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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gamification as a tool for enhancing graduate medical education.
Postgrad Med J
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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The last decade has seen many changes in graduate medical education training in the USA, most notably the implementation of duty hour standards for residents by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. As educators are left to balance more limited time available between patient care and resident education, new methods to augment traditional graduate medical education are needed.
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Gold nanorod assisted intracellular optical manipulation of silica microspheres.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report on the improvement of the infrared optical trapping efficiency of dielectric microspheres by the controlled adhesion of gold nanorods to their surface. When trapping wavelength was equal to the surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the gold nanorods (808 nm), a 7 times improvement in the optical force acting on the microspheres was obtained. Such a gold nanorod assisted enhancement of the optical trapping efficiency enabled the intracellular manipulation of the decorated dielectric microsphere by using a low power (22 mW) infrared optical trap.
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[Transgastric laparo-endoscopic approach for difficult access lesions. Experimental mode].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Gastric neoplasms can be treated by laparoscopy in a safe and efficient way. Some lesions are not accessible to laparoscopic surgery due to their location. A transgastric approach is proposed as an alternative.
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Mesenchymal stromal cells improve renovascular function in Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common cause of end stage renal failure, for which there is no accepted treatment. Progenitor and stem cells have been shown to restore renal function in a model of renovascular disease, a disease that shares many features with PKD. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of adult stem cells to restore renal structure and function in PKD. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, 2.5x105) were intrarenally infused in 6 week-old PCK rats. At 10 weeks of age, PCK rats had an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) vs. controls (126.22±2.74 vs. 116.45±3.53mmHg, p<0.05) and decreased creatinine clearance (3.76±0.31 vs. 6.10±0.48?l/min/g, p<0.01), which were improved in animals that received MSCs (SBP: 114.67±1.34mmHg, and creatinine clearance: 4.82±0.24?l/min/g, p=0.001 and p=0.003 vs. PKD, respectively). MSCs preserved vascular density and glomeruli diameter, measured using micro-computed tomography. PCK animals had increased urine osmolality (843.9±54.95 vs. 605.6±45.34mOsm, p<0.01 vs. control), which was improved after MSC infusion and not different from control (723.75±56.6mOsm, p=0.13 vs. control). Furthermore, MSCs reduced fibrosis and preserved the expression of the pro-angiogenic molecules, while cyst size and number were unaltered by MSCs. Delivery of exogenous MSCs improved vascular density and renal function in PCK animals, and the benefit was observed up to four weeks after a single infusion. Cell-based therapy constitutes a novel approach in PKD.
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Role of centrality for the identification of influential spreaders in complex networks.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The identification of the most influential spreaders in networks is important to control and understand the spreading capabilities of the system as well as to ensure an efficient information diffusion such as in rumorlike dynamics. Recent works have suggested that the identification of influential spreaders is not independent of the dynamics being studied. For instance, the key disease spreaders might not necessarily be so important when it comes to analyzing social contagion or rumor propagation. Additionally, it has been shown that different metrics (degree, coreness, etc.) might identify different influential nodes even for the same dynamical processes with diverse degrees of accuracy. In this paper, we investigate how nine centrality measures correlate with the disease and rumor spreading capabilities of the nodes in different synthetic and real-world (both spatial and nonspatial) networks. We also propose a generalization of the random walk accessibility as a new centrality measure and derive analytical expressions for the latter measure for simple network configurations. Our results show that for nonspatial networks, the k-core and degree centralities are the most correlated to epidemic spreading, whereas the average neighborhood degree, the closeness centrality, and accessibility are the most related to rumor dynamics. On the contrary, for spatial networks, the accessibility measure outperforms the rest of the centrality metrics in almost all cases regardless of the kind of dynamics considered. Therefore, an important consequence of our analysis is that previous studies performed in synthetic random networks cannot be generalized to the case of spatial networks.
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Role of gibberellins during arbuscular mycorrhizal formation in tomato: new insights revealed by endogenous quantification and genetic analysis of their metabolism in mycorrhizal roots.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Gibberellins (GAs) are key regulators of plant growth and development and recent studies suggest also a role during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) formation. Here, complementary approaches have been used to obtain a clearer picture that correlates AM fungal development inside roots with GA metabolism. An extensive analysis of genes associated with GA metabolism as well as a quantification of GA content in roots was made. Application of GA3 and its biosynthesis inhibitor prohexadione calcium (PrCa) combined with a GA-constitutive response mutant (procera) were used to determine whether fungal colonization is altered by the level of these hormones or by changes in the GA-signaling pathway. The increased levels of specific GAs from the 13-hydroxylation pathway in mycorrhizal roots correlate closely with the increased expression of genes coding enzymes from the GA biosynthetic trail. The imbalance of GAs in tomato roots caused by exogenous applications of GA3 or PrCa affects arbuscules in both negative and positive ways, respectively. In addition, procera plants were adversely affected by the mycorrhization process. Our findings demonstrate that an imbalance in favor of an increased amount of GAs negatively affects the frequency of mycorrhization and particularly the arbuscular abundance in tomato mycorrhizal roots and the results point out that AM formation is associated with a change in the 13-hydroxylation pathway of GAs.
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Machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease using [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The study's objective was to develop diagnostic predictive models using data from two commonly used [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT assessment methods: region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain voxel-based analysis.
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Correlation between the gastrojejunostomosis area, documented endoscopically, and the loss of weight in laparoscopic gastric bypass postoperative patients: results of 1 year after surgery.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Laparoscopic Y Roux gastric bypass (YRGB) is the most performed bariatric surgery. There are 3 main techniques in the construction of the gastrojejunostomosis (GJA). The size of the GJA and its relation to the reduction of excess weight has been previously debated. The aim of our study was to determine whether the GJA area in YRGB correlates with the loss of excess weight at 1 year postoperatively. Patients who complied 1 year after YRGB underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Images of the GJA were obtained and the area of the GJA was calculated. A statistical analysis, adjusting for age and body mass index preoperatively obtained an r of -0474 and P=0.032, demonstrating a significant negative correlation between the GJA area and the percentage of excess weight loss. A statistically significant negative correlation between the GJA area and the percentage of the excess weight loss was shown. The number of patients evaluated should be increased for a higher statistical significance to corroborate whether the stoma size influences the loss of weight in YRGB patients.
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Exploring the "weight" of food cravings and thought suppression among Cuban adults.
Eat Weight Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The current study aimed to analyze individual differences on food cravings, intrusive-related thoughts and its suppression between normal weight and overweight/obese Cuban adults.
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Clinical features and neuropsychological profile in vascular parkinsonism.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The clinical profile in vascular parkinsonism (VP) patients is well described in the literature, but little is known about the neuropsychological features of this disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and the profile of cognitive impairment in patients with VP.
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Nanoparticles for photothermal therapies.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The current status of the use of nanoparticles for photothermal treatments is reviewed in detail. The different families of heating nanoparticles are described paying special attention to the physical mechanisms at the root of the light-to-heat conversion processes. The heating efficiencies and spectral working ranges are listed and compared. The most important results obtained in both in vivo and in vitro nanoparticle assisted photothermal treatments are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the different heating nanoparticles are discussed.
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Fluorescent nanothermometers for intracellular thermal sensing.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The importance of high-resolution intracellular thermal sensing and imaging in the field of modern biomedicine has boosted the development of novel nanosized fluorescent systems (fluorescent nanothermometers) as the next generation of probes for intracellular thermal sensing and imaging. This thermal mapping requires fluorescent nanothermometers with good biocompatibility and high thermal sensitivity in order to obtain submicrometric and subdegree spatial and thermal resolutions, respectively. This review describes the different nanosized systems used up to now for intracellular thermal sensing and imaging. We also include the later advances in molecular systems based on fluorescent proteins for thermal mapping. A critical overview of the state of the art and the future perspective is also included.
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Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 ?g kg(-1)), sediment (430 ?g kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 ?g kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.
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Whole-genome expression profile in zebrafish embryos after chronic exposure to morphine: identification of new genes associated with neuronal function and mu opioid receptor expression.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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A great number of studies have investigated changes induced by morphine exposure in gene expression using several experimental models. In this study, we examined gene expression changes during chronic exposure to morphine during maturation and differentiation of zebrafish CNS.
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Renin inhibition improves the survival of mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine if renin inhibition is able to improve the survival of transplanted stem cells in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was induced in FVB/NJ inbred mice (n?=?23). Bone marrow-derived mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs, 3?×?10(5)) expressing the reporter gene firefly luciferase were delivered intramyocardially (n?=?12) and monitored non-invasively by bioluminescence imaging. A group of these mice (n?=?6) received aliskiren (15 mg/kg/day) via an osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously. The survival of mMSCs was significantly increased in those animals that received aliskiren leading to a significant improvement in systolic function after myocardial infarction. Histological analysis revealed a significant reduction in inflammation and collagen deposition in those mice that received aliskiren compared to controls. Renin inhibition of the ischemic myocardium is able to modulate the microenvironment improving the survival and efficacy of transplanted mMSCs in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.
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A qualitative assessment of internal medicine resident perceptions of graduate medical education following implementation of the 2011 ACGME duty hour standards.
BMC Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In 2011, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education implemented updated guidelines for medical resident duty hours, further limiting continuous work hours for first-year residents. We sought to investigate the impact of these restrictions on graduate medical education among internal medicine residents.
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Phase I clinical trial of nintedanib plus paclitaxel in early HER-2-negative breast cancer (CNIO-BR-01-2010/GEICAM-2010-10 study).
Br. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Previous small-molecule antiangiogenics have compromised chemotherapy dose intensity in breast cancer. We present a phase I trial of a novel selective agent, nintedanib, plus standard chemotherapy in early breast cancer.
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Local deposition of mercury in topsoils around coal-fired power plants: is it always true?
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere through human activities, mainly fossil fuel combustion. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with atmospheric deposition, while coal-burning power plants remain the most important source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. In this study, we analyzed the Hg concentration in the topsoil of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin where four coal-fired power plants (4,065 MW) run to provide 50 % of electricity in Greece. The study aimed to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg using geostatistical techniques to evaluate the presumed Hg enrichment around the four power plants. Hg variability in agricultural soils was evaluated using 276 soil samples from 92 locations covering an area of 1,000 km(2). We were surprised to find a low Hg content in soil (range 1-59 ?g kg(-1)) and 50 % of samples with a concentration lower than 6 ?g kg(-1). The influence of mercury emissions from the four coal-fired power plants on soil was poor or virtually nil. We associate this effect with low Hg contents in the coal (1.5-24.5 ?g kg(-1)) used in the combustion of these power plants (one of the most Hg-poor in the world). Despite anthropic activity in the area, we conclude that Hg content in the agricultural soils of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin is present in low concentrations.
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Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of nanoemulsions for the controlled delivery of the antiobesity agent N-oleoylethanolamine.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Aims:N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) is a lipid mediator that acts as a satiety factor. The main limiting factor for its administration is its poor water solubility. We designed and characterized new nanoemulsions as delivery system for hydrophobic compounds such as OEA. Materials & methods: The nanoemulsion components and preparation methods were selected in order to achieve the desired final properties. Then, we evaluated the in vivo properties of the nanoemulsions as drug-delivery systems testing the anorectic effects of OEA in rats after both intragastric and intraperitoneal administration. The in vivo toxicity of the nanoemulsions was evaluated after a 3-week treatment. Results: Nanoemulsions proved to be stable, nontoxic and had no effect on feeding behavior when administered without OEA. The effects of OEA were observable after its oral and parenteral administration with the nanoemulsions to 24-h fasted rats, finding a better efficacy compared with a vehicle containing Tween(®) 20 (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) after oral administration. Conclusion: These results support the efficacy of these nanoemulsions to deliver highly hydrophobic bioactive drugs. Original submitted 2 October 2013; Revised submitted 3 February 2014.
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Association Between Bullous Pemphigoid and Neurologic Diseases: A Case-Control Study.
Actas Dermosifiliogr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population.
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Safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave myocardial revascularization therapy for refractory angina pectoris.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To assess the safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) therapy in treating patients with refractory angina pectoris.
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Levels and variability of metals in soils of the province of golestan (iran).
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Studying the concentration distribution of metals is necessary for soil pollution monitoring and maintaining environmental quality. To date, very little large-scale research has been performed to investigate metal contamination in developing countries. In this study, the content and spatial distributions of five metals (cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were quantified based on 346 topsoil samples from 12 districts in the province of Golestan (northeast [NE] Iran). The concentration levels (mg/kg) of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn varied from 0.02 to 0.36, 9.3 to 93.7, 6.8 to 44, 9.5 to 85.35, and 25 to 417.4, respectively. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were as follows: Cd 0.12 ± 0.07, Cu 23.9 ± 9.07, Ni 34.88 ± 11.59, Pb 15.42 ± 5.81 and Zn 82.08 ± 30.87. Significant differences in the distribution of trace elements among districts were detected. The AzadShahr and BandarGaz districts displayed the highest metal concentrations. Greater metal values were obtained in the central, south, west, and NE areas, although Zn concentration was also high to the north of the province. Values of contamination factor and contamination degree indicated that the metal pollution level was on the order of Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni and that all of the metals belonged to a low or moderate pollution category. Ni and Cu levels derived from natural sources, whereas Cd, Pb, and Zn derived from anthropogenic activities with greater mean concentrations than reference concentrations.
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Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions.
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Parieto-motor cortical dysfunction in primary cervical dystonia.
Brain Stimul
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Dystonia is considered as a motor network disorder involving the dysfunction of the posterior parietal cortex, a region involved in preparing and executing reaching movements.
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In vitro duodenal lipolysis of lipid-based drug delivery systems studied by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Oral drug delivery systems based on lipids are biodegraded in a process called lipolysis to release free fatty acids and monoglycerides. The rate of this lipolysis is usually measured by pH titration. Nevertheless, this technique has some limitations, such as not providing any information about the actual composition of the lipolytic products. In this study, we propose a method to analyze these products during and after lipolysis using HPLC. For the first time, HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS have been used to investigate in vitro duodenal lipolysis of long- and medium-chain triglycerides nanoemulsions. These results have been compared with pH titration, revealing the complementarity of both techniques. The main free fatty acids and monoglycerides produced were effectively identified and quantified as they were formed and after the lipolysis experiment and subsequent ultracentrifugation. The release of fatty acids during lipolysis was qualitatively similar between the compared techniques, although a partial precipitation of medium chain fatty acids could be revealed with HPLC-MS. In addition, the release of two hydrophobic compounds with health benefits, oleoylethanolamide and carnosic acid, was investigated. In conclusion, this study may serve as a starting point for subsequent investigations regarding biodegradation and absorption of lipid-based drug delivery systems using HPLC.
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Effect of bariatric surgery on microvascular dysfunction associated to metabolic syndrome: a 12-month prospective study.
Int J Obes (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To prospectively evaluate the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on microvascular function in morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Effect of mine tailing on the spatial variability of soil nematodes from lead pollution in La Union (Spain).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The Cartagena-La Union mining district, exploited since the end of the 3rd century BC, was one of the world's largest lead producers in the 19th century. Although activity ceased in 1991, today mining residues pose a huge pollution problem. This study characterises lead contents (total and DPTA) and other soil parameters (N, P, K, pH, SOM, CaCO3, granulometric fraction, etc.) using multivariate geostatistical methods in relation to nematode diversity. In this work, trophic groups and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes were measured using 193 samples from the mining, natural and agricultural areas in this district. We explored the relationship between soil health and nematode communities. High lead concentrations were quantified: mean 8,500 mg kg(-1) for total and 340 mg kg(-1) for DPTA in this mining area. Although nematode diversity was broad (81 taxa), their diversity, abundance and metabolic footprints significantly reduced in the mining area. Significant differences in the nematode community structure were observed, and the relative abundance of predators was sensitive to mine and agricultural activities, whilst omnivores reduced only in the agricultural area, and bacterial feeders exhibited a differential response to both anthropogenic disturbances. The total abundance of nematodes, trophic groups and c-p groups correlated negatively with soil Pb contents, and a positive relationship was found with SOM and N, P and K contents.
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Role of global and local topology in the regulation of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The most basic level of transcription regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is the organization of its chromosome in topological domains. In response to drugs that caused DNA-relaxation, a global transcriptional response was observed. Several chromosomal domains were identified based on the transcriptional response of their genes: up-regulated (U), down-regulated (D), non-regulated (N), and flanking (F). We show that these distinct domains have different expression and conservation characteristics. Microarray fluorescence units under non-relaxation conditions were used as a measure of gene transcriptional level. Fluorescence units were significantly lower in F genes than in the other domains with a similar AT content. The transcriptional level of the domains categorized them was D>U>F. In addition, a comparison of 12 S. pneumoniae genome sequences showed a conservation of gene composition within U and D domains, and an extensive gene interchange in F domains. We tested the organization of chromosomal domains by measuring the relaxation-mediated transcription of eight insertions of a heterologous Ptccat cassette, two in each type of domain, showing that transcription depended on their chromosomal location. Moreover, transcription from the four promoters directing the five genes involved in supercoiling homeostasis, located either in U (gyrB), D (topA), or N (gyrA and parEC) domains was analyzed both in their chromosomal locations and in a replicating plasmid. Although expression from the chromosomal PgyrB and PtopA showed the expected domain regulation, their expression was down-regulated in the plasmid, which behaved as a D domain. However, both PparE and PgyrA carried their own regulatory signals, their topology-dependent expression being equivalent in the plasmid or in the chromosome. In PgyrA a DNA bend acted as a DNA supercoiling sensor. These results revealed that DNA topology functions as a general transcriptional regulator, superimposed upon other more specific regulatory mechanisms.
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Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level.
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Evolution of anxious-depressive symptomatology in liver and kidney transplant recipients: hospitalization and 12-month post-transplantation phases.
Transplant. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the evolution (hospitalization in the transplantation unit and at 12 months post-transplantation) of anxious and depressive symptomatology in cadaveric transplant recipients as a function of type of organ implanted (liver or kidney).
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Longitudinal study of liver transplant recipients quality of life as a function of their perception of general health: at waiting list and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplantation.
Transplant. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the evolution (at waiting list, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplantation) of quality of life of cadaveric liver transplant recipients as a function of their perception of general health.
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Evolution of Quality of Life in Renal Transplant Recipients and Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Follow-up Study.
Transplant. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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We aimed to compare the evolution of quality of life in 2 medical conditions under immunotherapy (cadaveric renal transplantation [G1] and multiple sclerosis [G2]), and to assess the clinical significance of the results compared with a representative age-adjusted sample of the general Spanish population (G3).
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Optical trapping of NaYF4:Er(3+),Yb(3+) upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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We report on the first experimental observation of stable optical trapping of dielectric NaYF4:Er(3+),Yb(3+) upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles (?26 nm in diameter) using a continuous wave 980 nm single-beam laser. The laser serves both to optically trap and to excite visible luminescence from the nanoparticles. Sequential loading of individual nanoparticles into the trap is observed from the analysis of the emitted luminescence. We demonstrate that the trapping strength and the number of individual nanoparticles trapped are dictated by both the laser power and nanoparticle density. The possible contribution of thermal effects has been investigated by performing trapping experiment in both heavy water and into distilled water. For the case of heavy water, thermal gradients are negligible and optical forces dominate the trap loading behaviour. The results provide a promising path towards real three dimensional manipulation of single NaYF4:Er(3+),Yb(3+) nanoparticles for precise fluorescence sensing in biophotonics experiments.
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Block copolymers at interfaces: Interactions with physiological media.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Triblock copolymers (also known as Pluronics or poloxamers) are biocompatible molecules composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks with different lengths. They have received much attention recently owing to their applicability for targeted delivery of hydrophobic compounds. Their unique molecular structure facilitates the formation of dynamic aggregates which are able to transport lipid soluble compounds. However, these structures can be unstable and tend to solubilize within the blood stream. The use of nanoemulsions as carriers for the lipid soluble compounds appears as a new alternative with improved protection against physiological media. The interfacial behavior of block copolymers is directly related to their peculiar molecular structure and further knowledge could provide a rational use in the design of poloxamer-stabilized nanoemulsions. This review aims to combine the new insights gained recently into the interfacial properties of block copolymers and their performance in nanoemulsions. Direct studies dealing with the interactions with physiological media are also reviewed in order to address issues relating metabolism degradation profiles. A better understanding of the physico-chemical and interfacial properties of block copolymers will allow their manipulation to modulate lipolysis, hence allowing the rational design of nanocarriers with efficient controlled release.
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Noninvasive imaging of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? gene therapy for myocardial ischemia.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Both preclinical and clinical evaluations of this therapy are underway and can benefit from a vector strategy that allows noninvasive assessment of HIF-1? expression as an objective measure of gene delivery. We have developed a novel bidirectional plasmid vector (pcTnT-HIF-1?-VP2-TSTA-fluc), which employs the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter in conjunction with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system to drive the linked expression of a recombinant HIF-1? gene (HIF-1?-VP2) and the firefly luciferase gene (fluc). The firefly luciferase (FLuc) activity serves as a surrogate for HIF-1?-VP2 expression, and can be noninvasively assessed in mice using bioluminescence imaging after vector delivery. Transfection of cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes with pcTnT-HIF-1?-VP2-TSTA-fluc led to a strong correlation between FLuc and HIF-1?-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression (r(2)=0.88). Intramyocardial delivery of pcTnT-HIF-1?-VP2-TSTA-fluc into infarcted mouse myocardium led to persistent HIF-1?-VP2 expression for 4 weeks, even though it improved neither CD31+ microvessel density nor echocardiographically determined left ventricular systolic function. These results lend support to recent findings of suboptimal efficacy associated with plasmid-mediated HIF-1? therapy. The imaging techniques developed herein should be useful for further optimizing HIF-1?-VP2 therapy in preclinical models of myocardial ischemia.
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Polycystic kidneys have decreased vascular density: a micro-CT study.
Microcirculation
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common cause of end-stage renal failure and many of these patients suffer vascular dysfunction and hypertension. It remains unclear whether PKD is associated with abnormal microvascular structure. Thus, this study examined the renovascular structure in PKD.
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A wearable inertial measurement unit for long-term monitoring in the dependency care area.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMUs movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinsons disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.
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[Vaginal evisceration. Report of a case and a literature review].
Ginecol Obstet Mex
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Vaginal evisceration is a rare event associated to be associated with several factors. In premenopausal women it is often associated with trauma during intercourse, rape, iatrogenic injury and introduction of foreign objects. In postmenopausal women 73% of cases are associated with previous vaginal surgery or hysterectomy.
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Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Etanercept and Adalimumab for Plaque Psoriasis not Associated with Arthritis.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb)
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Pharmacoeconomic studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biological agents to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis in real-life clinical practice are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency, in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness, of etanercept and adalimumab in a real clinical setting.
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Noninvasive monitoring of oxidative stress in transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The goal of this study was to validate a pathway-specific reporter gene that could be used to noninvasively image the oxidative status of progenitor cells.
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Arthroscopic tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with locked retrograde compression nail.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is a demanding procedure. Several techniques have been described for successful fusion, including the use of plates, screws, intramedullary nails, and external fixators. Arthroscopic TTC fusion with intramedullary nailing has been recently described as an alternative method to traditional open procedures. The surgical technique and clinical and radiographic outcomes of 2 patients who had undergone arthroscopic TTC arthrodesis with intramedullary nailing are presented. The indication for surgery was symptomatic tibiotalar and subtalar post-traumatic arthritis in 1 patient and distal tibia and fibula nonunion in the other. In both cases, fusion was obtained at approximately 8 weeks postoperatively. At the final follow-up visit at 2 years postoperatively, their American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score had improved from 31 to 85 points and from 16 to 71 points, respectively. No intra- or postoperative complications developed. Arthroscopic TTC arthrodesis can be an alternative to traditional open procedures, especially in patients with soft tissue concerns or several previous surgeries. Experience with ankle arthroscopy procedures is mandatory to obtain satisfactory results and minimize the risk of complications.
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Clinical reasoning for the infectious disease specialist: a primer to recognize cognitive biases.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Infectious disease specialists are frequently consulted for diagnostic and therapeutic advice on challenging cases. When evaluating patients, the infectious disease specialist is well positioned to offer an appropriate diagnostic approach but is also at risk of not recognizing the correct diagnosis for a variety of reasons. We believe it is important to provide infectious disease specialists and trainees with a fundamental understanding of diagnostic errors, clinical reasoning, and cognitive biases. We present 2 cases demonstrating common cognitive biases leading to diagnostic errors, and we reflect on strategies that may aid in their prevention. We hope to provide knowledge and tools that may help prevent diagnostic errors in the future.
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Desmopressin test in the diagnosis and follow-up of cyclical Cushings disease.
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To assess the utility of the desmopressin (DDAVP) test in the diagnosis and follow-up of a cyclical Cushings disease (CCS) case.
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Obesity and survival in operable breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracyclines and taxanes according to pathological subtypes: a pooled analysis.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Obesity is an unfavorable prognostic factor in breast cancer (BC) patients regardless of menopausal status and treatment received. However, the association between obesity and survival outcome by pathological subtype requires further clarification.
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Endothelial dysfunction occurs prior to clinical evidence of polycystic kidney disease.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a monogenic disease with an autosomal dominant or an autosomal recessive form of inheritance (ARPKD), is the most common genetic cause of renal dysfunction and end-stage renal failure. In addition to the development of cysts, the autosomal form of PKD is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, a marker of vascular disease. Whether vascular endothelial dysfunction is also present in ARPKD, and its relationship with renal dysfunction remain to be determined.
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[Laparoscopic choledochoduodenostomy as an optional treatment choledocholithiasis].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Choledochoduodenostomy is indicated for unsolved choledocholithiasis and biliary malignant or benign stenosis. This surgical procedure has been feared for its potential complications. This article shows our initial experience with this laparo-endoscopic approach.
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[Risk factors associated with virologic failure in HIV- infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public hospital in Peru].
Rev Chilena Infectol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To describe clinical and biological characteristics of subjects with virologic failure who participated in the sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS National Program from a Peruvian public hospital.
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Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.
Naturwissenschaften
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 ?g kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 ?g kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 ?g kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 ?g kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.
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Bibliotherapy and food cravings control.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The use of self-help manuals or bibliotherapy could be an effective resource to treat obesity, but their effects on the elaborative processes of food cravings remain unclear. The present study examined whether bibliotherapy can effectively reduce food cravings in an overweight and obese adult population. 80 participants were randomly allocated either to the Self-help Manual group or the Intention-control group. They had to apply each resource over a period of 3 months whenever they felt a craving arise. During the baseline period most of the participants reported grazing as the main cause of their weight gain. Compared to baseline, the results of the third month of the follow-up revealed that intentions had paradoxical effects on food thought suppression, preoccupation with food, negative affect and guilty feelings; but the Self-help Manual promoted positive changes on the food cravings trait and its dimensions, food thoughts suppression, emotional and behavioural reactions to intrusions and BMI. These findings suggest that the Self-help Manual could be useful in reducing food cravings.
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Non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in a mouse model of renovascular hypertension.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Hypertension continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its early effects on the myocardium. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of in vivo longitudinal assessment of cardiac function, particularly diastolic function, in a mouse model of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension (RVH) was induced in 129S1/SvImJ male mice (n=9). To assess left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, M-mode echocardiography, pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were performed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after the induction of renal artery stenosis. Myocardial tissue was collected to assess cellular morphology, fibrosis, extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammation ex vivo. RVH led to a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after 2 and 4 weeks (baseline: 99.26±1.09?mm?Hg; 2 weeks: 140.90±7.64?mm?Hg; 4 weeks: 147.52±5.91?mm?Hg, P<0.05), resulting in a significant decrease in LV end-diastolic volume, associated with a significant elevation in ejection fraction and preserved cardiac output. Furthermore, the animals developed an abnormal diastolic function profile, with a shortening in the E velocity deceleration time as well as increases in the E/e and the E/A ratio. The ex vivo analysis revealed a significant increase in myocyte size and deposition of extracellular matrix. Non-invasive high-resolution ultrasonography allowed assessment of the diastolic function profile in a small animal model of renovascular hypertension.
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Synthetic scope and DFT analysis of the chiral binap-gold(I) complex-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azlactones with alkenes.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between glycine-derived azlactones with maleimides is efficiently catalyzed by the dimeric chiral complex [(S a)-Binap·AuTFA]2. The alanine-derived oxazolone only reacts with tert-butyl acrylate giving anomalous regiochemistry, which is explained and supported by Natural Resonance Theory and Nucleus Independent Chemical Shifts calculations. The origin of the high enantiodiscrimination observed with maleimides and tert-butyl acrylate is analyzed using DFT computed at M06/Lanl2dz//ONIOM(b3lyp/Lanl2dz:UFF) level. Several applications of these cycloadducts in the synthesis of new proline derivatives with a 2,5-trans-arrangement and in the preparation of complex fused polycyclic molecules are described.
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Does interprofessional collaboration between care levels improve following the creation of an integrated delivery organisation? The Bidasoa case in the Basque Country.
Int J Integr Care
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This article explores the impact of the creation of a new integrated delivery organisation on the evolution of interprofessional collaboration between primary and secondary care levels. In particular, the case of the Bidasoa Integrated Healthcare Organisation is analysed.
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Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.
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Neurocognitive function in acromegaly after surgical resection of GH-secreting adenoma versus naïve acromegaly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients) with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with better neurocognitive state. Overall, this data suggests that the effects of chronic exposure to GH/IGF-I hypersecretion could have long-term effects on brain functions.
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CD29 expressed on plasma cells is activated by divalent cations and soluble CD106 contained in the bone marrow plasma: refractory activation is associated with enhanced proliferation and exit of clonal plasma cells to circulation in multiple myeloma patie
Leukemia
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Malignant plasma cells (PC) in human multiple myeloma (MM) are retained in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Using HUTS21 monoclonal antibody that reacts with active CD29 integrin, we demonstrate that this active form is tightly regulated by divalent cations and soluble CD106 (sCD106) contained in the BM plasma. Moreover, we also show that in vivo expression of the active CD29 on PC was clearly diminished in a minority of MM cases (HUTS21(-) patients). HUTS21(-) cells were refractory to the addition of either normal allogeneic BM plasma or optimal concentrations of exogenous divalent cations and recombinant sCD106. Furthermore, a lower binding to fibronectin was detected in comparison with HUTS21(+) PC. On the other hand, although HUTS21(-) PC showed a reduced amount of total (active+inactive) CD29, western-blot assays demonstrated that these clonal PC contained the two species of CD29, with molecular masses of 110 and 130?kDa, which were expressed on normal or HUTS21(+) PC. Finally, we detected a clear association between the presence of HUTS21(-) PC in the BM and an increased percentage of circulating PC with a high proliferative index, emphasizing the essential role of CD29 in the pathogenesis and progression of this disease.
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Controlling lipolysis through steric surfactants: new insights on the controlled degradation of submicron emulsions after oral and intravenous administration.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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In this work we have investigated how steric surfactants influence the metabolic degradation of emulsions (lipolysis). To do so, we have prepared submicron emulsions stabilized with Pluronic F68, Pluronic F127, Myrj 52 or Myrj 59, four non-ionic surfactants with key differences on their structure. Submicron emulsions have been prepared also with mixtures of these surfactants with different proportions between them. Then, in vitro methods have been applied to analyze the lipolysis of these emulsions, both under duodenal and intravenous conditions, to simulate lipolysis after oral and intravenous administration. Our results show that the properties of the surfactant influence dramatically the lipolysis rates observed both under duodenal and intravenous conditions, e.g., intravenous lipolysis was completely blocked when Pluronic F127 was used, while it was almost complete within 6h when using Myrj 52. The reason for this seems to be the steric hindrance that the surfactant produces around the droplet and at the interface. As a result, we can modify the lipolysis patterns by changing some characteristics of the surfactant, or by varying the proportion between two surfactants in a mixture. These findings may be applied in the development of novel strategies to rationally design submicron emulsions as lipophilic drug carriers.
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Angiotensin-(1-7) through Mas receptor up-regulates neuronal norepinephrine transporter via Akt and Erk1/2-dependent pathways.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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As angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) decreases norepinephrine (NE) content in the synaptic cleft, we investigated the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NE neuronal uptake in spontaneously hypertensive rats. [(3)H]-NE neuronal uptake was measured in isolated hypothalami. NE transporter (NET) expression was evaluated in hypothalamic neuronal cultures by western-blot. Ang-(1-7) lacked an acute effect on neuronal NE uptake. Conversely, Ang-(1-7) caused an increase in NET expression after 3 h incubation (40 ± 7%), which was blocked by the Mas receptor antagonist, a PI3-kinase inhibitor or a MEK1/2 inhibitor suggesting the involvement of Mas receptor and the PI3-kinase/Akt and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways in the Ang-(1-7)-stimulated NET expression. Ang-(1-7) through Mas receptors stimulated Akt and ERK1/2 activities in spontaneously hypertensive rat neurons. Cycloheximide attenuated Ang-(1-7) stimulation of NET expression suggesting that Ang-(1-7) stimulates NET synthesis. In fact, Ang-(1-7) increased NET mRNA levels. Thus, we evaluated the long-term effect of Ang-(1-7) on neuronal NE uptake after 3 h incubation. Under this condition, Ang-(1-7) increased neuronal NE uptake by 60 ± 14% which was blocked by cycloheximide and the Mas receptor antagonist. Neuronal NE uptake and NET expression were decreased after 3 h incubation with an anti-Ang-(1-7) antibody. Ang-(1-7) induces a chronic stimulatory effect on NET expression. In this way, Ang-(1-7) may regulate a pre-synaptic mechanism in maintaining appropriate synaptic NE levels during hypertensive conditions.
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Linker for activation of T cells is displaced from lipid rafts and decreases in lupus T cells after activation via the TCR/CD3 pathway.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by abnormal signal transduction mechanisms in T lymphocytes. Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) couples TCR/CD3 activation with downstream signaling pathways. We reported diminished ERK 1/2 kinase activity in TCR/CD3 stimulated lupus T cells. In this study we evaluated the expression, phosphorylation, lipid raft and immunological synapse (IS) localization and colocalization of LAT with key signalosome molecules. We observed a diminished expression and an abnormal localization of LAT in lipid rafts and at the IS in activated lupus T cells. LAT phosphorylation, capture by GST-Grb2 fusion protein, and coupling to Grb2 and PLC?1, was similar in healthy control and lupus T cells. Our results suggest that an abnormal localization of LAT within lipid rafts and its accelerated degradation after TCR/CD3 activation may compromise the assembly of the LAT signalosome and downstream signaling pathways required for full MAPK activation in lupus T cells.
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Transgenic nematodes as biosensors for metal stress in soil pore water samples.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying stress-reporter green fluorescent protein transgenes were used to explore patterns of response to metals. Multiple stress pathways were induced at high doses by most metals tested, including members of the heat shock, oxidative stress, metallothionein (mtl) and xenobiotic response gene families. A mathematical model (to be published separately) of the gene regulatory circuit controlling mtl production predicted that chemically similar divalent metals (classic inducers) should show additive effects on mtl gene induction, whereas chemically dissimilar metals should show interference. These predictions were verified experimentally; thus cadmium and mercury showed additive effects, whereas ferric iron (a weak inducer) significantly reduced the effect of mercury. We applied a similar battery of tests to diluted samples of soil pore water extracted centrifugally after mixing 20% w/w ultrapure water with air-dried soil from an abandoned lead/zinc mine in the Murcia region of Spain. In addition, metal contents of both soil and soil pore water were determined by ICP-MS, and simplified mixtures of soluble metal salts were tested at equivalent final concentrations. The effects of extracted soil pore water (after tenfold dilution) were closely mimicked by mixtures of its principal component ions, and even by the single most prevalent contaminant (zinc) alone, though other metals modulated its effects both positively and negatively. In general, mixtures containing similar (divalent) metal ions exhibited mainly additive effects, whereas admixture of dissimilar (e.g. trivalent) ions often resulted in interference, reducing overall levels of stress-gene induction. These findings were also consistent with model predictions.
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Molecular imaging of cell therapy for gastroenterologic applications.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Stem cell therapy has appeared as a possible therapeutic alternative for numerous diseases. Furthermore, cancer stem cells are a focus of significant interest as they may allow for a better understanding of the genesis of different malignancies. The ultimate goal of stem cell therapeutics is to ensure the viability and functionality of the transplanted cells. Similarly, the ultimate goal of understanding cancer stem cells is to understand how they behave in the living subject. Until recently, the efficacy of stem cell therapies has been assessed by overall organ function recovery. Understanding the behavior and biology of stem cells directly in the living subject can also lead to therapy optimization. Thus, there is a critical need for reliable and accurate methods to understand stem cell biology in vivo. Recent advances in both imaging and molecular biology have enabled transplanted stem cells to be successfully monitored in the living subject. The use of molecular imaging modalities has the capability to answer these questions and may one day be translated to patients. In this review, we will discuss the potential imaging strategies and how they can be utilized, depending on the questions that need to be answered.
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Expression of epidermal CAMP changes in parallel with permeability barrier status.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Two critical defensive functions of the outer epidermis, the permeability barrier and antimicrobial defense, share certain structural and biochemical features. Moreover, three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), i.e., mouse ?-defensin 3 (mBD3), mouse cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (mCAMP), and the neuroendocrine peptide, catestatin (Cst), all localize to the outer epidermis, and both mBD3 and mCAMP are secreted from the epidermal lamellar bodies with other organelle contents that subserve the permeability barrier. These three AMPs are upregulated in response to acute permeability barrier disruption, whereas conversely, mCAMP-/- mice (unable to combat Gram-positive pathogens) also display abnormal barrier homeostasis. To determine further whether these two functions are co-regulated, we investigated changes in immunostaining for these three AMPs in skin samples in which the permeability barrier function in mice had been either compromised or enhanced. Compromised or enhanced barrier function correlated with reduced or enhanced immunohistochemical expression of mCAMP, respectively, but conversely with Cst expression, likely due to the role of this AMP as an endogenous inhibitor of cathelicidin expression. mBD3 expression correlated with experimental barrier perturbations, but poorly with developmental changes in barrier function. These studies show that changes in cathelicidin and Cst expression parallel changes in permeability barrier status, with a less clear relationship with mBD3 expression.
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Pathogenesis-based therapy reverses cutaneous abnormalities in an inherited disorder of distal cholesterol metabolism.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Identification of the underlying genetic, cellular, and biochemical basis of lipid metabolic disorders provides an opportunity to deploy corrective, mechanism-targeted, topical therapy. We assessed this therapeutic approach in two patients with Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD) syndrome, an X-linked dominant disorder of distal cholesterol metabolism. On the basis of the putative pathogenic role of both pathway-product deficiency of cholesterol and accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates, we assessed the efficacy of combined therapy with lovastatin and cholesterol. We also evaluated the basis for the poorly understood, unique lateralization of the cutaneous and bone malformations of CHILD syndrome by analyzing gene activation in abnormal and unaffected skin. Ultrastructural analysis of affected skin showed evidence of both cholesterol depletion and toxic metabolic accumulation. Topical treatment with lovastatin/cholesterol (but not cholesterol alone) virtually cleared skin lesions by 3 months, accompanied by histological and ultrastructural normalization of epidermal structure and lipid secretion. The unusual lateralization of abnormalities in CHILD syndrome reflects selective clearance of keratinocytes and fibroblasts that express the mutant allele from the unaffected side. These findings validate pathogenesis-based therapy that provides the deficient end product and prevents accumulation of toxic metabolites, an approach of potential utility for other syndromic lipid metabolic disorders.
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Emerging roles for integrated imaging modalities in cardiovascular cell-based therapeutics: a clinical perspective.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Despite preclinical promise, the progress of cell-based therapy to clinical cardiovascular practice has been slowed by several challenges and uncertainties that have been highlighted by the conflicting results of human trials. Most telling has been the revelation that current strategies fall short of achieving sufficient retention and engraftment of cells to meet the ambitious objective of myocardial regeneration. This has sparked novel research into the refinement of cell biology and delivery to overcome these shortcomings. Within this context, molecular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for providing noninvasive surveillance of cell fate in vivo. Direct and indirect labelling of cells can be coupled with clinically relevant imaging modalities, such as radionuclide single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, to assess their short- and long-term distributions, along with their viability, proliferation and functional interaction with the host myocardium. This review details the strengths and limitations of the different cell labelling and imaging techniques and their potential application to the clinical realm. We also consider the broader, multifaceted utility of imaging throughout the cell therapy process, providing a discussion of its considerable value during cell delivery and its importance during the evaluation of cardiac outcomes in clinical studies.
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Psychological stress regulates antimicrobial peptide expression by both glucocorticoid and ?-adrenergic mechanisms.
Eur J Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Psychological stress (PS) exerts well-known negative consequences for permeability barrier function in humans and mice, and deterioration of barrier function appears to be attributable largely to excess production of endogenous glucocorticoids (GC). More recently, PS has been shown to compromise antimicrobial defense, also by GC-dependent mechanisms. We assessed here changes in a third antimicrobial peptide (AMP); i.e., the neuropeptide, catestatin (Cst), which also is expressed in the outer epidermis, and previously shown to be regulated by changes in permeability barrier status. In these studies, PS again provoked a decline in both mouse cathelicidin (CAMP) and mouse ?-defensin 3 (mBD3) expression, in a GC-dependent fashion. In contrast, Cst immunostaining instead increased after short-term PS, but then began to decline with more sustained PS. In cultured keratinocytes, we showed further that GC downregulate Cst expression, but ?-adrenergic blockade increased immunostaining for Cst in the face of long-term PS. Furthermore, ?-adrenergic blockade also upregulated CAMP and mBD3 expression. Together, these results suggest that both endogenous GC and ?-adrenergic signaling regulate AMP expression.
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[Comparing pedestrian injury mortality in Mexico City: ¿have changes occurred over a decade?].
Salud Publica Mex
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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To compare and analyze the main characteristics associated with pedestrian injuries mortality in Mexico City.
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Binap-gold(I) versus Binap-silver trifluoroacetate complexes as catalysts in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of azomethine ylides.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between azomethine ylides and alkenes is efficiently catalysed by [{(S(a))-Binap-Au(tfa)}(2)] (Binap=2,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1-binaphthyl; tfa=trifluoroacetyl). Maleimides, 1,2-bis(phenylsulfonyl)ethylene, chalcone and nitrostyrene were suitable dipolarophiles even when using sterically hindered 1,3-dipole precursors. The results obtained in these transformations improve the analogous ones obtained in the same reactions catalysed by [Binap-Ag(tfa)]. In addition, computational studies have also been carried out to demonstrate both the high enantioselectivity exhibited by the chiral gold(I) complex, and the non-linear effect observed in this transformation.
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[User satisfaction in the Virgen del Valle Geriatric Hospital, Toledo].
Rev Calid Asist
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Knowing the degree of satisfaction of inpatients at a geriatric hospital
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[Results and reflections of the Scientific Committee of the XXVIII Conference of the Spanish Society of Quality in Healthcare].
Rev Calid Asist
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To determine whether the objectives entrusted to the Scientific Committee (SC) of the 28th National Conference have been met, and to determine whether the results differed from those of previous conferences.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.