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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Community Health Workers as an Integral Strategy in the REACH U.S. Program to Eliminate Health Inequities.
Health Promot Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Mounting evidence indicates that community health workers (CHWs) contribute to improved behavioral and health outcomes and reductions in health disparities. We provide an overview (based on grantee reports and community action plans) that describe CHW contributions to 22 Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) programs funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007 to 2012, offering additional evidence of their contributions to the effectiveness of community public health programs. We then highlight how CHWs helped deliver REACH U.S. community interventions to meet differing needs across communities to bridge the gap between health care services and community members, build community and individual capacity to plan and implement interventions addressing multiple chronic health conditions, and meet community needs in a culturally appropriate manner. The experience, skills, and success gained by CHWs participating in the REACH U.S. program have fostered important individual community-level changes geared to increase health equity. Finally, we underscore the importance of CHWs being embedded within these communities and the flexibility they offer to intervention strategies, both of which are characteristics critical to meeting needs of communities experiencing health disparities. CHWs served a vital role in facilitating and leading changes and will continue to do so.
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Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of ?-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.
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Temporal changes in K-ras mutant fraction in lung tissue of big blue B6C3F? mice exposed to ethylene oxide.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Ethylene oxide (EO) is a genotoxicant and a mouse lung carcinogen, but whether EO is carcinogenic through a mutagenic mode of action remains unclear. To investigate this question, 8-week-old male Big Blue B6C3F? mice (10 mice/group) were exposed to EO by inhalation-6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks (0, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm EO) and 8 or 12 weeks (0, 100, or 200 ppm EO). Lung DNA samples were analyzed for levels of 3 K-ras codon 12 mutations (GGT?GAT, GGT?GTT, and GGT?TGT) using ACB-PCR. No measureable level of K-ras codon 12 TGT mutation was detected (ie, all lung mutant fractions [MFs] ? 10??). Four weeks of inhalation of 100 ppm EO caused a significant increase in K-ras codon 12 GGT?GTT MF relative to controls, whereas 50, 100, and 200 ppm EO caused significant increases in K-ras codon 12 GGT?GAT MF. In addition, significant inverse correlations were observed between K-ras codon 12 GGT?GTT MF and cII mutant frequency in the lungs of the same mice exposed to 50, 100, or 200 ppm EO for 4 weeks. Surprisingly, 8 weeks of exposure to 100 and 200 ppm EO caused significant decreases in K-ras MFs relative to controls. Thus, the changes in K-ras MF as a function of cumulative EO dose were nonmonotonic and were consistent with EO causing early amplification of preexisting K-ras mutations, rather than induction of K-ras mutation through genotoxicity at codon 12. The possibility that these changes reflect K-ras mutant cell selection under varying degrees of oxidative stress is discussed.
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In vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y Tk?/?-3.7.2C) forward mutation assay.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The in vitro mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) is one of the most widely practiced assays in genetic toxicology. MLA detects forward mutations at the thymidine kinase (Tk) locus of the L5178Y (Tk (+/-) -3.7.2C) cell line derived from a mouse thymic lymphoma. This assay is capable of detecting a wide range of genetic events including point mutations, deletions (intragenic) and multilocus, chromosomal rearrangements, mitotic recombination, and nondisjunction. There are two equally accepted versions of the assay, one using soft agar cloning and the second method using liquid media cloning in 96-microwell plates. There are two morphologically distinct types of mutant colonies recovered in the MLA: small- and large-colony mutants. The induction of small-colony mutants is associated with chemicals inducing gross chromosomal aberrations whereas the induction of large mutant colonies is generally associated with chemicals inducing point mutations. The source and karyotype of the cell line as well as the culture conditions are important variables that could influence the assay performance. The assay when performed according to the standards recommended by the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing is capable of providing valuable genotoxicity hazard information as part of the overall safety assessment process of various classes of test substances.
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Genotoxicity of 2-bromo-3-chloropropiophenone.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Impurities are present in any drug substance or drug product. They can be process-related impurities that are not completely removed during purification or are formed due to the degradation of the drug substance over the product shelf-life. Unlike the drug substance, impurities generally do not have beneficial effects and may present a risk without associated benefit. Therefore, their amount should be minimized. 2-Bromo-3-chloropropiophenone (BCP) is an impurity of bupropion, a second-generation antidepressant and a smoking cessation aid. The United States Pharmacopeia recommends an acceptable level for BCP that is not more than 0.1% of the bupropion. Because exposure to genotoxic impurities even at low levels is of significant concern, it is important to determine whether or not BCP is genotoxic. Therefore, in this study the Ames test and the in vitro micronucleus assay were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of BCP. BCP was mutagenic with S9 metabolic activation, increasing the mutant frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 22- and 145-fold induction over the controls in Salmonella strains TA100 and TA1535, respectively. BCP was also positive in the in vitro micronucleus assay, resulting in up to 3.3- and 5.1-fold increase of micronucleus frequency for treatments in the absence and presence of S9, respectively; and 9.9- and 7.4-fold increase of aneuploidies without and with S9, respectively. The addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the genotoxicity of BCP in both assays. Further studies showed that BCP treatment resulted in induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the TK6 cells. The results suggest that BCP is mutagenic, clastogenic, and aneugenic, and that these activities are mediated via generation of reactive metabolites.
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Nitroxide TEMPO: a genotoxic and oxidative stress inducer in cultured cells.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) is a low molecular weight nitroxide and stable free radical. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of TEMPO in mammalian cells using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. In the absence of metabolic activation (S9), 3mM TEMPO produced significant cytotoxicity and marginal mutagenicity in the MLA; in the presence of S9, treatment of mouse lymphoma cells with 1-2mM TEMPO resulted in dose-dependent decreases of the relative total growth and increases in mutant frequency. Treatment of TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells with 0.9-2.3mM TEMPO increased the frequency of both micronuclei (a marker for clastogenicity) and hypodiploid nuclei (a marker of aneugenicity) in a dose-dependent manner; greater responses were produced in the presence of S9. Within the dose range tested, TEMPO induced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in mouse lymphoma cells. In addition, the majority of TEMPO-induced mutants had loss of heterozygosity at the Tk locus, with allele loss of ?34Mbp. These results indicate that TEMPO is mutagenic in the MLA and induces micronuclei and hypodiploid nuclei in TK6 cells. Oxidative stress may account for part of the genotoxicity induced by TEMPO in both cell lines.
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Suitable top concentration for tests with mammalian cells: mouse lymphoma assay workgroup.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The Mouse Lymphoma Expert Workgroup of the International Workshop for Genotoxicity Tests (IWGT) met in Basel, Switzerland in August of 2009. The Workgroup (WG) was tasked with discussing the appropriate top concentration for non-pharmaceuticals that would be required for the conduct of the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) when sufficient cytotoxicity [to between 10 and 20% relative total growth (RTG)] has not been attained. The WG approached this task by (1) enumerating the various regulatory decisions/use for MLA data, (2) discussing the appropriate assays to which MLA data and assay performance should be compared and (3) discussing all the proposals put forth concerning the top concentration for non-pharmaceuticals. In addition, one of the members presented a summary of a re-evaluation of the National Toxicology Program MLA data using the IWGT harmonized guidance that was underway as a separate (non IWGT) activity, being conducted by two members of the Expert WG. The WG was asked to vote on each of the various proposals for top concentration for when cytotoxicity is not concentration limiting. While there was general agreement that the top concentration for non-pharmaceuticals should be re-evaluated and likely lowered from the current recommended levels, there was no agreement on a specific new recommendation.
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Mutagenicity of 11 cigarette smoke condensates in two versions of the mouse lymphoma assay.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is genotoxic in nearly all assays in which it has been tested. In this study, we investigated the mutagenicity of 11 CSCs using the microwell and soft-agar versions of the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). These CSCs were prepared from commercial or experimental cigarettes, 10 of them were produced using International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) conditions and one CSC was generated using intense Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conditions. In the presence of rat liver S9, the L5178Y/Tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells were treated with 11 CSCs at different concentrations (25-200 ?g/ml) for 4 h. All CSCs resulted in dose-dependent increases of both cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in both versions of the MLA. The mutagenic potencies of the CSCs were calculated as mutant frequency per microgram CSC from the slope of the linear regression of the dose-response curves and showed no correlations with the tar yield of the cigarette or nicotine concentrations of the CSCs. Comparing two CSCs produced from the same commercial cigarettes using two different smoking conditions, the one generated under ISO conditions was more mutagenic than the other generated under intense conditions on a per microgram CSC basis. We also examined the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at four microsatellite loci spanning the entire chromosome 11 for the mutants induced by 11 CSCs. The most common type of mutation observed was LOH with chromosome damage spanning less than ?34 Mbp. These results indicate that the MLA identifies different genotoxic potencies among a variety of CSCs and that the results from both versions of the assay are comparable.
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Strategies in case of positive in vivo results in genotoxicity testing.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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At the 2009 International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing in Basel, an expert group gathered to provide guidance on suitable follow-up tests to describe risk when basic in vivo genotoxicity tests have yielded positive results. The working group agreed that non-linear dose-response curves occur in vivo with at least some DNA-reactive agents. Quantitative risk assessment in such cases requires the use of (1) adequate data, i.e., the use of all available data for the selection of reliable in vivo models to be used for quantitative risk assessment, (2) appropriate mathematical models and statistical analysis for characterizing the dose-response relationships and allowing the use of quantitative and dose-response information in the interpretation of results, (3) mode of action (MOA) information for the evaluation and analysis of risk, and (4) reliable assessments of the internal dose across species for deriving acceptable margins of exposure and risk levels. Hence, the elucidation of MOA and understanding of the mechanism underlying the dose-response curve are important components of risk assessment. The group agreed on the need for (i) the development of in vivo assays, especially multi-endpoint, multi-species assays, with emphasis on those applicable to humans, and (ii) consensus about the most appropriate mathematical models and statistical analyses for defining non-linear dose-responses and exposure levels associated with acceptable risk.
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Follow-up actions from positive results of in vitro genetic toxicity testing.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Appropriate follow-up actions and decisions are needed when evaluating and interpreting clear positive results obtained in the in vitro assays used in the initial genotoxicity screening battery (i.e., the battery of tests generally required by regulatory authorities) to assist in overall risk-based decision making concerning the potential effects of human exposure to the agent under test. Over the past few years, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Project Committee on the Relevance and Follow-up of Positive Results in In Vitro Genetic Toxicity (IVGT) Testing developed a decision process flow chart to be applied in case of clear positive results in vitro. It provides for a variety of different possibilities and allows flexibility in choosing follow-up action(s), depending on the results obtained in the initial battery of assays and available information. The intent of the Review Subgroup was not to provide a prescriptive testing strategy, but rather to reinforce the concept of weighing the totality of the evidence. The Review Subgroup of the IVGT committee highlighted the importance of properly analyzing the existing data, and considering potential confounding factors (e.g., possible interactions with the test systems, presence of impurities, irrelevant metabolism), and chemical modes of action when analyzing and interpreting positive results in the in vitro genotoxicity assays and determining appropriate follow-up testing. The Review Subgroup also examined the characteristics, strengths, and limitations of each of the existing in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays to determine their usefulness in any follow-up testing.
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Taking a broad approach to public health program adaptation: adapting a family-based diabetes education program.
J Prim Prev
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Diabetes health disparities among Hispanic populations have been countered with federally funded health promotion and disease prevention programs. Dissemination has focused on program adaptation to local cultural contexts for greater acceptability and sustainability. Taking a broader approach and drawing on our experience in Mexican American communities at the U.S.-Mexico Border, we demonstrate how interventions are adapted at the intersection of multiple cultural contexts: the populations targeted, the community- and university-based entities designing and implementing interventions, and the field team delivering the materials. Program adaptation involves negotiations between representatives of all contexts and is imperative in promoting local ownership and program sustainability.
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Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of retinol with ultraviolet A irradiation in mouse lymphoma cells.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol; retinol) is an essential human nutrient and plays an important role in several biological functions. However, under certain circumstances, retinol treatment can cause free radical generation and induce oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated photocytotoxicity and photomutagenicity of retinol using L5178Y/Tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells concomitantly exposed to retinol and ultraviolet A (UVA) light. While the cells treated with retinol alone at the doses of 5 or 10microg/ml in the absence of light did not increase the mutant frequency (MF) in the Tk gene, the treatment of the cells with 1-4microg/ml retinol under UVA light (1.38mW/cm(2) for 30min) increased the MF in the Tk gene in a dose-responsive manner. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we also examined the mutational types of the Tk mutants by determining their loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at four microsatellite loci spanning the entire chromosome 11 on which the Tk gene is located. The mutational spectrum for the retinol+UVA treatment was significantly different from those of the control and UVA alone. More than 93% of the mutants from retinol+UVA treatment lost heterozygosity at the Tk1 locus and the major type (58%) of mutations was LOHs extending to D11Mit42, an alternation involving approximately 6cM of the chromosome, whereas the main type of mutations in the control was non-LOH mutations. These results suggest that retinol is mutagenic when exposed to UVA in mouse lymphoma cells through a clastogenic mode-of-action.
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Evaluation of mutagenic mode of action in Big Blue mice fed methylphenidate for 24 weeks.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH), a widely prescribed pediatric drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, induced liver adenocarcinomas in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 500 ppm in feed for 2 years (Dunnick and Hailey (1995) [14]). In order to determine if the induction of liver tumors was by a mutagenic mode of action, groups of male Big Blue (BB) mice (B6C3F1 background) were fed diets containing 50-4000 ppm MPH for 4, 12, or 24 weeks. At sacrifice, the livers were removed and the cII mutant frequency (MF) and spectrum of cII mutations were determined. In addition, the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MN-NCEs) were measured in peripheral blood erythrocytes as was the Hprt MF in splenic lymphocytes. Food consumption and body weight gain/loss were recorded weekly for each animal. The levels of MPH and RA were determined immediately before sacrifice in the serum of mice fed MPH for 24 weeks. A significant loss in body weights (p
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Current and future application of genetic toxicity assays: the role and value of in vitro mammalian assays.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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With the advent of new technologies (e.g., genomics, automated analyses, and in vivo monitoring), new regulations (e.g., the reduction of animal tests by the European REACH), and new approaches to toxicology (e.g., Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, National Research Council), the field of regulatory genetic toxicology is undergoing a serious re-examination. Within this context, Toxicological Sciences has published a series of articles in its Forum Section on the theme, "Genetic Toxicity Assessment: Employing the Best Science for Human Safety Evaluation" (beginning with Goodman et al.). As a contribution to the Forum discussions, we present current methods for evaluating mutagenic/genotoxic risk using standard genotoxicity test batteries, and suggest ways to address and incorporate new technologies. We recognize that the occurrence of positive results in relation to cancer prediction has led to criticism of in vitro mammalian cell genetic toxicity assays. We address criticism of test results related to weak positives, associated only with considerable toxicity, only seen at high concentrations, not accompanied by positive results in the other tests of standard test batteries, and/or not correlating well with rodent carcinogenicity tests. We suggest that the problems pointed out by others with these assays already have been resolved, to a large extent, by international groups working to update assay protocols, and by changes in data interpretation at regulatory agencies. New guidances at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration improve data evaluation and help refocus risk assessment. We discuss the results of international groups working together to integrate new technologies and evaluate new tests, including human monitoring. We suggest that strategies for identifying human health risks should naturally change to integrate new technologies; however, changes should be made only when justified by strong scientific evidence of improvement in the risk assessment paradigm.
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The mouse lymphoma assay detects recombination, deletion, and aneuploidy.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) uses the thymidine kinase (Tk) gene of the L5178Y/Tk(+/-)-3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line as a reporter gene to evaluate the mutagenicity of chemical and physical agents. The MLA is recommended by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency as the preferred in vitro mammalian cell mutation assay for genetic toxicology screening because it detects a wide range of genetic alterations, including both point mutations and chromosomal mutations. However, the specific types of chromosomal mutations that can be detected by the MLA need further clarification. For this purpose, three chemicals, including two clastogens and an aneugen (3-azido-3-deoxythymidine, mitomycin C, and taxol), were used to induce Tk mutants. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was used to select mutants that could be informative as to whether they resulted from deletion, mitotic recombination, or aneuploidy. A combination of additional methods, G-banding analysis, chromosome painting, and a real-time PCR method to detect the copy number (CN) of the Tk gene was then used to provide a detailed analysis. LOH involving at least 25% of chromosome 11, a normal karyotype, and a Tk CN of 2 would indicate that the mutant resulted from recombination, whereas LOH combined with a karyotypically visible deletion of chromosome 11 and a Tk CN of 1 would indicate a deletion. Aneuploidy was confirmed using G-banding combined with chromosome painting analysis for mutants showing LOH at every microsatellite marker on chromosome 11. From this analysis, it is clear that mouse lymphoma Tk mutants can result from recombination, deletion, and aneuploidy.
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Addressing the information gap: developing and implementing a cervical cancer prevention education campaign grounded in principles of community-based participatory action.
Health Promot Pract
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Despite significant advances in prevention, Mexican American women continue to experience disparities related to cervical cancer and access to current and relevant health information. To address this disparity a community-campus partnership initiated an outreach program to Latinas in Arizona as one part of an integrated approach. Promotoras (community health workers) provided the leadership in the development of a curriculum to (a) train promotoras on cervical cancer, (b) meet informational needs of community members, (c) address relevant social determinants of heath, and (d) promote access to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the community-based participatory approach used in the development of the curriculum. Specifically, the article describes the leadership of promotoras, the curriculum development, and the use of continual feedback to inform the quality control. To address cervical cancer disparities for Mexican American women, the Pima County Cervical Cancer Prevention Partnership used principles of community-based participatory action.
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Silver nanoparticle-induced mutations and oxidative stress in mouse lymphoma cells.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have increasingly been used for coatings on various textiles and certain implants, for the treatment of wounds and burns, as a water disinfectant, and in air-freshener sprays. The wide use of Ag-NPs may have potential human health impacts. In this study, the mutagenicity of 5-nm Ag-NPs was evaluated in the mouse lymphoma assay system, and modes of action were assessed using standard alkaline and enzyme-modified Comet assays and gene expression analysis. Treatments of L5178Y/Tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells with 5-nm uncoated Ag-NPs resulted in a significant yield of mutants at doses between 3 and 6 ?g/mL; the upper range was limited by toxicity. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the Tk mutants revealed that treatments with uncoated Ag-NPs induced mainly chromosomal alterations spanning less than 34 megabase pairs on chromosome 11. Although no significant induction of DNA damage in Ag-NP-treated mouse lymphoma cells was observed in the standard Comet assay, the Ag-NP treatments induced a dose-responsive increase in oxidative DNA damage in the enzyme-modified Comet assay in which oxidative lesion-specific endonucleases were added. Gene expression analysis using an oxidative stress and antioxidant defense polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that the expressions of 17 of the 59 genes on the arrays were altered in the cells treated with Ag-NPs. These genes are involved in production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress response, antioxidants, oxygen transporters, and DNA repair. These results suggest that 5 nm Ag-NPs are mutagenic in mouse lymphoma cells due to induction of oxidative stress by the Ag-NPs.
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