of E2F1 in TIG3-E2F1 cells markedly increased HIC1 expression. Interestingly, expression of E2F1 in the p53(-/-) hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B led to an increase of endogenous HIC1 mRNA, although bisulfite genomic sequencing of the HIC1 promoter revealed that the region bearing the two E2F1 binding sites is hypermethylated. In addition, endogenous E2F1 induced by etoposide treatment bound to the HIC1 promoter. Moreover, inhibition of E2F1 strongly reduced the expression of etoposide-induced HIC1. In conclusion, we identified HIC1 as novel E2F1 transcriptional target in DNA damage responses.
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Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110-? isoform impairs cell proliferation, survival, and tumor growth in small cell lung cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is fundamental for cell proliferation and survival and is frequently altered and activated in neoplasia, including carcinomas of the lung. In this study, we investigated the potential of targeting the catalytic class I(A) PI3K isoforms in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is the most aggressive of all lung cancer types.
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Inhibition of damage-regulated autophagy modulator-1 (DRAM-1) impairs neutrophil differentiation of NB4 APL cells.
Leuk. Res.
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The damage-regulator autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM-1) is a lysosomal protein that positively regulates autophagy in a p53-dependent manner. We aimed at analyzing the role of DRAM-1 in granulocytic differentiation of APL cells. We observed a significant increase of DRAM-1 expression during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced neutrophil differentiation of NB4 APL cells but not in ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells. Next, knocking down DRAM-1 in NB4 APL cells was sufficient to impair neutrophil differentiation. Given that DRAM-1 is a transcriptional target of p53, we tested if DRAM-1 is regulated by the p53 relative p73. Indeed, inhibiting p73 prevented neutrophil differentiation and DRAM-1 induction of NB4 cells. In conclusion, we show for the first time that p73-regulated DRAM-1 is functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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MicroRNA-381 represses ID1 and is deregulated in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
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MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that suppress gene expression by binding to the 3 untranslated region (UTR) and thereby repress translation or decrease messenger RNA stability. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) is a putative stem-cell gene involved in invasion and angiogenesis. We previously showed that ID1 is regulated by Src kinases, overexpressed in human lung adenocarcinoma, and targeted by Src-dependent microRNAs. The current study focused on the association between miR-381 and ID1 in lung adenocarcinoma.
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PU.1 is linking the glycolytic enzyme HK3 in neutrophil differentiation and survival of APL cells.
Blood
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The transcription factor PU.1 is a master regulator of myeloid differentiation and function. On the other hand, only scarce information is available on PU.1-regulated genes involved in cell survival. We now identified the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3), a gene with cytoprotective functions, as transcriptional target of PU.1. Interestingly, HK3 expression is highly associated with the myeloid lineage and was significantly decreased in acute myeloid leukemia patients compared with normal granulocytes. Moreover, HK3 expression was significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared with non-APL patient samples. In line with the observations in primary APL patient samples, we observed significantly higher HK3 expression during neutrophil differentiation of APL cell lines. Moreover, knocking down PU.1 impaired HK3 induction during neutrophil differentiation. In vivo binding of PU.1 and PML-RARA to the HK3 promoter was found, and PML-RARA attenuated PU.1 activation of the HK3 promoter. Next, inhibiting HK3 in APL cell lines resulted in significantly reduced neutrophil differentiation and viability compared with control cells. Our findings strongly suggest that HK3 is: (1) directly activated by PU.1, (2) repressed by PML-RARA, and (3) functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation and cell viability of APL cells.
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Inhibition of SIRT1 impairs the accumulation and transcriptional activity of HIF-1? protein under hypoxic conditions.
PLoS ONE
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Sirtuins and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) have well-established roles in regulating cellular responses to metabolic and oxidative stress. Recent reports have linked these two protein families by demonstrating that sirtuins can regulate the activity of HIF-1 and HIF-2. Here we investigated the role of SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, in the regulation of HIF-1 activity in hypoxic conditions. Our results show that in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, hypoxia did not alter SIRT1 mRNA or protein expression, whereas it predictably led to the accumulation of HIF-1? and the up-regulation of its target genes. In hypoxic models in vitro and in in vivo models of systemic hypoxia and xenograft tumor growth, knockdown of SIRT1 protein with shRNA or inhibition of its activity with small molecule inhibitors impaired the accumulation of HIF-1? protein and the transcriptional increase of its target genes. In addition, endogenous SIRT1 and HIF-1? proteins co-immunoprecipitated and loss of SIRT1 activity led to a hyperacetylation of HIF-1?. Taken together, our data suggest that HIF-1? and SIRT1 proteins interact in HCC cells and that HIF-1? is a target of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Moreover, SIRT1 is necessary for HIF-1? protein accumulation and activation of HIF-1 target genes under hypoxic conditions.
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The transcription factor encyclopedia.
Dimas Yusuf, Stefanie L Butland, Magdalena I Swanson, Eugene Bolotin, Amy Ticoll, Warren A Cheung, Xiao Yu Cindy Zhang, Christopher T D Dickman, Debra L Fulton, Jonathan S Lim, Jake M Schnabl, Oscar H P Ramos, Mireille Vasseur-Cognet, Charles N de Leeuw, Elizabeth M Simpson, Gerhart U Ryffel, Eric W-F Lam, Ralf Kist, Miranda S C Wilson, Raquel Marco-Ferreres, Jan J Brosens, Leonardo L Beccari, Paola Bovolenta, Bérénice A Benayoun, Lara J Monteiro, Helma D C Schwenen, Lars Grontved, Elizabeth Wederell, Susanne Mandrup, Reiner A Veitia, Harini Chakravarthy, Pamela A Hoodless, M Michela Mancarelli, Bruce E Torbett, Alison H Banham, Sekhar P Reddy, Rebecca L Cullum, Michaela Liedtke, Mario P Tschan, Michelle Vaz, Angie Rizzino, Mariastella Zannini, Seth Frietze, Peggy J Farnham, Astrid Eijkelenboom, Philip J Brown, David Laperriere, Dominique Leprince, Tiziana de Cristofaro, Kelly L Prince, Marrit Putker, Luis del Peso, Gieri Camenisch, Roland H Wenger, Michal Mikula, Marieke Rozendaal, Sylvie Mader, Jerzy Ostrowski, Simon J Rhodes, Capucine Van Rechem, Gaylor Boulay, Sam W Z Olechnowicz, Mary B Breslin, Michael S Lan, Kyster K Nanan, Michael Wegner, Juan Hou, Rachel D Mullen, Stephanie C Colvin, Peter John Noy, Carol F Webb, Matthew E Witek, Scott Ferrell, Juliet M Daniel, Jason Park, Scott A Waldman, Daniel J Peet, Michael Taggart, Padma-Sheela Jayaraman, Julien J Karrich, Bianca Blom, Farhad Vesuna, Henriette O'Geen, Yunfu Sun, Richard M Gronostajski, Mark W Woodcroft, Margaret R Hough, Edwin Chen, G Nicholas Europe-Finner, Magdalena Karolczak-Bayatti, Jarrod Bailey, Oliver Hankinson, Venu Raman, David P LeBrun, Shyam Biswal, Christopher J Harvey, Jason P DeBruyne, John B Hogenesch, Robert F Hevner, Christophe Héligon, Xin M Luo, Marissa Cathleen Blank, Kathleen Joyce Millen, David S Sharlin, Douglas Forrest, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Chunyan Zhao, Yuriko Mishima, Satrajit Sinha, Rumela Chakrabarti, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Frances M Sladek, Philip H Bradley, Wyeth W Wasserman.
Genome Biol.
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Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.