JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Alternative Metrics for Real-Ear-to-Coupler Difference Average Values in Children.
J Am Acad Audiol
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Ideally, individual real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measurements are obtained for pediatric hearing instrument-fitting purposes. When RECD measurements cannot be obtained, age-related average RECDs based on typically developing North American children are used. Evidence suggests that these values may not be appropriate for populations of children with retarded growth patterns. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if another metric, such as head circumference, height, or weight, can be used for prediction of RECDs in children. Research Design: Design was a correlational study. For all participants, RECD values in both ears, head circumference, height, and weight were measured. Study Sample: The sample consisted of 68 North American children (ages 3-11 yr). Data Collection and Analysis: Height, weight, head circumference, and RECDs were measured and were analyzed for both ears at 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. A backward elimination multiple-regression analysis was used to determine if age, height, weight, and/or head circumference are significant predictors of RECDs. Results: For the left ear, head circumference was retained as the only statistically significant variable in the final model. For the right ear, head circumference was retained as the only statistically significant independent variable at all frequencies except at 2000 and 4000 Hz. At these latter frequencies, weight was retained as the only statistically significant independent variable after all other variables were eliminated. Conclusions: Head circumference can be considered as a metric for RECD prediction in children when individual measurements cannot be obtained. In developing countries where equipment is often unavailable and stunted growth can reduce the value of using age as a metric, head circumference can be considered as an alternative metric in the prediction of RECDs.
Related JoVE Video
Cholesterol Esters (CE) Derived From Hepatic Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) Are Associated With More Atherosclerosis Than CE From Intestinal SOAT2.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholesterol esters (CE), especially cholesterol oleate, generated by hepatic and intestinal sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) play a critical role in cholesterol homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether the contribution of intestine-derived CE from SOAT2 would have similar effects in promoting atherosclerosis progression as for liver-derived CE.
Related JoVE Video
Myeloid cell-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 deletion has minimal impact on atherogenesis in atherogenic diet-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transplantation studies suggest that bone marrow cell ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 protects against atherosclerosis development. However, the in vivo effect of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression on atherogenesis is not fully understood because bone marrow contains other leukocytes and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Myeloid-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 knockout mice in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout C57BL/6 background were developed to address this question.
Related JoVE Video
Acute sterol o-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) knockdown rapidly mobilizes hepatic cholesterol for fecal excretion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD), the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ? 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg) mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT) littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.
Related JoVE Video
Liver ABCA1 deletion in LDLrKO mice does not impair macrophage reverse cholesterol transport or exacerbate atherogenesis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression is critical for maintaining plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations, but its role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosis is not fully understood. We investigated atherosclerosis development and reverse cholesterol transport in hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout (HSKO) mice in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor KO (LDLrKO) C57BL/6 background.
Related JoVE Video
LDL particle core enrichment in cholesteryl oleate increases proteoglycan binding and promotes atherosclerosis.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies in humans and animals suggest that LDL particle core enrichment in cholesteryl oleate (CO) is associated with increased atherosclerosis. Diet enrichment with MUFAs enhances LDL CO content. Steroyl O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of much of the CO found in LDL, and gene deletion of SOAT2 minimizes CO in LDL and protects against atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased atherosclerosis associated with LDL core enrichment in CO results from an increased affinity of the LDL particle for arterial proteoglycans. ApoB-100-only Ldlr(-/-) mice with and without Soat2 gene deletions were fed diets enriched in either cis-MUFA or n-3 PUFA, and LDL particles were isolated. LDL:proteogylcan binding was measured using surface plasmon resonance. Particles with higher CO content consistently bound with higher affinity to human biglycan and the amount of binding was shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerosis of the LDL donor mice. The data strongly support the thesis that atherosclerosis was induced through enhanced proteoglycan binding of LDL resulting from LDL core CO enrichment.
Related JoVE Video
Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosing malabsorption with systemic lipid profiling: pharmacokinetics of pentadecanoic acid and triheptadecanoic acid following oral administration in healthy subjects and subjects with cystic fibrosis.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Malabsorption Blood Test (MBT) is proposed as an alternative method to the 72-hour stool and dietary collection for assessing the degree of fat malabsorption in people with pancreatic insufficiency. The MBT consists of a simultaneous oral dose of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid, and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride with three heptadecanoic (HA) saturated fatty acids requiring hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase before HA can be intestinally absorbed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the ability of MBT to detect fat malabsorption in healthy adult subjects using the pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitor Orlistat (Xenical®), and in subjects with CF and PI while on and off routine pancreatic enzyme doses.
Related JoVE Video
Endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Fat-1 mice is associated with increased mammary gland and liver syndecan-1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1) by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt) mice were fed an n-6 PUFA- enriched diet for 7 weeks. Fatty acid analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that total n-6 PUFA reflected dietary intake similarly in both genotypes (VLDL, 36.2±2.2 and 40.9±3.9; LDL, 49.0±3.3 and 48.1±2.0; HDL, 54.6±1.2 and 58.2±1.3, mean ± SEM percent of total fatty acids for Fat-1 and wt animals respectively). Lipoprotein percent n-3 PUFA was also similar between groups. However, phospholipids and triglycerides extracted from mammary and liver tissues demonstrated significantly higher n-3 PUFA and a corresponding decrease in the ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA in Fat-1 compared to wt mice. This was accompanied by higher SDC-1 in mammary glands and livers of Fat-1 mice, thus demonstrating that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFA may upregulate SDC-1 in the presence of high dietary n-6 PUFA.
Related JoVE Video
Echium oil reduces atherosclerosis in apoB100-only LDLrKO mice.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anti-atherogenic and hypotriglyceridemic properties of fish oil are attributed to its enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in decreased plasma triglycerides.
Related JoVE Video
CGI-58 knockdown in mice causes hepatic steatosis but prevents diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations of Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) in humans cause triglyceride (TG) accumulation in multiple tissues. Mice genetically lacking CGI-58 die shortly after birth due to a skin barrier defect. To study the role of CGI-58 in integrated lipid and energy metabolism, we utilized antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to inhibit CGI-58 expression in adult mice. Treatment with two distinct CGI-58-targeting ASOs resulted in ?80-95% knockdown of CGI-58 protein expression in both liver and white adipose tissue. In chow-fed mice, ASO-mediated depletion of CGI-58 did not alter weight gain, plasma TG, or plasma glucose, yet raised hepatic TG levels ?4-fold. When challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD), CGI-58 ASO-treated mice were protected against diet-induced obesity, but their hepatic contents of TG, diacylglycerols, and ceramides were all elevated, and intriguingly, their hepatic phosphatidylglycerol content was increased by 10-fold. These hepatic lipid alterations were associated with significant decreases in hepatic TG hydrolase activity, hepatic lipoprotein-TG secretion, and plasma concentrations of ketones, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin. Additionally, HFD-fed CGI-58 ASO-treated mice were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive. Collectively, this work demonstrates that CGI-58 plays a critical role in limiting hepatic steatosis and maintaining hepatic glycerophospholipid homeostasis and has unmasked an unexpected role for CGI-58 in promoting HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Macrophage ABCA1 reduces MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor trafficking to lipid rafts by reduction of lipid raft cholesterol.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously showed that macrophages from macrophage-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) knockout (Abca1(-M/-M)) mice had an enhanced proinflammatory response to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct association between free cholesterol (FC), lipid raft content, and hyper-responsiveness of macrophages to LPS in WT mice. Abca1(-M/-M) macrophages were also hyper-responsive to specific agonists to TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9, but not TLR3, compared with WT macrophages. We hypothesized that ABCA1 regulates macrophage responsiveness to TLR agonists by modulation of lipid raft cholesterol and TLR mobilization to lipid rafts. We demonstrated that Abca1(-M/-M) vs. WT macrophages contained 23% more FC in isolated lipid rafts. Further, mass spectrometric analysis suggested raft phospholipid composition was unchanged. Although cell surface expression of TLR4 was similar between Abca1(-M/-M) and WT macrophages, significantly more TLR4 was distributed in membrane lipid rafts in Abca1(-M/-M) macrophages. Abca1(-M/-M) macrophages also exhibited increased trafficking of the predominantly intracellular TLR9 into lipid rafts in response to TLR9-specific agonist (CpG). Collectively, our data suggest that macrophage ABCA1 dampens inflammation by reducing MyD88-dependent TLRs trafficking to lipid rafts by selective reduction of FC content in lipid rafts.
Related JoVE Video
Dyslipidemia induces opposing effects on intrapulmonary and extrapulmonary host defense through divergent TLR response phenotypes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dyslipidemia influences innate immune responses in the bloodstream, but whether and how pulmonary innate immunity is sensitive to circulating lipoproteins is largely unknown. To define whether dyslipidemia impacts responses to bacteria in the airspace and, if so, whether differently from its effects in other tissues, airspace, bloodstream, and i.p. responses to LPS and Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated using murine models of dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia reduced neutrophil (PMN) recruitment to the airspace in response to LPS and K. pneumoniae by impairing both chemokine induction in the airspace and PMN chemotaxis, thereby compromising pulmonary bacterial clearance. Paradoxically, bacteria were cleared more effectively from the bloodstream during dyslipidemia. This enhanced systemic response was due, at least in part, to basal circulating neutrophilia and basal TLR4/MyD88-dependent serum cytokine induction and enhanced serum cytokine responses to systemically administered TLR ligands. Dyslipidemia did not globally impair PMN transvascular trafficking to, and host defense within all loci, because neutrophilia, cytokine induction, and bacterial clearance were enhanced within the infected peritoneum. Peritoneal macrophages from dyslipidemic animals were primed for more robust TLR responses, reflecting increased lipid rafts and increased TLR4 expression, whereas macrophages from the airspace, in which cholesterol was maintained constant during dyslipidemia, had normal responses and rafts. Dyslipidemia thus imparts opposing effects upon intra- and extrapulmonary host defense by inducing tissue-divergent TLR response phenotypes and dysregulating airspace/blood compartmental levels of PMNs and cytokines. We propose that the airspace is a "privileged" site, thereby uniquely sensitive to dyslipidemia.
Related JoVE Video
Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acids retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in Western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared with unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical Western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition, and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography) and glucose metabolism were assessed at weaning and adulthood. Trans-fatty acid exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (P < .001) and higher fasting glucose (P = .01), but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (P = .02) may contribute to later catch-up growth and leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (P < .05) and greater abdominal fat (P = .01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. Trans-fatty acid surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) prevents dietary cholesterol-associated steatosis by enhancing hepatic triglyceride mobilization.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyl transferase 2 (ACAT2) promotes cholesterol absorption by the intestine and the secretion of cholesteryl ester-enriched very low density lipoproteins by the liver. Paradoxically, mice lacking ACAT2 also exhibit mild hypertriglyceridemia. The present study addresses the unexpected role of ACAT2 in regulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Mouse models of either complete genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT2 were fed low fat diets containing various amounts of cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. Mice genetically lacking ACAT2 in both the intestine and the liver were dramatically protected against hepatic neutral lipid (TG and cholesteryl ester) accumulation, with the greatest differences occurring in situations where dietary cholesterol was elevated. Further studies demonstrated that liver-specific depletion of ACAT2 with antisense oligonucleotides prevents dietary cholesterol-associated hepatic steatosis both in an inbred mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (SJL/J) and in a humanized hyperlipidemic mouse model (LDLr(-/-), apoB(100/100)). All mouse models of diminished ACAT2 function showed lowered hepatic triglyceride concentrations and higher plasma triglycerides secondary to increased hepatic secretion of TG into nascent very low density lipoproteins. This work demonstrates that inhibition of hepatic ACAT2 can prevent dietary cholesterol-driven hepatic steatosis in mice. These data provide the first evidence to suggest that ACAT2-specific inhibitors may hold unexpected therapeutic potential to treat both atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary n-3 LCPUFA from fish oil but not alpha-linolenic acid-derived LCPUFA confers atheroprotection in mice.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The atheroprotective potential of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has not yet been fully determined, even in murine models of atherosclerosis. We tested whether ALA-derived, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) could offer atheroprotection in a dose-dependent manner. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)100/100LDLr-/- mice were fed with diets containing two levels of ALA from flaxseed oil for 16 weeks. Fish oil- and cis-monounsaturated-fat-enriched diets were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mice fed cis-monounsaturated fat and ALA-enriched diets exhibited equivalent plasma total cholesterol (TPC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels; only mice fed the fish-oil diet had lower TPC and LDL-c concentrations. Plasma LDL-CE fatty acid composition analysis showed that ALA-enriched diets lowered the percentage of atherogenic cholesteryl oleate compared with cis-monounsaturated-fat diet (44% versus 55.6%) but not as efficiently as the fish-oil diet (32.4%). Although both ALA and fish-oil diets equally enriched hepatic phospholipids with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ALA-enriched diets lowered hepatic cholesteryl ester (CE) levels compared with cis-monounsaturated-fat diet, only fish oil strongly protected from atherosclerosis. These outcomes indicate that dietary n-3 LCPUFA from fish oil and n-3 LCPUFA (mostly EPA) synthesized endogenously from ALA were not equally atheroprotective in these mice.
Related JoVE Video
Combined therapy of dietary fish oil and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 inhibition prevents the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a critical regulator of energy metabolism and inflammation. We have previously reported that inhibition of SCD1 in hyperlipidemic mice fed a saturated fatty acid (SFA)-enriched diet prevented development of the metabolic syndrome, yet surprisingly promoted severe atherosclerosis. In this study we tested whether dietary fish oil supplementation could prevent the accelerated atherosclerosis caused by SCD1 inhibition.
Related JoVE Video
Estrogen decreases atherosclerosis in part by reducing hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in monkeys.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estrogens decrease atherosclerosis progression, mediated in part through changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins. This study aimed to determine estrogen-induced changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism, plasma lipoproteins, and the relationship of these changes to atherosclerosis extent.
Related JoVE Video
ACAT inhibition reduces the progression of preexisting, advanced atherosclerotic mouse lesions without plaque or systemic toxicity.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters in plaque foam cells. Complete deficiency of macrophage ACAT has been shown to increase atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice because of cytotoxicity from free cholesterol accumulation, whereas we previously showed that partial ACAT inhibition by Fujirebio compound F1394 decreased early atherosclerosis development. In this report, we tested F1394 effects on preestablished, advanced lesions of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.
Related JoVE Video
Creating an innovative tool to measure Magnet® readiness.
J Nurs Adm
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnet designation has become a highly sought-after credential for hospitals across the United States and internationally who want to distinguish themselves for clinical excellence and employee engagement. This article chronicles how Emory Healthcare, the largest, comprehensive academic healthcare system in Georgia, developed the Magnet Readiness Index™ to assess the status of nursing compared with the standards prior to submission of an application.
Related JoVE Video
Using a training-of-trainers approach and proactive technical assistance to bring evidence based programs to scale: an operationalization of the interactive systems frameworks support system.
Am J Community Psychol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bringing evidence based programs to scale was a major initial impetus for the development of the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF). The ISF demonstrates the importance of the Support System in facilitating the uptake of innovations in the community (the Delivery System). Two strategies that members of the Support System commonly use are training-of-trainers (TOT) models and technical assistance (TA). In this article, we focus on the role of the Support System in bringing evidence-based programs (EBPs) to scale in the Delivery System using a case example, with special attention on two strategies employed by Support Systems-training-of-trainers (TOT) and proactive technical assistance. We then report on findings from a case example from the Promoting Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention project that furthers our conceptualization of these strategies and the evidence base for them. We also report on the limitations in the literature regarding research on TOTs and proactive TA and provide suggestions for future research on TOTs and proactive TA that will enhance the science and practice of support in the ISF.
Related JoVE Video
Cholesteryl esters associated with acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase predict coronary artery disease in patients with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome.
Acad Emerg Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying the likelihood of a patient having coronary artery disease (CAD) at the time of emergency department (ED) presentation with chest pain could reduce the need for stress testing or coronary imaging after myocardial infarction (MI) has been excluded. The authors aimed to determine if a novel cardiac biomarker consisting of plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) levels typically derived from the activity of the enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2) are predictive of CAD in a clinical model.
Related JoVE Video
Developing a prevention synthesis and translation system to promote science-based approaches to teen pregnancy, HIV and STI prevention.
Am J Community Psychol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) is a multi-system framework that can guide research-to-practice efforts by building and supporting the work of three interacting systems: the Prevention Delivery, Support, and Synthesis and Translation Systems. The Synthesis and Translation system is vital to bridging science and practice, yet how to develop it and train support system partners to use it is under-researched. This article bridges this gap by offering a case example of the planning, development, and use of a synthesis and translation product called Promoting Science-based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention using Getting To Outcomes. The case presented documents the process used for developing the synthesis and translation product, reports on efforts to engage the Prevention Support system to use the product, and how we approached building interaction between the Synthesis and Translation System and the Support System partners. Practice-oriented evaluation data are also presented. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Tissue-specific knockouts of ACAT2 reveal that intestinal depletion is sufficient to prevent diet-induced cholesterol accumulation in the liver and blood.
J. Lipid Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) generates cholesterol esters (CE) for packaging into newly synthesized lipoproteins and thus is a major determinant of blood cholesterol levels. ACAT2 is expressed exclusively in the small intestine and liver, but the relative contributions of ACAT2 expression in these tissues to systemic cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We investigated whether CE derived from the intestine or liver would differentially affect hepatic and plasma cholesterol homeostasis. We generated liver-specific (ACAT2(L-/L-)) and intestine-specific (ACAT2(SI-/SI-)) ACAT2 knockout mice and studied dietary cholesterol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. ACAT2(SI-/SI-) mice, in contrast to ACAT2(L-/L-) mice, had blunted cholesterol absorption. However, specific deletion of ACAT2 in the intestine generated essentially a phenocopy of the conditional knockout of ACAT2 in the liver, with reduced levels of plasma very low-density lipoprotein and hepatic CE, yet hepatic-free cholesterol does not build up after high cholesterol intake. ACAT2(L-/L-) and ACAT2(SI-/SI-) mice were equally protected from diet-induced hepatic CE accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that inhibition of intestinal or hepatic ACAT2 improves atherogenic hyperlipidemia and limits hepatic CE accumulation in mice and that depletion of intestinal ACAT2 is sufficient for most of the beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism. Inhibitors of ACAT2 targeting either tissue likely would be beneficial for atheroprotection.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.