JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intraocular pressure rise is predictive of vision improvement after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular oedema: a retrospective analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) is an effective treatment for recalcitrant diabetic macular oedema (DMO). It has been shown to improve vision with benefits persisting up to five years. The most common initial side effect of IVTA treatment is rise in intraocular pressure, occurring in approximately 50% of patients within the first 6 months of treatment. We evaluated whether there is a correlation between the development of intraocular pressure rise and improvement in vision.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of persistently active neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with VEGF inhibitors: observational study data.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe outcomes of eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subdivided by lesion activity in a large multicentre cohort study.
Related JoVE Video
A Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab versus Intravitreal Dexamethasone for Diabetic Macular Edema: The BEVORDEX Study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the 12-month results of the first head-to-head comparison of a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) versus bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) for center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME).
Related JoVE Video
Systemic administration of erythropoietin inhibits retinopathy in RCS rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats develop vasculopathy as photoreceptors degenerate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on retinopathy in RCS rats.
Related JoVE Video
Macular oedema in idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 responsive to aflibercept but not bevacizumab.
Case Rep Ophthalmol Med
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a patient with macular oedema due to type 1 macular telangiectasia responding to intravitreal aflibercept injection. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) in the right eye. The macular oedema was refractory to initial treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and argon laser photocoagulation. The patient was then treated with intravitreal aflibercept injections, following which the macular oedema was completely resolved and his vision was significantly improved. Intravitreal aflibercept injection appears to improve vision and reduce persistent macular oedema secondary to type 1 IMT and demonstrated promising anatomical and visual outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous fracture of diaphyseal stem of S-ROM femoral prosthesis.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present two cases of spontaneous fractures of the S-ROM femoral stem prosthesis implanted by different surgeons within 5?years of implantation. Both the stems fractured in the mid-distal stem at the junction of the main body and the slotted portion. Both fractures affected the posterior tine only. Our aim in publication is to ensure that this is an isolated problem and not an under-reported phenomenon. We are not aware of any previous reports of spontaneous fracture of the distal stem.
Related JoVE Video
Reasons for discontinuation of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to identify the reasons for discontinuing intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient capture of high-quality data on outcomes of treatment for macular diseases: the fight retinal blindness! Project.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the development of a web-based high-quality data collection tool to track the outcomes of treatment of macular disease in routine practice.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of glucocorticoids on neuronal and vascular pathology in a transgenic model of selective Müller cell ablation.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinal diseases such as macular telangiectasis type 2 (MacTel), age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) affect both neurons and blood vessels. Treatments addressing both at the same time might have advantages over more specific approaches, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, which are used to treat vascular leak but are suspected to have a neurotoxic effect. Here, we studied the effects of an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in a transgenic model in which patchy Müller cell ablation leads to photoreceptor degeneration, vascular leak, and intraretinal neovascularization. TA was injected 4 days before Müller cell ablation. Changes in photoreceptors, microglia and Müller cells, retinal vasculature, differential expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), the precursor and mature forms of neurotrophin 3 (pro-NT3 and mature NT3) and activation of the p53 and p38 stress-activated protein kinase (p38/SAPK) signaling pathways were examined. We found that TA prevented photoreceptor degeneration and inhibited activation of microglial and Müller cells. TA attenuated Müller cell loss and inhibited overexpression of p75(NTR) , TNF?, pro-NT, and the activation of p53 and p38/SAPK signaling pathways. TA not only prevented the development of retinal vascular lesions but also inhibited fluorescein leakage from established vascular lesions. TA inhibited overexpression of VEGF in transgenic mice but without affecting its basal level expression in the normal retina. Our data suggest that glucocorticoid treatment may be beneficial for treatment of retinal diseases such as MacTel, AMD, and DR that affect both neurons and the vasculature.
Related JoVE Video
Proteome changes induced by laser in diabetic retinopathy.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is the commonest cause of vision loss in people with diabetes. Laser photocoagulation can be effective in the treatment of DMO; however, its mechanism of action is still poorly understood. A better understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of therapeutic approaches that could avoid the deleterious adverse events associated with photocoagulation.
Related JoVE Video
Reporting of harms by randomised controlled trials in ophthalmology.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the reporting of harms by randomised controlled trials investigating intravitreal therapies for diabetic macular oedema. A thorough literature search identified eligible reports. Two authors independently extracted data from these articles using a prospectively created checklist. The main outcome measure was compliance with the 10 recommendations of the 2004 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement extension for better harms reporting. Secondary outcomes were the predictors of the number of recommendations met and the amount of space devoted to harms reporting. Thirty-six reports involving 7246 eyes met the criteria for analysis. The fidelity of the data extraction was excellent, with Cohen's ? coefficient of 0.90 for all items extracted. The median number of recommendations met was six, IQR 5-7. Recommendation 4 (describe how harms-related information was collected) was met by 97% of articles and recommendation 8 (present the absolute risk of each adverse event) by 92%. The least frequently met recommendations were numbers 3 (list addressed adverse events with definitions of each), 31%, and 6 (describe participant withdrawals because of harms), 36%. The mean percentage of the results section devoted to harms-related data was 25.8%, SD 10.8%. Harms reporting in published reports of trials of intravitreal therapies for diabetic macular oedema is still not entirely adequate despite increased attention and efforts to standardise it.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment on quality of life in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the impact of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in routine medical practice on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Related JoVE Video
Differential gene expression in Lin-/VEGF-R2+ bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells isolated from diabetic mice.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes is known to impair the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells in the circulation, causing structural and functional alterations in the micro- and macro-vasculature. The aim of this study was to identify early diabetes-related changes in the expression of genes that have been reported to be closely involved in endothelial progenitor cell migration and function.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetic macular edema: new concepts in patho-physiology and treatment.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious eye complication caused primarily by hyperglycemia, is one of the major causes of blindness. DME, which is characterized by cystic retinal thickening or lipid deposition, is prone to relapse after successful treatment. DME is a complex pathological process caused by multiple factors, including breakdown of the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers, oxidative stress, and elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor which have been demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Starling's law theory explains many of the features of DME. Early detection and treatment of DME can prevent vision loss. Current effective interventions for DME include treatment of systemic risk factors, such as elevated blood glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Ophthalmic treatments include laser photocoagulation, surgery and intraocular pharmacotherapy. New drugs, which are given by intraocular injection, have emerged in recent years to become first line treatment for DME that affects the central macula with loss of vision. Laser photocoagulation is still the gold standard of treatment for DME which does not involve the central macular. This review outlines these new treatments with particular emphasis on the optimal timing of how they are given.
Related JoVE Video
Laser capture microdissection-directed profiling of glycolytic and mTOR pathways in areas of selectively ablated Müller cells in the murine retina.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have reported previously down-regulation of key metabolic pathways, the glycolytic and mTOR pathways, from a global retinal microarray analysis after selective Müller cell ablation in a novel transgenic model. The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in expression of key molecules of glycolytic and mTOR pathways specifically in patches of Müller cell loss.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between inner retinal cavitation, photoreceptor disruption, and the integrity of the outer limiting membrane in macular telangiectasia type 2.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors analyzed the relationship between the integrity of the outer limiting membrane (OLM) and the presence of inner retinal cavitation and photoreceptor disruption in eyes with macular telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel Type 2).
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of NT3 and P75NTR in photoreceptor degeneration following selective Muller cell ablation.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurotrophins can regulate opposing functions that result in cell survival or apoptosis, depending on which form of the protein is secreted and which receptor and signaling pathway is activated. We have recently developed a transgenic model in which inducible and patchy Muller cell ablation leads to photoreceptor degeneration. This study aimed to examine the roles of mature neurotrophin-3 (NT3), pro-NT3 and p75 neurotrophin receptor (P75NTR) in photoreceptor degeneration in this model.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-retinal antibodies in patients with macular telangiectasia type 2.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel-2) is a retinal disease that can cause loss of central vision. To gain better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of MacTel-2, we investigated antigens that prompt the generation of retinal autoantibodies in the serum of patients with MacTel-2.
Related JoVE Video
Ophthalmologic complications of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C treatment.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiviral therapy consisting of interferon-alpha and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with multi-system side-effects. Ophthalmologic complications are common and can be classified into two groups: interferon-associated retinopathy and atypical adverse events. Interferon-associated retinopathy has been investigated by multiple observational studies that have found widely divergent results. The clinical importance of this complication is, consequently, controversial. This review examines the literature with the specific goal of identifying the most important ophthalmologic issues facing the hepatologist prescribing antiviral therapy. Accordingly, it assesses the incidence of interferon-associated retinopathy, as well as its risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and options for management using data from the observational studies. The likely benefit of a screening program, especially one targeting patients with the highest risk of developing interferon-associated retinopathy, is analysed. Atypical ophthalmologic adverse events occur less frequently than interferon-associated retinopathy during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. They often, however, lead to irreversible vision loss. We examine the reports of these adverse events - in individual case reports or case series and in the observational studies investigating interferon-associated retinopathy - to describe the spectrum of these adverse events, the likely outcome for patients and to highlight the most important areas of future clinical research.
Related JoVE Video
Safety of ranibizumab in routine clinical practice: 1-year retrospective pooled analysis of four European neovascular AMD registries within the LUMINOUS programme.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evaluation of 1-year safety profile of intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) within routine clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Outcomes from a Phase 3 Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with a Matched, Observational Cohort.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare outcomes of intravitreal therapy from an observational study cohort with those of participants receiving treatment in the Minimally Classic/Occult Trial of the Anti-VEGF Antibody Ranibizumab (MARINA) for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD).
Related JoVE Video
Prospective audit of exudative age-related macular degeneration: 12-month outcomes in treatment-naive eyes.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the 12-month outcomes of 1140 treatment-naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) who were treated for 12 months with intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs in routine clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of isometric and anatomical graft placement in synthetic ACL reconstructions: A pilot study.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Correct graft placement is critical to the success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR). Whilst current trend is to insert the graft in an anatomical location, synthetic grafts have shown to better perform when they are located in an isometric position. Placement, however, is largely dependent on the surgeon and no consensus has been reached for synthetic grafts. Kinematic flexion-extension data of four separate cadaveric knees was obtained using an optical tracking system. Knees were CT-scanned and computer models were developed for each specimen. Three different graft insertion techniques were simulated in each of the computer models. Kinematic data obtained from the optical tracking was applied to the 3D computer models to simulate knee flexion-extension, and virtual change in ACL graft length was measured over the cycle for each insertion technique. Length changes were plotted onto the Radiological-Quadrant. The isometric region on the femur was found to be a band spreading from the mid to deep end of the Blumensaats line down to the shallow-inferior end of the femoral condyle. The JP Laboureau isometric point technique was consistently located in the isometric zone, with the following coordinates on the Radiographic-Quadrant: t=0.375 (SD 0.0066), h=0.227 (SD 0.0266). The Bernard-Hertel and Charlie Brown anatomical placement methods were located (13%, -6%) and (8%, -15%) away, from the JP Laboureau isometric point, respectively, based on t- and h- coordinates of the Radiographic-Quadrant. This study has determined the isometric region using three-dimensional analysis relative to the Radiographic-Quadrant. The JP Laboureau method best finds the isometric point. This information is useful for synthetic graft placement.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic study of diabetic retinopathy: recruitment methodology and analysis of baseline characteristics.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a blinding disease of increasing prevalence that is caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Here we describe the patient recruitment methodology, case and control definitions, and clinical characteristics of a study sample to be used for genome-wide association analysis to detect genetic risk variants of DR.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin?/VEGF-R2? progenitor cells.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood (PB) have physiological roles in the maintenance of the existing vascular beds and rescue of vascular injury. In this study, we have evaluated the properties of Lin?/VEGF-R2? progenitor cells isolated from the mouse bone marrow (BM) and further studied their distribution and integration in an animal model of laser-induced retinal vascular injury. Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells were enriched from C57BL/6 mice BM using magnetic cell sorting with hematopoietic lineage (Lin) depletion followed by VEGF-R2 positive selection. Lin?/VEGF-R2? BM cells were characterized using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry and further tested for colony formation during culture and tube formation on Matrigel®. Lin?/VEGF-R2? BM cells possessed typical EPC properties such as forming cobble-stone shaped colonies after 3 to 4 weeks of culture, CD34? expression, take up of Dil-acLDL and binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin. However, they did not form tube-like structures on Matrigel®. The progenitor cells retained their phenotype over extended period of culture. After intravitreal transplantation in eyes subjected to the laser-induced retinal vascular injury, some Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells were able to integrate into the damaged retinal vasculature but the level of cell integration seemed less efficient when compared with previous reports in which EPCs from the human PB were employed. Our results indicate that Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells isolated from the mouse BM share some similarities to EPCs from the human PB but most of them are at a very early stage of maturation and remain quiescent during culture and after intravitreal transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of Müllers cells and photoreceptors in macular telangiectasia type 2.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To correlate postmortem histology from a patient with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 with previously recorded clinical imaging data.
Related JoVE Video
Randomized controlled trial of intravitreal ranibizumab versus standard grid laser for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the efficacy of intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab for the treatment of center-involving macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) over 1 year compared with standard-of-care grid laser.
Related JoVE Video
Medical characteristics of patients with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel Type 2) MacTel project report no. 3.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether the prevalences of various systemic conditions in participants of the MacTel Project Natural History Observation (NHO) Study differ from the corresponding prevalences in the general population.
Related JoVE Video
Differential gene expression profiling after conditional Müller-cell ablation in a novel transgenic model.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Müller cells, the principal glial cells in the mammalian retina, play an important role in the maintenance of retinal homeostasis. Recent reports suggest that Müller-cell dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinal diseases such as idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2. In the present study, we used microarray to compare retinae isolated from transgenic mice in which the Müller cells of adult mice retinae can be selectively ablated with control mice.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetic retinopathy: neuron protection as a therapeutic target.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has mainly been regarded as a microvascular disease that is caused by hyperglycaemia and characterized by retinal vascular leakage, macular oedema and preretinal neovascularisation. Increasing clinical evidence from electroretinographic, contrast sensitivity, perimetric, and colour vision studies suggest that neuronal changes may occur prior to clinically detectable microvasculopathy. Thus, there may be a primary neurodegenerative process which contributes to loss of vision in DR. Neuronal apoptosis in DR has been reported both in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, neuroprotection in DR may be a valuable therapeutic target. This review outlines the recent new concepts of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR, particularly emphasising its potential for new therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Baseline central macular thickness predicts the need for retreatment with intravitreal triamcinolone plus laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema.
Clin Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify baseline characteristics that predict the number of treatments with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) plus laser photocoagulation needed to treat diabetic macular edema over a 2-year period.
Related JoVE Video
Pilot application of iTRAQ to the retinal disease Macular Telangiectasia.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used the comparative proteomic technique iTRAQ coupled with offline 2DLC-MS/MS to analyze a rare specimen of the poorly understood, potentially blinding ophthalmic condition Macular Telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel type 2). We refined the technique using an internal standard consisting of pooled samples for each iTRAQ experiment to allow for multiple comparisons between different regions of the retina and different tissue donors. A total of 594 nonredundant proteins were identified in the retina and 168 in the vitreous, of which approximately half were found in significantly different abundance in the various comparisons made. The most prominent differences were found within the glycolytic pathway, where 8 proteins were reduced in the diseased macula compared with peripheral retina of the same eye, and 10 were also reduced in comparison with the macula of a control eye. Furthermore, Müller cell-associated proteins, including GFAP, VIME, and GLNA, were also reduced in the diseased macula, consistent with a link between the glycolytic pathway and Müller cells. These changes were validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies. Proteomic analysis of the vitreous revealed an increase of proteins that were reduced in the retina. This supports proteomic analysis of the more easily available vitreous, which may reveal retina-specific protein changes associated with disease. Furthermore, our study has highlighted changes in the glycolytic pathway as a possible component of MacTel type 2 pathobiology.
Related JoVE Video
Two isoforms of Flk-1 transcripts in early diabetic rat retinas.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We studied the expression levels of genes encoding the two isoforms of fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) and the effect of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in diabetic rat retinas on the isoforms.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanical variables affecting balloon kyphoplasty outcome--a finite element study.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is still unclear how a vertebral fracture should be stabilised and strengthened without endangering the remaining intact bone of the augmented vertebra or the adjacent vertebrae. Numerical modelling may provide insight. To date, however, few finite element (FE) spine models have been developed which are both multi-segmental and capture a more complete anatomy of the vertebrae. A 3-D, two-functional unit, CT-based, lumbar spine, FE model was developed and used to predict load transfer and likelihood of fracture following balloon kyphoplasty. The fractured anterior wall and injected cement were modelled in a two-functional spinal unit model with osteoporotic bone properties. Parameters investigated included: cement stiffness, cement volume and height restoration. Models were assessed based on stresses and a user-defined fracture-predicting field. Augmentation altered the stress distribution; shielding was dependent on positioning of the cement; and fracture algorithm found incomplete height restoration to increase the likelihood of fracture, particularly in adjacent vertebrae.
Related JoVE Video
Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ultrastructural appearance of retinal capillaries can yield important information about disease mechanisms, but is not well characterised in human post mortem samples. We therefore aimed to create a baseline for the appearance of capillaries and establish how this is influenced by post mortem fixation delays and donor age.
Related JoVE Video
Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide versus combined intravitreal bevacizumab and dexamethasone in diffuse diabetic macular oedema.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the efficacy of a single injection of combined intravitreal dexamethasone and bevacizumab (Avastin) with that of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in eyes with diffuse cystoid diabetic macular oedema.
Related JoVE Video
Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema related to branch or central retinal vein occlusion twelve-month study results.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 or 2 treatments with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) over 12 months in eyes with macular edema owing to branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or CRVO).
Related JoVE Video
Intravitreal triamcinolone prior to laser treatment of diabetic macular edema: 24-month results of a randomized controlled trial.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the 24 months outcomes from a clinical trial of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) plus laser versus laser treatment only in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME).
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is associated with TGF-?1-induced permeability of centrally derived vascular endothelium.
Eur. J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier and the blood-brain barrier is associated with changes in tight and adherens junction-associated proteins that link vascular endothelial cells. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 increases the paracellular permeability of vascular endothelial monolayers through tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. Bovine retinal and human brain capillary endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on coated polycarbonate membranes. Paracellular permeability was studied by measuring the equilibration of (14)C-inulin or fluorescence-labelled dextran. Changes in VE-cadherin and claudin-5 expression were studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and quantified by cell-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 was studied by ICC, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. We found that exposure of endothelial cells to TGF-?1 caused a dose-dependent increase in paracellular permeability as reflected by increases in the equilibration of (14)C-inulin. This effect was enhanced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate and attenuated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lavendustin A. ICC and cell-based ELISA revealed that TGF-?1 induced both dose- and time-dependent decreases in VE-cadherin and claudin-5 expression. Assessment of cell viability indicated that changes in these junction-associated proteins were not due to endothelial death or injury. ICC revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of endothelial monolayers was greatly enhanced by TGF-?1 treatment, and immunoprecipitation of cell lysates showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. Our results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is involved in the increased paracellular permeability of central nervous system-derived vascular endothelium induced by TGF-?1.
Related JoVE Video
Triamcinolone-induced cataract in eyes with diabetic macular oedema: 3-year prospective data from a randomized clinical trial.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the 3-year risk of cataract after intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injections for diabetic macular oedema and the outcomes of cataract surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant; OZURDEX, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) compared with sham in eyes with vision loss due to macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
Related JoVE Video
Perifoveal müller cell depletion in a case of macular telangiectasia type 2.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the histopathologic changes in a postmortem sample derived from an eye donor with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 to gain further insight into the cause of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of glutathione S-transferase Pi isoform (GSTP1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms and macular telangiectasia type 2.
Int Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent imaging studies have suggested that macular pigment is decreased centrally in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MT2). The uptake of xanthophyll pigment into the macula is thought to be facilitated by a xanthophyll-binding protein (XBP). The Pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) represents one such XBP with high binding affinity. This case-control study aimed to determine whether two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSTP1 were associated with MT2. DNA samples from 39 cases and 21 controls were collected. Two polymorphic sites of Ile105Val and Ala114Val in exons 5 and 6 respectively, of the GSTP1 gene were analysed. Comparison of alleles and genotypes between cases and controls indicated that there were no statistically significant differences for either the Ile105Val SNP (P=0.43) or the Ala114Val SNP (P=0.85), or for any combinations; however, the homozygous at-risk genotype (GG) of the Ile105Val SNP was present in 8% of cases but absent in controls. This study found no statistically significant association between two common GSTP1 SNPs and MT2; however, a trend towards a greater frequency of the GG genotype of the Ile105Val SNP in cases is of great interest. The biological plausibility of disturbed macular pigment uptake in MT2 makes GSTP1 an excellent candidate gene. Further investigation is warranted in future studies of MT2.
Related JoVE Video
A model of pressure distribution under peripherally secured foam dressings on a convex surface: does this contribute to skin graft loss?
Eplasty
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Successful skin grafting requires multiple factors for success. An even distribution of constant pressure exerted upon the graft is necessary for successful graft take. It is well known that excessive pressure on a graft causes ischemia and may result in the failure of graft take. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the variation in skin pressure (tension) on curved surfaces, particularly relating to apical pressure on such surfaces at standard atmospheric pressure.
Related JoVE Video
The Central Retinal Vein Bypass Study: a trial of laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis for central retinal vein occlusion.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effectiveness of a laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis (L-CRA) as a treatment for nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment with intravitreal triamcinolone before laser for diabetic macular edema: 6-month results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether pretreatment with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) before laser photocoagulation is effective in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME).
Related JoVE Video
Rapid reduction of hard exudates in eyes with diabetic retinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone: data from a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the effect of triamcinolone acetonide over 3 months on hard exudates in patients with diabetic macular oedema (DMO).
Related JoVE Video
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A: a multifunctional molecular player in diabetic retinopathy.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), first described as "vascular permeability factor", is a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy at several levels. Previous studies have outlined the importance of VEGF-A in mediating vascular pathology in both experimental models and clinical diabetic retinopathy, which are characterized by retinal vascular leakage, preretinal neovascularisation and neuronal degeneration. Paradoxically, recent reports have emphasized the potential neurotrophic effects of VEGF-A on the quiescent vasculature, as well as its direct and indirect protective effects on retinal neurons. VEGF-A has also been identified as an important signalling regulator in the normal central nervous system. Consequently, anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic retinopathy has become a controversal issue. This review outlines recently developed concepts relating to the role of VEGF-A in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, with particular emphasis on its implications for clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Familial asymptomatic macular telangiectasia type 2.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report findings in asymptomatic family members of patients with macular telangiectasia type 2.
Related JoVE Video
Five-year results of a randomized trial with open-label extension of triamcinolone acetonide for refractory diabetic macular edema.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report 5-year outcomes from a clinical trial of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and impaired vision despite previous laser treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Retinal vascular caliber and macular telangiectasia type 2.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the relationship of retinal vascular caliber to macular telangiectasia (MT) type 2.
Related JoVE Video
Macular telangiectasia type 2.
Prog Retin Eye Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the non-neovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure-function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual function testing including visual acuity and fundus-controlled microperimetry. We provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches for both non-neovascular and neovascular disease stages and provide a perspective of future directions including animal models and potential therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Conditional Müllercell ablation causes independent neuronal and vascular pathologies in a novel transgenic model.
J. Neurosci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Müller cells are the major glia of the retina that serve numerous functions essential to retinal homeostasis, yet the contribution of Müller glial dysfunction to retinal diseases remains largely unknown. We have developed a transgenic model using a portion of the regulatory region of the retinaldehyde binding protein 1 gene for conditional Müller cell ablation and the consequences of primary Müller cell dysfunction have been studied in adult mice. We found that selective ablation of Müller cells led to photoreceptor apoptosis, vascular telangiectasis, blood-retinal barrier breakdown and, later, intraretinal neovascularization. These changes were accompanied by impaired retinal function and an imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibited photoreceptor injury but had no effect on the vasculopathy. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF-A activity attenuated vascular leak but did not protect photoreceptors. Our findings show that Müller glial deficiency may be an important upstream cause of retinal neuronal and vascular pathologies in retinal diseases. Combined neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic therapies may be required to treat Müller cell deficiency in retinal diseases and in other parts of the CNS associated with glial dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
The IS/OS junction layer in the natural history of type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To document the progression of a break in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction layer and its functional correlates over time in the natural history of type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (type 2 MacTel).
Related JoVE Video
Ultrastructural and clinical evidence of subretinal debris accumulation in type 2 macular telangiectasia.
Br J Ophthalmol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe subretinal debris found on ultrastructural examination in an eye with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a subset of patients with MacTel type 2.
Related JoVE Video
Factors promoting success and influencing complications in laser-induced central vein bypass.
Ophthalmology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the factors influencing the successful creation of a laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis (L-CRA) and those involved in the development of complications.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a potential susceptibility locus for macular telangiectasia type 2.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macular Telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) is a relatively rare macular disease of adult onset presenting with distortions in the visual field and leading to progressive loss of visual acuity. For the purpose of a gene mapping study, several pedigrees were ascertained with multiple affected family members. Seventeen families with a total of 71 individuals (including 45 affected or possibly affected) were recruited at clinical centers in 7 countries under the auspices of the MacTel Project. The disease inheritance was consistent with autosomal dominant segregation with reduced penetrance. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed, followed by analysis of recombination breakpoints. Linkage analysis identified a single peak with multi-point LOD score of 3.45 on chromosome 1 at 1q41-42 under a dominant model. Recombination mapping defined a minimal candidate region of 15.6 Mb, from 214.32 (rs1579634; 219.96 cM) to 229.92 Mb (rs7542797; 235.07 cM), encompassing the 1q41-42 linkage peak. Sanger sequencing of the top 14 positional candidates genes under the linkage peak revealed no causal variants in these pedigrees.
Related JoVE Video
"En face" OCT imaging of the IS/OS junction line in type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated abnormalities of the photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction layer viewed "en face" and their functional correlates in type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (type 2 MacTel).
Related JoVE Video
Central serous chorioretinopathy: a review of epidemiology and pathophysiology.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common retinal cause of vision loss. This review surveys the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, natural history and pathophysiology of CSCR. Studies suggest an annual incidence rate of 10 per 100 000 in men, with CSCR occurring six times more commonly in men compared with women. Most acute CSCR cases resolve spontaneously within 2-3 months. Prognosis is highly dependent on presenting visual acuity; patients with initial visual acuities of 6/6 remain at that level, while patients with initial visual acuities of less than 6/9 recover on average two to three Snellen lines over the next few years. The main risk factors for CSCR are systemic corticosteroid use, type A personality, pregnancy and endogenous Cushings syndrome. The pathophysiology of CSCR remains obscure, although disorders in both the choroidal circulation and retinal pigment epithelium are implicated.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis and interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: review and update.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most acute cases of central serous chorioretinopathy resolve spontaneously with minimal visual impairment. The small percentage of eyes developing chronic or recurrent disease that do warrant treatment is often difficult to control. Emergent investigations and treatments have added to the established options available to manage these cases. Optical coherence tomography has proved valuable for both imaging subtle fundoscopic findings and monitoring disease progression. Fluorescein angiography aids identification of pigment epithelial leaks and targets the use of argon laser treatment if outside the fovea. Fluorescein angiography also assists differentiation from other choroidal pathologies such as choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, indocyanine green angiography can demonstrate classic midphase hyperpermeability. This is also useful to guide the application of photodynamic therapy. Newer treatments such as intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor are as yet unproven.
Related JoVE Video
The role of glia in retinal vascular disease.
Clin Exp Optom
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinal vascular diseases collectively represent a leading cause of blindness. Unsurprisingly, pathological characterisation and treatment of retinal vascular diseases have primarily focused on the aetiology and consequences of vascular dysfunction. Far less research has addressed the contribution of neuronal and glial dysfunction to the disease process of retinal vascular disorders. Ample evidence now suggests that retinal vasculopathy only uncommonly occurs in isolation, usually existing in concert with neuropathy and gliopathy. Retinal glia (Müller cells, astrocytes and microglia) have been reported to exhibit morphological and functional changes in both early and advanced phases of almost every retinal vascular disease. It is anticipated that identifying the causes of glial activation and dysfunction, and their contribution to loss of vision in retinal vascular disease, will lead to a better understanding of retinal vascular diseases, which might ultimately be translated into novel clinical therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical development of new treatments for diabetic macular oedema.
Clin Exp Optom
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benchmark treatment for diabetic macular oedema, the major cause of visual impairment in patients with diabetes mellitus, has traditionally been laser photocoagulation; however, as laser treatment does not always improve vision or even prevent further loss in many cases, several new pharmacotherapies that are injected into the vitreous for diabetic macular oedema have been successfully trialled over the past decade. Others are currently being evaluated. The two major classes of these drugs are steroids and vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists. In this article we briefly review the major clinical studies recently conducted in this field.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of ophthalmic disease.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteomics, a highly sophisticated way to study the protein profile of various biological tissues or fluids, has hitherto had a relatively limited role ophthalmic science. Of the few proteomic studies that have been performed, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis gel separation and mass spectrometry have been utilized to investigate the proteome of several different eye structures and fluids from both humans and animal models. Ophthalmic proteomic studies have so far attempted to identify proteins unique to the eye, to investigate protein changes due to the onset of various diseases and to identify proteins that could act as markers of disease. Proteomics has the potential to improve the way in which eye disease is diagnosed and potentially even treated by identifying novel pathogenic pathways that may be susceptible to therapeutic manipulation. The aim of this review is to give an overview the current and potential application of proteomic science to ophthalmic research.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.