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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vitamin D status and hospitalisation for childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Nigeria.
Paediatr Int Child Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Background: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) is the leading cause of childhood deaths in most developing countries, including Nigeria. Vitamin D is associated with innate immunity and may play a role in the control of infections. Case-control studies, including a small study from Nigeria, show inconsistent results for the association between vitamin D status and risk of ALRTI. Aims: To examine the relationship between vitamin D status and hospitalization for ALRTI in Nigerian children. Methods: Fifty children aged 2-60 months hospitalised with ALRTI were studied prospectively. ALRTI was diagnosed on the basis of modified WHO criteria. Each patient was matched with controls for age and gender. The controls were enrolled either from children attending well-child clinics or general clinics without evidence of respiratory infection or admitted to the hospital for elective surgery. A structured questionnaire collected data on demography, health, diet, duration of exposure to sunlight and percentage of body surface exposed to sunlight (according to type of clothing) while outdoors, and potential risk factors for ALRTI. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was measured using a chemiluminescenceimmuno-assay. The differences between cases and controls in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, association between vitamin D status and ALRTI and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were assessed. Results: Mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentrations in patients and controls were similar [61·5 (25·8) vs 63·1 (22·9) nmol/L,P?=?0·95].25% of all 100 subjects studied had serum 25(OH)D<50 nmol/L. In a multiple conditional logistic regression model, only lower percentage of body surface area exposed to sunlight was associated with increased risk of ALRTI. The percentage of body surface area exposed to sunlight while outdoors (P?=?0·028) and vitamin D supplement use (P?=?0·009) were independent determinants of vitamin D deficiency in the overall study population. Conclusions: ALRTI was not associated with vitamin D status, but was associated with less exposure to sunlight. Exposure to sunlight and vitamin D supplementation contributed to vitamin D status in this population.
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Respiratory syncytial virus transplacental antibody transfer and kinetics in mother-infant pairs in bangladesh.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality globally. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia. Maternal serum antibody protects infants from RSV disease. The objective of our study was to characterize RSV antibody levels in mother-infant pairs.
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Comparison of a new transport medium with universal transport medium at a tropical field site.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Limited data are available in rural Honduran settings describing the etiology of respiratory infections, partially due to limited specimen transport. A new molecular transport media (MTM) preserves released nucleic acid at ambient temperature for later detection. Prospective surveillance was conducted in a Honduran clinic to identify 233 children less than 5 years of age presenting with respiratory symptoms. We obtained 2 nasopharyngeal samples and stored 1 in PrimeStore® MTM at room temperature and 1 in universal transport media (UTM) at -80 °C. The specimens were then transported to Cincinnati Children's Hospital and tested for 16 respiratory viruses using a multiplex PCR panel. The 2 specimen collection systems were similar for detecting the 4 most common viruses: influenza (Kappa = 0.7676, P < 0.0001), human metapneumovirus (Kappa = 0.8770, P < 0.0001), respiratory syncytial virus (Kappa = 0.6849, P < 0.0001), and parainfluenza (Kappa = 0.8796, P < 0.0001). These results suggest that clinical specimens transported via PrimeStore® MTM and UTM yield similar viral multiplex PCR results.
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Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Guidelines do not currently recommend the use of lung ultrasound (LUS) as an alternative to chest X-ray (CXR) or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan for the diagnosis of pneumonia. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize existing evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of LUS for pneumonia in adults.
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Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are low in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women.
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The effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness in young infants in a maternal immunization trial in Bangladesh.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Exclusive breast-feeding reduces the risk of respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months of age in developing countries by approximately half. We evaluated the effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness with fever (RIF) in Bangladeshi infants in the context of a randomized maternal influenza immunization trial.
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Impact of maternal characteristics on the effect of maternal influenza vaccination on fetal outcomes.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Maternal infections during pregnancy have been associated with adverse fetal and infant health outcomes, and vaccination against influenza is the most effective tool to prevent morbidity and mortality due to seasonal and pandemic influenza. We evaluated the association between receipt of the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine on preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births, with the aim to assess racial and socioeconomic variations in vaccine effect.
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Assessments of vaccines for prenatal immunization.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The strategy of prenatal maternal immunization to protect the pregnant woman and her infant was first used with tetanus toxoid, when it was recognized that young infants had very high rates of tetanus disease, well before the age when infant immunizations are provided. Antenatal immunization has now been recommended and utilized for additional vaccines to prevent infections in pregnancy and the young infant. There are several issues to consider which are unique to the strategy of antenatal immunization. The first is that immunization of the pregnant woman will affect the woman who receives the vaccine, her developing fetus, and the young infant for several months after delivery. For this discussion, we will consider the availability of data for the maternal-fetal-infant triad in 4 aspects: This discussion will review available data from vaccines for prevention of tetanus, pneumococcal, influenza and pertussis infections used in antenatal maternal immunization programs.
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Invasive pneumococcal disease associated with high case fatality in India.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To study the seroepidemiology and antimicrobial resistance pattern of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in older subjects who are admitted to hospitals in India.
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Neonatal outcomes after antenatal influenza immunization during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: impact on preterm birth, birth weight, and small for gestational age birth.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes such as preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). Maternal influenza immunization may prevent these adverse infant outcomes during periods of influenza circulation.
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Combined effects of antenatal receipt of influenza vaccine by mothers and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine receipt by infants: results from a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A 2 × 2 factorial trial was performed to determine the efficacy of antennal influenza vaccination of mothers plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of their infants against respiratory illness during early infancy. The efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV; delivered to mothers) plus 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; delivered to infants) was higher than the efficacy of TIV alone or PCV7 alone. During the period of the study in which influenza was circulating, the efficacy of TIV plus PCV7 was 72.4% (95% confidence interval, 30.2%-89.1%) against febrile respiratory illness and 66.4% (95% CI, 14.3%-86.9%) against medically attended acute respiratory illness.
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IgA and neutralizing antibodies to influenza a virus in human milk: a randomized trial of antenatal influenza immunization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Antenatal immunization of mothers with influenza vaccine increases serum antibodies and reduces the rates of influenza illness in mothers and their infants. We report the effect of antenatal immunization on the levels of specific anti-influenza IgA levels in human breast milk. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00142389; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00142389).
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Reported healthcare utilisation for childhood respiratory illnesses in Vellore, South India.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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A 30-cluster survey using a modified WHO method was performed to assess the healthcare utilisation patterns for respiratory illnesses in Indian children < 5 years of age. Families of 600 children were interviewed to assess respiratory illness and healthcare utilisation during the previous month as well as hypothetical healthcare-seeking behaviour in the future. Based on parental report, 381 children (63.5%) had experienced a respiratory illness 1 month prior to the interview; 10 children were reported to have had severe pneumonia, 49 non-severe pneumonia and 322 upper respiratory illnesses (URI), extrapolating to 0.20 (95% CI 0.1-0.4), 0.98 (0.7-1.3) and 6.44 (6.0-6.9) cases per child-year, respectively. Five severe pneumonia cases (50%) were reported to have directly accessed care at a secondary or tertiary care centre, whilst 18 children (36.7%) with non-severe pneumonia and 56 children (17.4%) with URI were reported to have been seen at secondary or tertiary centres. The remaining respiratory illnesses were reported to have been seen by primary care physicians, pharmacists, traditional healers and friends or were not seen by a healthcare professional. This community-based Indian study suggests that, in this community, tertiary care surveillance alone may not accurately sample community disease, even for severe illnesses.
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Interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood: recent evidence from developing countries.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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This review highlights recent progress toward understanding complex interactions between diarrhea, pneumonia, and undernutrition among children in low-income and middle-income countries.
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Maternal influenza immunization and reduced likelihood of prematurity and small for gestational age births: a retrospective cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Infections during pregnancy have the potential to adversely impact birth outcomes. We evaluated the association between receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy and prematurity and small for gestational age (SGA) births.
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Incidence of influenza virus infection in early infancy: a prospective study in South Asia.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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We evaluated infant sera from an immunization trial in Bangladesh to assess influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer increases in 131 unimmunized infants from birth to 6 months. We detected 31 serologically defined infections. Combined with 10 additional rapid test-proven influenza cases, the minimal estimated incidence was 31 of 100 infants (95% CI: 24-41). These data suggest a high burden of influenza in young infants in tropical South Asia.
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Effect of respiratory hospitalization during pregnancy on infant outcomes.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal hospitalization for a respiratory-related condition during influenza season results in an increased risk of neonatal morbidity. With the use of a 13-year population-based cohort study of all singleton live births in Nova Scotia (1990-2002), neonatal outcomes were compared between women with and without hospital admission for respiratory illness during influenza season at any time in pregnancy. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine infant outcomes and to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Infants who were born to mothers who had been hospitalized for respiratory illness during influenza season at any time during pregnancy were more likely to be small for gestational age (15.3% vs 9.7%; adjusted relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.49) and to have lower mean birthweight (3348.5 ± 498.2 g vs 3531.3 ± 504.1 g; ? score, -86.67; P < .009) than were infants who were born to women without an influenza-season respiratory hospitalization during pregnancy. Our findings in a cohort of singleton infants who were born in a high-resource setting support the findings that were described in Bangladesh that demonstrated an increased number of small-for-gestational-age infants and a lower mean birthweight among babies who were born to mothers who were not protected by influenza vaccine.
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The epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children, a two year population-based study in the Peoples Republic of China.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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The epidemiology and disease burden of annual influenza in children in mainland Peoples Republic of China have not been reported in detail. To understand the incidence and epidemiology of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization in children in China, a review of available laboratory and hospital admission data was undertaken.
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The utility of rapid antigen detection testing for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in low-resource settings.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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To evaluate the utility of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) for the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in pediatric outpatient clinics in four countries with varied socio-economic and geographic profiles.
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Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine influenza vaccination for all women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season. During seasonal influenza epidemics, during previous pandemics, and with the current influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at increased risk for serious complications from influenza, including death. Inactivated influenza vaccine can be safely and effectively administered during any trimester of pregnancy. No study to date has demonstrated an increased risk of either maternal complications or adverse fetal outcomes associated with inactivated influenza vaccination. Moreover, no scientific evidence exists that thimerosal-containing vaccines are a cause of adverse events among children born to women who received influenza vaccine during pregnancy. In this article, we review the evidentiary basis for the recommendation of vaccination of all women who will be pregnant during the influenza season and safety data of influenza vaccination during pregnancy.
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Community effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in India.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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We assessed the effect of distribution of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the private health care sector on Hib meningitis admissions at a referral hospital in India. The annual mean number of Hib cases was 10.7 before Hib vaccine introduction, falling to 3.8 cases following introduction (P < 0.0001). By contrast, the mean of annual numbers of pneumococcal cases were 3.0 and 4.6, (P = 0.55). Even at relatively low coverage through private sector distribution, Hib vaccine has significant community impact on Hib disease.
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Recommendations for treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age.
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Pregnancy modifies the antibody response to trivalent influenza immunization.
J. Infect. Dis.
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We report the immunogenicity of trivalent influenza immunization in 29 pregnant women compared with 22 nonpregnant women. We obtained blood specimens on day 0 prior to 2011-2012 influenza vaccine administration and day 28 after immunization. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titers were similar before immunization but were significantly reduced by 40%-50% in pregnant women after immunization for influenza A/California(H1N1) (P = .027) and A/Perth(H3N2) (P = .037). Postimmunization HAI titers were similar between groups for influenza B/Brisbane (P = .390). The geometric mean ratio (fold increase) for influenza A(H1N1) was nonsignificantly reduced in pregnant participants (P = .089). The percentages of participants who seroconverted and achieved seroprotection were similar between groups.
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The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China.
PLoS ONE
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There have been few studies on children hospitalized with influenza published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalized children in Suzhou, China.
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A review of fetal and infant protection associated with antenatal influenza immunization.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
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The well-described burden of influenza morbidity in the pregnant woman and her young infant have led to increasing interest in the use of antenatal immunization to protect both the mother and the infant. In this review, we summarize the recent data on the effect of antenatal influenza infection, and influenza immunization, on mothers and infants. Antenatal influenza immunization can improve intrauterine growth in Asia and North America and reduce preterm deliveries. Studies of the pathogenetic process of influenza infection in the mother and fetus are needed. These findings suggest the wider use of antenatal immunization should be encouraged, including in low-resource regions. Creative approaches to antenatal influenza immunization policy should be developed to provide protection to the maternal, fetal, and infant triad in temperate and tropical regions.
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Detection and serotyping of lyophilized nonculturable pneumococcal isolates.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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One hundred fifty-two nonculturable lyophilized carriage pneumococcal isolates from a vaccine trial were subjected to PCR for serotyping, and 149 (98%) were successfully classified as vaccine or nonvaccine types, which were similar to viable isolates. The methodology will be useful for analysis of this and other studies where stored pneumococcal isolates fail to grow.
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Development and characterization of a multiplex bead-based immunoassay to quantify pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide-specific antibodies.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the traditional antibody quantification technique, has several limitations, especially when used to evaluate multivalent and/or infant vaccines. We have developed a multiplex bead-based antibody quantification assay (MBIA) to measure antibody response to multiple pneumococcal (Pn) serotypes (St) in a single assay. MBIA was compared with the WHO ELISA using a WHO panel of 12 international calibration sera for 7 Pn Sts. An agreement of 75 to 92% was obtained for all 7 Sts. MBIA exhibited good robustness, with the assay variability at ? 16%. A major contributor to MBIA variability was the cell wall polysaccharide (CWPs) content in Pn St-specific capsular Ps. This necessitated careful CWPs (20 ?g/ml) preadsorption of sera. MBIA is specific, robust, and reproducible and offers high throughput. The use of MBIA will greatly reduce the cost and time required to evaluate the immune response to multiple Pn Sts and could help promote the licensure of future Pn and other multivalent vaccines.
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Antibody persistence in mothers one year after pneumococcal immunization in pregnancy.
Vaccine
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Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and young infants are particularly vulnerable to infection. Maternal immunization can protect infants, but there are limited data on the duration of pneumococcal vaccine antibody in pregnant women. We report on maternal antibody concentrations one year after immunization with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (23vPPS) vaccine.
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Etiology and seasonality of viral respiratory infections in rural Honduran children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Limited data are available in Honduras that describe the etiology and seasonality of respiratory infections, especially in rural outpatient settings. Better data may lead to improved therapeutic and preventive strategies. The goal of our study was to determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in a rural Honduran population of children.
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Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.
PLoS ONE
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To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants.
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Computerised lung sound analysis to improve the specificity of paediatric pneumonia diagnosis in resource-poor settings: protocol and methods for an observational study.
BMJ Open
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WHO case management algorithm for paediatric pneumonia relies solely on symptoms of shortness of breath or cough and tachypnoea for treatment and has poor diagnostic specificity, tends to increase antibiotic resistance. Alternatives, including oxygen saturation measurement, chest ultrasound and chest auscultation, exist but with potential disadvantages. Electronic auscultation has potential for improved detection of paediatric pneumonia but has yet to be standardised. The authors aim to investigate the use of electronic auscultation to improve the specificity of the current WHO algorithm in developing countries.
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Clinical Characteristics and Direct Medical Cost of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized in Suzhou, China.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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There have been few studies on children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven RSV children hospitalized in Suzhou, China.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.