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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dye label interference with RNA modification reveals 5-fluorouridine as non-covalent inhibitor.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The interest in RNA modification enzymes surges due to their involvement in epigenetic phenomena. Here we present a particularly informative approach to investigate the interaction of dye-labeled RNA with modification enzymes. We investigated pseudouridine (?) synthase TruB interacting with an alleged suicide substrate RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (5FU). A longstanding dogma, stipulating formation of a stable covalent complex was challenged by discrepancies between the time scale of complex formation and enzymatic turnover. Instead of classic mutagenesis, we used differentially positioned fluorescent labels to modulate substrate properties in a range of enzymatic conversion between 6% and 99%. Despite this variegation, formation of SDS-stable complexes occurred instantaneously for all 5FU-substrates. Protein binding was investigated by advanced fluorescence spectroscopy allowing unprecedented simultaneous detection of change in fluorescence lifetime, anisotropy decay, as well as emission and excitation maxima. Determination of Kd values showed that introduction of 5FU into the RNA substrate increased protein affinity by 14× at most. Finally, competition experiments demonstrated reversibility of complex formation for 5FU-RNA. Our results lead us to conclude that the hitherto postulated long-term covalent interaction of TruB with 5FU tRNA is based on the interpretation of artifacts. This is likely true for the entire class of pseudouridine synthases.
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Absolute and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC-MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding (13)C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For absolute in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to absolute amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear dynamic range that was extended by two orders of magnitude.
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Aberrant methylation of tRNAs links cellular stress to neuro-developmental disorders.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Mutations in the cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase NSun2 cause microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities in mice and human. How post-transcriptional methylation contributes to the human disease is currently unknown. By comparing gene expression data with global cytosine-5 RNA methylomes in patient fibroblasts and NSun2-deficient mice, we find that loss of cytosine-5 RNA methylation increases the angiogenin-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage of transfer RNAs (tRNA) leading to an accumulation of 5' tRNA-derived small RNA fragments. Accumulation of 5' tRNA fragments in the absence of NSun2 reduces protein translation rates and activates stress pathways leading to reduced cell size and increased apoptosis of cortical, hippocampal and striatal neurons. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that angiogenin binds with higher affinity to tRNAs lacking site-specific NSun2-mediated methylation and that the presence of 5' tRNA fragments is sufficient and required to trigger cellular stress responses. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of NSun2-deficient brains to oxidative stress can be rescued through inhibition of angiogenin during embryogenesis. In conclusion, failure in NSun2-mediated tRNA methylation contributes to human diseases via stress-induced RNA cleavage.
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A modified dinucleotide motif specifies tRNA recognition by TLR7.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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RNA can function as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) whose recognition by the innate immune system alerts the body to an impending microbial infection. The recognition of tRNA as either self or nonself RNA by TLR7 depends on its modification patterns. In particular, it is known that the presence of a ribose methylated guanosine at position 18, which is overrepresented in self-RNA, antagonizes an immune response. Here, we report that recognition extends to the next downstream nucleotide and the effectively recognized molecular detail is actually a methylated dinucleotide. The most efficient nucleobases combination of this motif includes two purines, while pyrimidines diminish the effect of ribose methylation. The constraints of this motif stay intact when transposed to other parts of the tRNA. The results argue against a fixed orientation of the tRNA during interaction with TLR7 and, rather, suggest a processive type of inspection.
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Click modification of multifunctional liposomes bearing hyperbranched polyether chains.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Aiming at controlled modification of liposomal surface structures, we describe a postpreparational approach for surface derivatization of a new type of multifunctional, sterically stabilized liposomes. Application of dual centrifugation (DC) resulted in high encapsulation efficiencies above 50% at very small batch sizes with a total volume of 150 ?L, which were conductive to fast and efficient optimization of variegated surface modification reactions. Cholesterol-polymer amphiphiles, including complex hyperbranched polyether structures bearing 1-4 terminal alkynes, were used in DC formulations to provide steric stabilization. The alkyne moieties were explored as anchors for the conjugation of small molecules to the liposomal surface via click chemistry, binding 350-450 fluorophores per liposome as examples for surface active molecules. Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy, the conjugation reaction as well as the uptake of FRET-labeled liposomes by RBE4 cells was monitored, and the distribution of the fluorescent lipids among cellular structures and membranes could be studied. Thus, the combination of clickable hyperbranched amphiphiles and dual centrifugation provides access to well-defined liposomal formulations with a variety of surface moieties.
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Synthesis of new asymmetric xanthene dyes via catalyst-free S(N)Ar with sulfur nucleophiles.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Addition of a single functional handle to the tricyclic moiety of fluorescein results in asymmetric xanthene dyes. Our synthesis of a new class of asymmetric xanthenes proceeds via an unusual SNAr with sulfur nucleophiles on electron rich aromatic xanthenes scaffolds in the absence of a metal catalyst. The resulting 3'-thioethers exhibit high photostability and are conveniently converted into reactive dyes for macromolecule labelling.
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The Dnmt2 RNA methyltransferase homolog of Geobacter sulfurreducens specifically methylates tRNA-Glu.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Dnmt2 enzymes are conserved in eukaryotes, where they methylate C38 of tRNA-Asp with high activity. Here, the activity of one of the very few prokaryotic Dnmt2 homologs from Geobacter species (GsDnmt2) was investigated. GsDnmt2 was observed to methylate tRNA-Asp from flies and mice. Unexpectedly, it had only a weak activity toward its matching Geobacter tRNA-Asp, but methylated Geobacter tRNA-Glu with good activity. In agreement with this result, we show that tRNA-Glu is methylated in Geobacter while the methylation is absent in tRNA-Asp. The activities of Dnmt2 enzymes from Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Dictyostelium discoideum for methylation of the Geobacter tRNA-Asp and tRNA-Glu were determined showing that all these Dnmt2s preferentially methylate tRNA-Asp. Hence, the GsDnmt2 enzyme has a swapped transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) specificity. By comparing the different tRNAs, a characteristic sequence pattern was identified in the variable loop of all preferred tRNA substrates. An exchange of two nucleotides in the variable loop of murine tRNA-Asp converted it to the corresponding variable loop of tRNA-Glu and led to a strong reduction of GsDnmt2 activity. Interestingly, the same loss of activity was observed with human DNMT2, indicating that the variable loop functions as a specificity determinant in tRNA recognition of Dnmt2 enzymes.
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Profiling of RNA modifications by multiplexed stable isotope labelling.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The combination of (15)N/(13)C stable isotope labelling (SIL) and LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 52 modifications in RNA from E. coli and yeast, including 10 previously undescribed modifications. Two modifications, N-ribosylnicotinamide and 2-methylthioadenosine, were newly detected in species hitherto thought not to contain these modifications.
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The guanidinium group as a key part of water-soluble polymer carriers for siRNA complexation and protection against degradation.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Here, the preparation of a novel block copolymer consisting of a statistical copolymer N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-s-N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide and a short terminal 3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide block is reported. This polymer structure forms neutral but water-soluble nanosized complexes with siRNA. The siRNA block copolymer complexes are first analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and their size is determined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The protective properties of the polymer against RNA degradation are investigated by treating the siRNA block copolymer complexes with RNase V1. Heparin competition assays confirm the efficient release of the cargo in vitro. In addition, the utilization of microscale thermophoresis is demonstrated for the determination of the binding strength between a fluorescently labeled polyanion and a polymer molecule.
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Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP): accomplishments, challenges, and policy recommendations.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Sixteen years ago, the 105th Congress, responding to the needs of 10 million children in the United States who lacked health insurance, created the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Enacted as Title XXI of the Social Security Act, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP; or SCHIP as it has been known at some points) provided states with federal assistance to create programs specifically designed for children from families with incomes that exceeded Medicaid thresholds but that were insufficient to enable them to afford private health insurance. Congress provided $40 billion in block grants over 10 years for states to expand their existing Medicaid programs to cover the intended populations, to erect new stand-alone SCHIP programs for these children, or to effect some combination of both options. Congress reauthorized CHIP once in 2009 under the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and extended its life further within provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The purpose of this statement is to review the features of CHIP as it has evolved over the 16 years of its existence; to summarize what is known about the effects that the program has had on coverage, access, health status, and disparities among participants; to identify challenges that remain with respect to insuring this group of vulnerable children, including the impact that provisions of the new Affordable Care Act will have on the issue of health insurance coverage for near-poor children after 2015; and to offer recommendations on how to expand and strengthen the national commitment to provide health insurance to all children regardless of means.
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Partial methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of baker's yeast reveals ribosome heterogeneity on the level of eukaryotic rRNA modification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2'-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2'-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process.
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Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications: Playing Metabolic Games in a Cells Chemical Legoland.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Nature combines existing biochemical building blocks, at times with subtlety of purpose. RNA modifications are a prime example of this, where standard RNA nucleosides are decorated with chemical groups and building blocks that we recall from our basic biochemistry lectures. The result: a wealth of chemical diversity whose full biological relevance has remained elusive despite being public knowledge for some time. Here, we highlight several modifications that, because of their chemical intricacy, rely on seemingly unrelated pathways to provide cofactors for their synthesis. Besides their immediate role in affecting RNA function, modifications may act as sensors and transducers of information that connect a cells metabolic state to its translational output, carefully orchestrating a delicate balance between metabolic rate and protein synthesis at a systems level.
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Structure-function relationship of substituted bromomethylcoumarins in nucleoside specificity of RNA alkylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Selective alkylation of RNA nucleotides is an important field of RNA biochemistry, e.g. in applications of fluorescent labeling or in structural probing experiments, yet detailed structure-function studies of labeling agents are rare. Here, bromomethylcoumarins as reactive compounds for fluorescent labeling of RNA are developed as an attractive scaffold on which electronic properties can be modulated by varying the substituents. Six different 4-bromomethyl-coumarins of various substitution patterns were tested for nucleotide specificity of RNA alkylation using tRNA from Escherichia coli as substrate. Using semi-quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis, reactions at mildly acidic and slightly alkaline pH were compared. For all tested compounds, coumarin conjugates with 4-thiouridine, pseudouridine, guanosine, and uridine were identified, with the latter largely dominating. This data set shows that selectivity of ribonucleotide alkylation depends on the substitution pattern of the reactive dye, and even more strongly on the modulation of the reaction conditions. The latter should be therefore carefully optimized when striving to achieve selectivity. Interestingly, the highest selectivity for labeling of a modified nucleoside, namely of 4-thiouridine, was achieved with a compound whose selectivity was somewhat less dependent on reaction conditions than the other compounds. In summary, bromomethylcoumarin derivatives are a highly interesting class of compounds, since their selectivity for 4-thiouridine can be efficiently tuned by variation of substitution pattern and reaction conditions.
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Regulatory RNAs and beyond.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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The dynamic regulation of biological processes by RNA has emerged as a key field in recent years, and was the topic of the 62nd Mosbacher Colloquium of the German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (GBM). The 2011 Colloquium, held in April in the romantic Neckar-river region, was also a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the RNA Biochemistry study group within the GBM, which acts as platform for RNA biologists and chemists within Germany and in other European countries.
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A multifunctional bioconjugate module for versatile photoaffinity labeling and click chemistry of RNA.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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A multifunctional reagent based on a coumarin scaffold was developed for derivatization of naive RNA. The alkylating agent N3BC [7-azido-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin], obtained by Pechmann condensation, is selective for uridine. N3BC and its RNA conjugates are pre-fluorophores which permits controlled modular and stepwise RNA derivatization. The success of RNA alkylation by N3BC can be monitored by photolysis of the azido moiety, which generates a coumarin fluorophore that can be excited with UV light of 320?nm. The azidocoumarin-modified RNA can be flexibly employed in structure-function studies. Versatile applications include direct use in photo-crosslinking studies to cognate proteins, as demonstrated with tRNA and RNA fragments from the MS2 phage and the HIV genome. Alternatively, the azide function can be used for further derivatization by click-chemistry. This allows e.g. the introduction of an additional fluorophore for excitation with visible light.
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Single-molecule FRET studies of counterion effects on the free energy landscape of human mitochondrial lysine tRNA.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The folding energy landscape of RNA is greatly affected by interactions between the RNA and counterions that neutralize the backbone negative charges and may also participate in tertiary contacts. Valence, size, coordination number, and electron shell structure can all contribute to the energetic stabilization of specific RNA conformations. Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we have examined the folding properties of the RNA transcript of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys), which possesses two different folded states in addition to the unfolded one under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. We have quantitatively analyzed the degree of RNA tertiary structure stabilization for different types of cations based on a thermodynamic model that accounts for multiple conformational states and RNA-ion interactions within each state. We have observed that small monovalent ions stabilize the tRNA tertiary structure more efficiently than larger ones. More ions were found in close vicinity of compact RNA structures, independent of the type of ion. The largest conformation-dependent binding specificity of ions of the same charge was found for divalent ions, for which the ionic radii and coordination properties were responsible for shaping the folding free energy.
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RNA nucleotide methylation.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Methylation of RNA occurs at a variety of atoms, nucleotides, sequences and tertiary structures. Strongly related to other posttranscriptional modifications, methylation of different RNA species includes tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, and viral RNA. Different catalytic strategies are employed for RNA methylation by a variety of RNA-methyltransferases which fall into four superfamilies. This review outlines the different functions of methyl groups in RNA, including biophysical, biochemical and metabolic stabilization of RNA, quality control, resistance to antibiotics, mRNA reading frame maintenance, deciphering of normal and altered genetic code, selenocysteine incorporation, tRNA aminoacylation, ribotoxins, splicing, intracellular trafficking, immune response, and others. Connections to other fields including gene regulation, DNA repair, stress response, and possibly histone acetylation and exocytosis are pointed out. WIREs RNA 2011 2 611-631 DOI: 10.1002/wrna.79 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
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A post-labeling approach for the characterization and quantification of RNA modifications based on site-directed cleavage by DNAzymes.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Deoxyribozymes or DNAzymes are small DNA molecules with catalytic activity originating from in vitro selection experiments. Variants of the two most popular DNAzymes with RNase activity, the 10-23 DNAzyme and the 8-17 DNAzyme, promote efficient in vitro cleavage of the phosphodiester bond in at least 11 out of 16 possible dinucleotide permutations. Judicious choice of the sequences flanking the active core of the DNAzymes permits to direct cleavage activity with high sequence specificity. Here, the harnessing of these features for the analysis of RNA nucleotide modifications by a post-labeling approach is described in detail. DNAzymes are designed such that RNase cleavage is directed precisely to the 5 end of the nucleotide to be analyzed. Iterative complex formation of DNAzyme and RNA substrate and subsequent cleavage are performed by temperature cycling. The DNAzyme activity liberates the analyte nucleotide on the very 5-end of an RNA fragment, whose hydroxyl group can be conveniently phosphorylated with (32)P. The labeled RNA is digested to mononucleotides, and analyzed by thin layer chromatography.
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Measuring single small molecule binding via rupture forces of a split aptamer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The rupture force of a split (bipartite) aptamer that forms binding pockets for adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was measured by atomic force spectroscopy. Changes in the rupture force were observed in the presence of AMP, while this effect was absent when mutant aptamers or inosine were used. Thus, changes in the rupture force were a direct consequence of specific binding of AMP to the split aptamer. The split aptamer concept allowed the detection of nonlabeled AMP and enabled us to determine the dissociation constant on a single-molecule level.
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Use of specific chemical reagents for detection of modified nucleotides in RNA.
J Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Naturally occurring cellular RNAs contain an impressive number of chemically distinct modified residues which appear posttranscriptionally, as a result of specific action of the corresponding RNA modification enzymes. Over 100 different chemical modifications have been identified and characterized up to now. Identification of the chemical nature and exact position of these modifications is typically based on 2D-TLC analysis of nucleotide digests, on HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry, or on the use of primer extension by reverse transcriptase. However, many modified nucleotides are silent in reverse transcription, since the presence of additional chemical groups frequently does not change base-pairing properties. In this paper, we give a summary of various chemical approaches exploiting the specific reactivity of modified nucleotides in RNA for their detection.
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Single-molecule FRET reveals a cooperative effect of two methyl group modifications in the folding of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys).
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Using a combination of advanced RNA synthesis techniques and single molecule spectroscopy, the deconvolution of individual contributions of posttranscriptional modifications to the overall folding and stabilization of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) is described. An unexpected destabilizing effect of two pseudouridines on the native tRNA folding was evidenced. Furthermore, the presence of m(2)G10 alone does not facilitate the folding of tRNA(Lys), but a stabilization of the biologically functional cloverleaf shape in conjunction with the principal stabilizing component m(1)A9 exceeds the contribution of m(1)A alone. This constitutes an unprecedented cooperative effect of two nucleotide modifications in the context of a naturally occurring RNA, which may be of general importance for tRNA structure and help understanding several recently described decay pathways for hypomodified tRNAs.
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In vitro tRNA methylation assay with the Entamoeba histolytica DNA and tRNA methyltransferase Dnmt2 (Ehmeth) enzyme.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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Protozoan parasites are among the most devastating infectious agents of humans responsible for a variety of diseases including amebiasis, which is one of the three most common causes of death from parasitic disease. The agent of amebiasis is the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica that exists under two stages: the infective cyst found in food or water and the invasive trophozoite living in the intestine. The clinical manifestations of amebiasis range from being asymptomatic to colitis, dysentery or liver abscesses. E. histolytica is one of the rare unicellular parasite with 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in its genome. It contains a single DNA methyltransferase, Ehmeth, that belongs to the Dnmt2 family. A role for Dnmt2 in the control of repetitive elements has been established in E. histolytica, Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila. Our recent work has shown that Ehmeth methylates tRNA(Asp), and this finding indicates that this enzyme has a dual DNA/tRNA(Asp) methyltransferase activity. This observation is in agreement with the dual activity that has been reported for D. discoideum and D. melanogaster. The functional significance of the DNA/tRNA specificity of Dnmt2 enzymes is still unknown. To address this question, a method to determine the tRNA methyltransferase activity of Dnmt2 proteins was established. In this video, we describe a straightforward approach to prepare an adequate tRNA substrate for Dnmt2 and a method to measure its tRNA methyltransferase activity.
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Expanding the chemical scope of RNA:methyltransferases to site-specific alkynylation of RNA for click labeling.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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This work identifies the combination of enzymatic transfer and click labeling as an efficient method for the site-specific tagging of RNA molecules for biophysical studies. A double-activated analog of the ubiquitous co-substrate S-adenosyl-l-methionine was employed to enzymatically transfer a five carbon chain containing a terminal alkynyl moiety onto RNA. The tRNA:methyltransferase Trm1 transferred the extended alkynyl moiety to its natural target, the N2 of guanosine 26 in tRNA(Phe). LC/MS and LC/MS/MS techniques were used to detect and characterize the modified nucleoside as well as its cycloaddition product with a fluorescent azide. The latter resulted from a labeling reaction via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-cycloaddition click chemistry, producing site-specifically labeled RNA whose suitability for single molecule fluorescence experiments was verified in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments.
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RNA methylation by Dnmt2 protects transfer RNAs against stress-induced cleavage.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Dnmt2 proteins are the most conserved members of the DNA methyltransferase enzyme family, but their substrate specificity and biological functions have been a subject of controversy. We show here that, in addition to tRNA(Asp-GTC), tRNA(Val-AAC) and tRNA(Gly-GCC) are also methylated by Dnmt2. Drosophila Dnmt2 mutants showed reduced viability under stress conditions, and Dnmt2 relocalized to stress granules following heat shock. Strikingly, stress-induced cleavage of tRNAs was Dnmt2-dependent, and Dnmt2-mediated methylation protected tRNAs against ribonuclease cleavage. These results uncover a novel biological function of Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation, and suggest a role for Dnmt2 enzymes during the biogenesis of tRNA-derived small RNAs.
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tRNA stabilization by modified nucleotides.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Post-transcriptional ribonucleotide modification is a phenomenon best studied in tRNA, where it occurs most frequently and in great chemical diversity. This paper reviews the intrinsic network of modifications in the structural core of the tRNA, which governs structural flexibility and rigidity to fine-tune the molecule to peak performance and to regulate its steady-state level. Structural effects of RNA modifications range from nanometer-scale rearrangements to subtle restrictions of conformational space on the angstrom scale. Structural stabilization resulting from nucleotide modification results in increased thermal stability and translates into protection against unspecific degradation by bases and nucleases. Several mechanisms of specific degradation of hypomodified tRNA, which were only recently discovered, provide a link between structural and metabolic stability.
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Detection of RNA modifications.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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RNA nucleotide modifications are typically of low abundance and frequently go unnoticed by standard detection methods of molecular biology and cell biology. With a burst of knowledge intruding from such diverse areas as genomics, structural biology, regulation of gene expression and immunology, it becomes increasingly clear that many exciting functions of nucleotide modifications remain to be explored. It follows in turn that the biology of nucleotide modification and editing is a field poised to rapidly gain importance in a variety of fields. The detection and analysis of nucleotide modifications present a clear limitation in this respect. Here, various methods for detection of nucleotide modifications are discussed based on three discriminating principles, namely physicochemical properties, enzymatic turnover and chemical reactivity. Because the full extent of nucleotide modification across the various RNA species remains ill understood, emphasis is placed on high-throughput techniques with a potential to screen entire transcriptomes.
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Evidence-based use of second-generation antipsychotics in a state Medicaid pediatric population, 2001-2005.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The purpose of this study was to identify children in a state Medicaid population who were newly treated with second-generation antipsychotics from 2001 through 2005, to classify each use of these agents as evidence based or not depending on the childs diagnoses, and to identify factors associated with the likelihood of evidence-based use of the medication.
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Formation of a stalled early intermediate of pseudouridine synthesis monitored by real-time FRET.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Pseudouridine is the most abundant of more than 100 chemically distinct natural ribonucleotide modifications. Its synthesis consists of an isomerization reaction of a uridine residue in the RNA chain and is catalyzed by pseudouridine synthases. The unusual reaction mechanism has become the object of renewed research effort, frequently involving replacement of the substrate uridines with 5-fluorouracil (f(5)U). f(5)U is known to be a potent inhibitor of pseudouridine synthase activity, but the effect varies among the target pseudouridine synthases. Derivatives of f(5)U have previously been detected, which are thought to be either hydrolysis products of covalent enzyme-RNA adducts, or isomerization intermediates. Here we describe the interaction of pseudouridine synthase 1 (Pus1p) with f(5)U-containing tRNA. The interaction described is specific to Pus1p and position 27 in the tRNA anticodon stem, but the enzyme neither forms a covalent adduct nor stalls at a previously identified reaction intermediate of f(5)U. The f(5)U27 residue, as analyzed by a DNAzyme-based assay using TLC and mass spectrometry, displayed physicochemical properties unaltered by the reversible interaction with Pus1p. Thus, Pus1p binds an f(5)U-containing substrate, but, in contrast to other pseudouridine synthases, leaves the chemical structure of f(5)U unchanged. The specific, but nonproductive, interaction demonstrated here thus constitutes an intermediate of Pus turnover, stalled by the presence of f(5)U in an early state of catalysis. Observation of the interaction of Pus1p with fluorescence-labeled tRNA by a real-time readout of fluorescence anisotropy and FRET revealed significant structural distortion of f(5)U-tRNA structure in the stalled intermediate state of pseudouridine catalysis.
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A new nuclear function of the Entamoeba histolytica glycolytic enzyme enolase: the metabolic regulation of cytosine-5 methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) activity.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Cytosine-5 methyltransferases of the Dnmt2 family function as DNA and tRNA methyltransferases. Insight into the role and biological significance of Dnmt2 is greatly hampered by a lack of knowledge about its protein interactions. In this report, we address the subject of protein interaction by identifying enolase through a yeast two-hybrid screen as a Dnmt2-binding protein. Enolase, which is known to catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), was shown to have both a cytoplasmatic and a nuclear localization in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We discovered that enolase acts as a Dnmt2 inhibitor. This unexpected inhibitory activity was antagonized by 2-PG, which suggests that glucose metabolism controls the non-glycolytic function of enolase. Interestingly, glucose starvation drives enolase to accumulate within the nucleus, which in turn leads to the formation of additional enolase-E.histolytica DNMT2 homolog (Ehmeth) complex, and to a significant reduction of the tRNA(Asp) methylation in the parasite. The crucial role of enolase as a Dnmt2 inhibitor was also demonstrated in E.histolytica expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-fused-enolase. These results establish enolase as the first Dnmt2 interacting protein, and highlight an unexpected role of a glycolytic enzyme in the modulation of Dnmt2 activity.
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5-methylcytosine in RNA: detection, enzymatic formation and biological functions.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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The nucleobase modification 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) is widespread both in DNA and different cellular RNAs. The functions and enzymatic mechanisms of DNA m(5)C-methylation were extensively studied during the last decades. However, the location, the mechanism of formation and the cellular function(s) of the same modified nucleobase in RNA still remain to be elucidated. The recent development of a bisulfite sequencing approach for efficient m(5)C localization in various RNA molecules puts ribo-m(5)C in a highly privileged position as one of the few RNA modifications whose detection is amenable to PCR-based amplification and sequencing methods. Additional progress in the field also includes the characterization of several specific RNA methyltransferase enzymes in various organisms, and the discovery of a new and unexpected link between DNA and RNA m(5)C-methylation. Numerous putative RNA:m(5)C-MTases have now been identified and are awaiting characterization, including the identification of their RNA substrates and their related cellular functions. In order to bring these recent exciting developments into perspective, this review provides an ordered overview of the detection methods for RNA methylation, of the biochemistry, enzymology and molecular biology of the corresponding modification enzymes, and discusses perspectives for the emerging biological functions of these enzymes.
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Good and poor adherence: optimal cut-point for adherence measures using administrative claims data.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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To identify the adherence value cut-off point that optimally stratifies good versus poor compliers using administratively derived adherence measures, the medication possession ratio (MPR) and the proportion of days covered (PDC) using hospitalization episode as the primary outcome among Medicaid eligible persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), or hyperlipidemia.
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Effect of a quaternary pentamine on RNA stabilization and enzymatic methylation.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Extreme thermophiles produce unusually long polyamines, including the linear caldopentamine (Cdp) and the branched pentamine tetrakis(3-aminopropyl)-ammonium (Taa), with the latter containing a central quaternary ammonium moiety. Here we compare the interaction of these two pentamines with RNA by studying the heat denaturation, electrophoretic behavior, and ability of tRNA to be methylated in vitro by purified tRNA methyltransferases under various salt conditions. At concentrations in the micromolar range, branched Taa causes a considerable increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) of yeast tRNA(Phe) transcripts by >20 degrees C, which is significantly greater than stabilization by the linear Cdp. In non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, strong and specific binding to Taa, but not to Cdp, was clearly observed for tRNA(Phe). In both types of experiments, polyamines and monovalent metal ions competed for binding sites. Structural probing revealed no significant conformational changes in tRNA on Taa binding. In post-transcriptional in vitro methylation reactions, the formation of m(2)G/m(2)(2)G by the methyltransferase Trm1p and of m(1)A by TrmIp were not affected or only slightly stimulated by polyamines. In contrast, Taa specifically inhibited Trm4p-dependent formation of m(5)C only in tRNA(Phe), likely by occupying sites that are relevant to RNA recognition by the methyltransferase.
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Prospective validation of eight different adherence measures for use with administrative claims data among patients with schizophrenia.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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The aim of this study was to compare the predictive validity of eight different adherence measures by studying the variability explained between each measure and hospitalization episodes among Medicaid-eligible persons diagnosed with schizophrenia on antipsychotic monotherapy.
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In vivo down-regulation of mouse brain capillary P-glycoprotein: a preliminary investigation.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Over-expression of blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein is considered as a major hurdle in the treatment of various CNS disorders. A down-regulation strategy is considered as one means to counteract disease- or therapy-associated induction of P-glycoprotein. Here, we evaluated whether a targeting of P-glycoprotein can be achieved in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells using siRNA. A 4-day treatment paradigm with once daily hydrodynamic intravenous injections of siRNA resulted in a significant reduction of the P-glycoprotein-labeled area in the hippocampal hilus and parietal cortex. P-glycoprotein expression proved to be down-regulated in these brain regions by 31 and 16%, respectively. An impact of siRNA administration on density of brain capillaries was excluded by quantification of the endothelial cell marker GLUT-1. In conclusion, the study provides first preliminary evidence that a down-regulation of P-glycoprotein can be achieved in brain capillary endothelial cells by administration of siRNA in vivo.
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Preparation of small amounts of sterile siRNA-liposomes with high entrapping efficiency by dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC).
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Liposomal formulation of siRNA is an attractive approach for improving its delivery in vivo, shielding the RNA from nucleases and promoting tumor targeting. Here, the production of very small batch sizes of siRNA-liposomes by using the "dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC)" technique was investigated. This new technique combines rapid and sterile liposome preparation with very high entrapping efficiencies. DAC is here presented in conjunction with a non-destructive microscale analysis based on double fluorescence labeling, which enables monitoring of siRNA integrity during the liposomal preparation. Integrity is reflected in spatial proximity of the dyes, which results in measurable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The combination of DAC and the sensitive FRET analysis allows the handling of batch sizes down to 20 mg of conventional liposomes (CL) and sterically stabilized liposomes (SL). These were prepared in common 2 ml reaction tubes and loaded with calcein or labeled siRNA. Liposome sizes were 79+/-16 nm for CL and 109+/-9 nm for SL loaded with siRNA. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 43 to 81%, depending on batch size, enclosed compound, and liposome composition. FRET monitoring showed that the siRNA remained intact throughout DAC and that liposomal formulations protected the siRNA from nucleases. siRNA-liposomes remained stable for at least 3 months.
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MODOMICS: a database of RNA modification pathways--2013 update.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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MODOMICS is a database of RNA modifications that provides comprehensive information concerning the chemical structures of modified ribonucleosides, their biosynthetic pathways, RNA-modifying enzymes and location of modified residues in RNA sequences. In the current database version, accessible at http://modomics.genesilico.pl, we included new features: a census of human and yeast snoRNAs involved in RNA-guided RNA modification, a new section covering the 5-end capping process, and a catalogue of building blocks for chemical synthesis of a large variety of modified nucleosides. The MODOMICS collections of RNA modifications, RNA-modifying enzymes and modified RNAs have been also updated. A number of newly identified modified ribonucleosides and more than one hundred functionally and structurally characterized proteins from various organisms have been added. In the RNA sequences section, snRNAs and snoRNAs with experimentally mapped modified nucleosides have been added and the current collection of rRNA and tRNA sequences has been substantially enlarged. To facilitate literature searches, each record in MODOMICS has been cross-referenced to other databases and to selected key publications. New options for database searching and querying have been implemented, including a BLAST search of protein sequences and a PARALIGN search of the collected nucleic acid sequences.
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A modified guanosine phosphoramidite for click functionalization of RNA on the sugar edge.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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A propargyl containing guanosine phosphoramidite was synthesized and incorporated into siRNA, enabling click-ligation with an azido fluorophore onto the nucleobase sugar edge. Duplex stability was not affected by labeling at this new site, which allowed deconvolution of the effects of label, structure and attachment site on RNAi activity.
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RNA cytosine methylation by Dnmt2 and NSun2 promotes tRNA stability and protein synthesis.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
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The function of cytosine-C5 methylation, a widespread modification of tRNAs, has remained obscure, particularly in mammals. We have now developed a mouse strain defective in cytosine-C5 tRNA methylation, by disrupting both the Dnmt2 and the NSun2 tRNA methyltransferases. Although the lack of either enzyme alone has no detectable effects on mouse viability, double mutants showed a synthetic lethal interaction, with an underdeveloped phenotype and impaired cellular differentiation. tRNA methylation analysis of the double-knockout mice demonstrated complementary target-site specificities for Dnmt2 and NSun2 and a complete loss of cytosine-C5 tRNA methylation. Steady-state levels of unmethylated tRNAs were substantially reduced, and loss of Dnmt2 and NSun2 was further associated with reduced rates of overall protein synthesis. These results establish a biologically important function for cytosine-C5 tRNA methylation in mammals and suggest that this modification promotes mouse development by supporting protein synthesis.
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Dye selection for live cell imaging of intact siRNA.
Biol. Chem.
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Investigations into the fate of small interfering RNA (siRNA) after transfection may unravel new ways to improve RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency. Because intracellular degradation of RNA may prevent reliable observation of fluorescence-labeled siRNA, new tools for fluorescence microscopy are warranted to cover the considerable duration of the RNAi effect. Here, the characterization and application of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) dye pairs for sensing the integrity of duplex siRNA is reported, which allows an assessment of the degradation status of an siRNA cell population by live cell imaging. A panel of high-yield fluorescent dyes has been investigated for their suitability as FRET pairs for the investigation of RNA inside the cell. Nine dyes in 13 FRET pairs were evaluated based on the performance in assays of photostability, cross-excitation, bleed-through, as well as on quantified changes of fluorescence as a consequence of, e.g., RNA strand hybridization and pH variation. The Atto488/Atto590 FRET pair has been applied to live cell imaging, and has revealed first aspects of unusual trafficking of intact siRNA. A time-lapse study showed highly dynamic movement of siRNA in large perinuclear structures. These and the resulting optimized FRET labeled siRNA are expected to have significant impact on future observations of labeled RNAs in living cells.
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RNA mediated Toll-like receptor stimulation in health and disease.
RNA Biol
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Besides their well known functions in storage and translation of information nucleic acids have emerged as a target of pattern recognition receptors that drive activation of innate immunity. Due to the paucity of building block monomers used in nucleic acids, discrimination of host and microbial nucleic acids as a means of self/foreign discrimination is a complicated task. Pattern recognition receptors rely on discrimination by sequence, structural features and spatial compartmentalization to differentiate microbial derived nucleic acids from host ones. Microbial nucleic acid detection is important for the sensing of infectious danger and initiating an immune response to microbial attack. Failures in the underlying recognitions systems can have severe consequences: thus, inefficient recognition of microbial nucleic acids may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the other hand, excessive immune responses as a result of failed self/foreign discrimination are associated with autoimmune diseases. This review gives a general overview over the underlying concepts of nucleic acid sensing by Toll-like receptors. Within this general framework, we focus on bacterial RNA and synthetic RNA oligomers.
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Mapping the tRNA binding site on the surface of human DNMT2 methyltransferase.
Biochemistry
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The DNMT2 enzyme methylates tRNA-Asp at position C38. Because there is no tRNA-Dnmt2 cocrystal structure available, we have mapped the tRNA binding site of DNMT2 by systematically mutating surface-exposed lysine and arginine residues to alanine and studying the tRNA methylation activity and binding of the corresponding variants. After mutating 20 lysine and arginine residues, we identified eight of them that caused large (>4-fold) decreases in catalytic activity. These residues cluster within and next to a surface cleft in the protein, which is large enough to accommodate the tRNA anticodon loop and stem. This cleft is located next to the binding pocket for the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and the catalytic residues of DNMT2 are positioned at its walls or bottom. Many of the variants with strongly reduced catalytic activity showed only a weak loss of tRNA binding or even bound better to tRNA than wild-type DNMT2, which suggests that the enzyme induces some conformational changes in the tRNA in the transition state of the methyl group transfer reaction. Manual placement of tRNA into the structure suggests that DNMT2 mainly interacts with the anticodon stem and loop.
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Related haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses contain different genome types.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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Archaeal viruses have been the subject of recent interest due to the diversity discovered in their virion architectures. Recently, a new group of haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses has been discovered. It is distinctive in terms of the virion morphology and different genome types (ssDNA/dsDNA) harboured by rather closely related representatives. To date there are seven isolated viruses belonging to this group. Most of these share a cluster of five conserved genes, two of which encode major structural proteins. Putative proviruses and proviral remnants containing homologues of the conserved gene cluster were also identified suggesting a long-standing relationship of these viruses with their hosts. Comparative genomic analysis revealed three different ways of the genome organization, which possibly reflect different replication strategies employed by these viruses. The dsDNA genomes of two of these viruses were shown to contain single-strand interruptions. Further studies on one of the genomes suggested that the interruptions are located along the genome in a sequence-specific manner and exhibit polarity in distribution.
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Cationic nanohydrogel particles as potential siRNA carriers for cellular delivery.
ACS Nano
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Oligonucleotides such as short, double-stranded RNA (siRNA) or plasmid DNA (pDNA) promise high potential in gene therapy. For pharmaceutical application, however, adequate drug carriers are required. Among various concepts progressing in the market or final development, nanosized hydrogel particles may serve as novel transport media especially for siRNA. In this work, a new concept of synthesizing polymeric cationic nanohydrogels was developed, which offers a promising strategy to complex and transport siRNA into cells. For this purpose, amphiphilic reactive ester block copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of pentafluorophenyl methacrylate as reactive ester monomer together with tri(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. In polar aprotic solvents, a self-assembly of these polymers could be observed leading to the formation of nanometer-sized polymer aggregates. The resulting superstructures were used to convert the reactive precursor block copolymers with amine-containing cross-linker molecules into covalently stabilized hydrogel particles. Detailed dynamic light scattering studies showed that the structure of the self-assembled aggregates can permanently be locked-in by this process. This method offers a new possibility to synthesize precise nanohydrogels of different size starting from various block copolymers. Moreover, via reactive ester approach, further functionalities could be attached to the nanoparticle, such as fluorescent dyes, which allowed distinct tracing of the hydrogels during complexation with siRNA or cell uptake experiments. In this respect, cellular uptake of the particles themselves as well as with its payload could be detected successfully. Looking ahead, these novel cationic nanohydrogel particles may serve as a new platform for proper siRNA delivery systems.
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Identification of modifications in microbial, native tRNA that suppress immunostimulatory activity.
J. Exp. Med.
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Naturally occurring nucleotide modifications within RNA have been proposed to be structural determinants for innate immune recognition. We tested this hypothesis in the context of native nonself-RNAs. Isolated, fully modified native bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) induced significant secretion of IFN-? from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner dependent on TLR7 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. As a notable exception, tRNA(Tyr) from Escherichia coli was not immunostimulatory, as were all tested eukaryotic tRNAs. However, the unmodified, 5-unphosphorylated in vitro transcript of tRNA(Tyr) induced IFN-?, thus revealing posttranscriptional modifications as a factor suppressing immunostimulation. Using a molecular surgery approach based on catalytic DNA, a panel of tRNA(Tyr) variants featuring differential modification patterns was examined. Out of seven modifications present in this tRNA, 2-O-methylated G(m)18 was identified as necessary and sufficient to suppress immunostimulation. Transplantation of this modification into the scaffold of yeast tRNA(Phe) also resulted in blocked immunostimulation. Moreover, an RNA preparation of an E. coli trmH mutant that lacks G(m)18 2-O-methyltransferase activity was significantly more stimulatory than the wild-type sample. The experiments identify the single methyl group on the 2-oxygen of G(m)18 as a natural modification in native tRNA that, beyond its primary structural role, has acquired a secondary function as an antagonist of TLR7.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.