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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DNA vaccines against tuberculosis.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem and novel vaccination regimens are urgently needed.
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Retrospective clinical evaluation of ultrasound guided transverse abdominis plane block in dogs undergoing mastectomy.
Vet Anaesth Analg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Eleven female dogs of different breeds undergoing unilateral radical (n = 7) or regional abdominal mastectomy (n = 4) received an ultrasound guided transverse abdominis plane block (TAP-block).
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The influence of sex steroid hormones in the immunopathology of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator's inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-?, IFN ?, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNF?, IL-12 and IFN?. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor.
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Mice genetically inactivated in interleukin-17A receptor are defective in long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a pro-inflammatory cytokine acting on neutrophil recruitment, is known to play an important role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the role of IL-17A receptor signalling in immune defence against this intracellular pathogen remains poorly documented. Here we have analysed this signalling using C57BL/6 mice genetically inactivated in the IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA(-/-) ). Although early after infection bacterial growth was controlled to the same extent as in wild-type mice, IL-17RA(-/-) mice were defective in exerting long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection, as demonstrated by a progressively increasing pulmonary bacterial burden and shortened survival time. Compared with infected wild-type mice, IL-17RA(-/-) mice showed impaired recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs at the early but not the late stage of infection. Pulmonary tumour necrosis factor-?, IL-6 and particularly IL-10 levels were decreased in the absence of IL-17RA signalling, whereas IL-1? was increased. CD4(+) -mediated and ??-mediated IL-17A production was dramatically increased in IL-17RA(-/-) mice (confirming part of their phenotype), whereas production of interferon-? and expression of the bactericidal enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase were not affected. Collectively, our data suggest that early but not late neutrophil recruitment is essential for IL-17A-mediated long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection and that a functional interferon-? response is not sufficient to control M. tuberculosis growth when the IL-17RA pathway is deficient. As treatment of auto-immune diseases with anti-IL-17A antibodies is actually being tested in clinical studies, our data suggest that caution should be taken with respect to possible reactivation of tuberculosis.
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Clinical value of IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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A fundamental to global tuberculosis (TB) control is timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious cases of the disease. Among various methods, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification are the ones with promising prospects. The present study evaluates the diagnostic value of the recently developed IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in sputum specimens.
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Assessment of adrenocortical and gonadal hormones in male spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) following capture, restraint and anesthesia.
Zoo Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The spider monkey (SM) (Ateles geoffroyi) a New World primate species native to Mexican forests, has become endangered in the wild due to environmental perturbations. Little is known about adrenal function and its relationship to reproduction in this species. Our objectives were to assess serum glucocorticoid (GC), mineralocorticoid (MC) and testosterone concentrations in captive SM and evaluate adrenal and testicular responses to potentially stressful animal handling procedures. Seven adult males, housed in a single mixed gender group in an off-exhibit enclosure at the University Park were captured for anesthesia every 2 months over a 1-year period. Blood samples were collected from each male at three time points: (1) ?5-10?min after ketamine injection in the outdoor enclosure; (2) ?2?hr later following animal transport to the laboratory and immediately after tiletamine-zolazepam injection; and (3) ?20-30?min following the second anesthetic injection. Serum samples were frozen and later analyzed for cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone and testosterone via radioimmunoassay. Cortisol was the primary GC detected in SM serum with much higher mean concentrations than for corticosterone. Capture, restraint and anesthesia resulted in significant increases in both cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Whereas aldosterone concentrations were unchanged by animal handling procedures, testosterone concentrations significantly declined under anesthesia over time. In summary, these results provide data for the main adrenocortical hormones in male SM and characterize their acute adrenal responses to potentially stressful handling and anesthesia procedures. Our findings also suggest an interaction between acute increases in corticosteroids and decreased concentrations of serum testosterone. Zoo Biol. 32:641-647, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Peripheral nerve stimulation under ultrasonographic control to determine the needle-to-nerve relationship.
Vet Anaesth Analg
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To determine the needle-to-nerve distances during electrical nerve location in dogs at different currents and pulse duration using a peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) under ultrasound control (US), and the minimal electrical thresholds (MET) necessary to obtain a motor response (MR) after achieving needle-to-nerve contact.
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Immunogenicity of eight Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific antigens in DNA vaccinated and Map infected mice.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis of the small intestine in domestic and wild ruminants, causes substantial losses to livestock industry. Control of this disease is seriously hampered by the lack of adequate diagnostic tools and vaccines. Here we report on the immunogenicity of eight Map specific antigens, i.e. MAP1693c, Ag3, MAP2677c (identified by post-genomic and immunoproteomic analysis of Map secretome) and Ag5, Ag6, MAP1637c, MAP0388 and MAP3743 (identified by bioinformatic in silico screening of the Map genome). Strong, antigen-specific IFN-? responses were induced in mice vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding MAP1693c, MAP1637c, MAP0388 and MAP3743. In contrast, T cell responses in Map infected mice were directed preferentially against Ag5 and to a lesser extent against MAP3743. None of the tested DNA vaccines conferred protection against subsequent challenge with Map.
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Impact of Taenia solium neurocysticercosis upon endocrine status and its relation with immuno-inflammatory parameters.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic disease caused by the infiltration of the larval stage of Taenia solium in the central nervous system. Clinical presentations are heterogeneous and particularly depend, on the age and gender of the host. We designed a clinical study to evaluate the hormonal changes associated with neurocysticercosis and the relationships between disease heterogeneity, endocrine and immunological status. A total of 50 patients and 22 healthy subjects were included. A precise clinical and radiological description of disease for each patient was recorded. A broad hormonal profile was assessed for each participant and, in a sub-group of patients, immunological features were also evaluated. Compared with controls, all patients had lower dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentration; male patients also had lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol and higher concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH). In the clinically severe patients, lower concentrations of progesterone and androstenedione were found in women. Higher concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lower concentrations of testosterone were found in men when compared with the less clinically severe patients. Significant correlations were found between estradiol and IL-10 in male patients, and between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and IL-1?, and androstenedione and IL-17 in female patients. To our knowledge the present study constitutes the first demonstration that the presence of T. solium larvae in the central nervous system can modify the host environment by the induction of endocrine and immunological changes. These results provide a stimulating background to analyse the repercussions of these changes on the course of the disease and on patient reproductive health.
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Strong influence of geometrical heterogeneity on drainage in porous media.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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We present an experimental study of drainage in two-dimensional porous media exhibiting bimodal pore size distributions. The role of the pore size heterogeneity is investigated by measuring separately the desaturation curves of the two pore populations. The displaced wetting fluid remains trapped in small pores at low capillary numbers and is swept only above a critical capillary number proportional to the permeability of the big pores network. Based on this observation, we derive a simple criterion for phase trapping based on the balance of viscous to capillary forces. Numerical implementation of this theory in a pore network model quantitatively fits our experimental results. This combination of approaches demonstrates quantitatively the influence of geometrical heterogeneities on drainage in porous media.
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Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.
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Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB) research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection.
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Increased pulmonary tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17A responses compensate for decreased gamma interferon production in anti-IL-12 autovaccine-treated, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated mice.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 (which share a p40 subunit) are pivotal cytokines in the generation of protective Th1/Th17-type immune responses upon infection with the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The role of IL-12 and IL-23 in protection conferred by the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is, however, less well documented. By using an autovaccine approach, i.e., IL-12p70 cross-linked with ovalbumin and PADRE peptide formulated with the GSK proprietary adjuvant system AS02(V), we could specifically neutralize IL-12 while leaving the IL-23 axis intact. Neutralization of IL-12 before M. tuberculosis challenge rendered C57BL/6 mice highly susceptible, resulting in 30-fold-higher CFU in spleen and lungs and accelerated mortality. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 in BCG-vaccinated mice prior to M. tuberculosis challenge only marginally affected vaccine-mediated protection. Analysis of cytokine production in spleen and lungs 3 weeks post-TB challenge by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional and flow cytometric assays showed significantly reduced mycobacterium-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses in M. tuberculosis-infected and BCG-vaccinated mice that had been treated with the autovaccine. Purified protein derivative-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), IL-6, and IL-17A levels, however, were highest in lungs from BCG-vaccinated/IL-12-neutralized animals, and even unstimulated lung cells from these mice produced significant levels of the three cytokines. Mycobacterium-specific IL-4 and IL-5 production levels were overall very low, but IL-12 neutralization resulted in increased concanavalin A-triggered polyclonal secretion of these Th2-type cytokines. These results suggest that TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-17A may be more important pulmonary effector molecules of BCG-mediated protection than IFN-? in a context of IL-12 deficiency.
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Stress in wildlife species: noninvasive monitoring of glucocorticoids.
Neuroimmunomodulation
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Depression and stress are related pathologies extensively studied in humans. However, this relationship is not well known in animals kept in zoos and even less known in wild animals. In zoo animals, acute and chronic stress caused by difficulties in coping with stressors such as public presence and noise, among others, can induce the appearance of repetitive pathological behaviors such as stereotypies, many times associated with organic pathologies that deeply affect their health and welfare. In the wild, factors such as deforestation, habitat fragmentation, lack of food and water, and human disturbances are potential causes of acute and chronic stress for the resident fauna. Glucocorticoids (GC) have been extensively used as stress indicators in many species including humans. Since chase and handling of wild animals immediately raise their GC serum levels, noninvasive methods have been developed to assess stress without interference caused by sample collection. The hormones and their metabolites can be measured in various body fluids and excreta and detect basal feedback free hormone concentrations as well as the response to ACTH and handling. In order to study the influence of disturbing factors we have measured GC as stress indicators by noninvasive techniques in dolphins and felids (ocelots, jaguarundis and margays) and cortisol and testosterone in spider monkeys.
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DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases.
Expert Rev Vaccines
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Bacteria belonging to the genus Mycobacterium can cause several infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Here, we reviewed the latest advances in the development of DNA vaccines against TB, Buruli ulcer and Johnes disease. Current understanding of the immunity to the respective causative pathogens indicates that the use of DNA vaccines encoding mycobacterial antigens could lead to efficient vaccination strategies. Moreover, characterization of protective mycobacterial antigens has been greatly facilitated by the analysis of immune responses induced after DNA vaccination. In addition, work aiming at optimizing DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases and research related to the controversial development of postexposure and therapeutic DNA vaccines are also discussed.
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A novel and more sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay targeting IS6110 for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2009
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Developing improved tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics is one of the international research priorities, as TB remains globally a major health threat. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a new nucleic acid detection method that can be used in low-resource settings, because it does not require expensive or complex instruments. Using the repetitive insertion sequence IS6110 as a target gene, we developed an efficient LAMP assay, which specifically detects members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). This assay proved 20 times more sensitive than IS6110-based conventional PCR. Moreover, its sensitivity was, respectively, 50 and 20 times higher than the one obtained with the two previously described LAMP assays for M. tuberculosis, based on gyrB and rrs, respectively. Identical sensitivities were obtained for LAMP and nested PCR, but the LAMP assay was more rapid and cost-effective than the latter. Although, our LAMP assay can successfully be performed using a non-denatured template, this results in a 200-fold reduction in the sensitivity of the assay. Moreover, by performing our LAMP assay on 15 clinical sputum samples from TB patients we were able to detect MTB. Taken together, our preliminary results indicate that IS6110-based MTBC-LAMP assay is a promising new TB-diagnostic test, with high sensitivity and that could easily be applied for the diagnosis of TB in a low-resource setting.
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Liver X receptors contribute to the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Liver X receptors (LXRs) are key regulators of macrophage function, controlling transcriptional programs involved in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. However, exactly how LXRs modulate inflammation during infection remains unknown. To explore this, we used a mouse model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Upon intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis, LXRs and LXR target genes were induced in CD11c+ lung and alveolar cells. Furthermore, mice deficient in both LXR isoforms, LXRalpha and LXRbeta (Lxra-/-Lxrb-/- mice), were more susceptible to infection, developing higher bacterial burdens and an increase in the size and number of granulomatous lesions. Interestingly, mice solely deficient in LXRalpha, but not those lacking only LXRbeta, mirrored the susceptibility of the Lxra-/-Lxrb-/- animals. Lxra-/-Lxrb-/- mice failed to mount an effective early neutrophilic airway response to infection and showed dysregulation of both pro- and antiinflammatory factors in CD11c+ lung cells. T cell responses were strongly affected in Lxra-/-Lxrb-/- mice, showing near-complete abrogation of the infection-induced Th1 function - and even more so Th17 function - in the lungs. Treatment of WT mice with the LXR agonists TO901317 and GW3965 resulted in a 10-fold decrease of the pulmonary bacterial burden and a comparable increase of Th1/Th17 function in the lungs. The dependence of LXR signaling on the neutrophil IL-17 axis represents what we believe to be a novel function for these nuclear receptors in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection and may provide a new target for therapeutics.
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An update on vaccines for tuberculosis - there is more to it than just waning of BCG efficacy with time.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
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Apart from better diagnostics and new anti-microbial drugs, an effective vaccine for tuberculosis is urgently needed to halt this poverty-related disease, afflicting millions of people worldwide.
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Femoral nerve block: a novel psoas compartment lateral pre-iliac approach in dogs.
Vet Anaesth Analg
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To describe a new approach to block the femoral nerve and to evaluate the distribution of a dye injected into the psoas compartment using a new femoral nerve block approach; to assess its clinical application, when combined with a sciatic nerve block, for surgical anaesthesia/analgesia of the pelvic limb in dogs.
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Anatomical and radiological study of the thoracic paravertebral space in dogs: iohexol distribution pattern and use of the nerve stimulator.
Vet Anaesth Analg
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To describe the landmarks and methodology to approach the thoracic paravertebral space in dogs; to evaluate if intercostal muscular response could be evoked by a nerve-stimulator; to radiographically assess the distribution pattern of a radio-opaque contrast medium after thoracic paravertebral injections.
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Evaluation of the endotracheal tube cuff pressure resulting from four different methods of inflation in dogs.
Vet Anaesth Analg
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To evaluate the endotracheal tube cuff pressure achieved by four different inflation methods.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.