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A New FeMo Complex as a Model of Heterobimetallic Assemblies in Natural Systems: Mössbauer and Density Functional Theory Investigations.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The design of the new FeMo heterobimetallic species [FeMo(CO)5(?(2)-dppe)(?-pdt)] is reported. Mössbauer spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations give deep insight into the electronic and structural properties of this compound.
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Cis/trans isomerizations in diiron complexes involving aniline or anilide ligands.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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We have recently reported a deprotonation-induced valence inversion within a phenoxido-bridged mixed-valent diiron(II,III) complex. The initial aniline coordinated to the Fe(II) site reacts with triethylamine, and the resulting complex contains an anilide ligand coordinated to the Fe(III) ion. The behavior of these complexes in acetonitrile is indeed more intricate. Owing to the very distinctive spectroscopic signatures of the complexes, the conjunction of NMR, Mössbauer, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopies allows one to evidence two isomerization reactions, one involving the aniline linked to Fe(II) and the other the anilide on Fe(III). Theoretical calculations sustain this conclusion. Aniline in the cis position versus the bridging phenoxide is shown to be the most stable isomer while the anilide trans to the phenoxido bridge is favored. The trans isomer of the aniline complex is more acidic than the cis one by 1 pKa unit. Isomerization of the anilide complex is 10 times faster than the analogous isomerization of the aniline complex. Both reactions are proposed to proceed through a unique mechanism. This is the first time that such isomerization reactions are evidenced in dinuclear complexes.
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Structural modeling of iron halogenases: synthesis and reactivity of halide-iron(IV)-oxo compounds.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A structural synthetic model of the iron(IV)-oxo-halide active species of non-heme iron dependent halogenases is reported. Compounds with general formula [Fe(IV)(O)(X)(Pytacn)](+) (1-X, X = Cl, Br) have been prepared and characterized spectroscopically and chemically with regard to their oxidizing ability. 1-X performs hydrogen-atom abstraction of C-H bonds at reaction rates 2-3 times faster than the corresponding solvato dicationic species, thus modelling the first step in C-H functionalization taking place in natural halogenation.
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The Diabetes Drug Target MitoNEET Governs a Novel Trafficking Pathway to Rebuild an Fe-S Cluster into Cytosolic Aconitase/Iron Regulatory Protein 1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In eukaryotes, mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC), export and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machineries carry out biogenesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are critical for multiple essential cellular pathways. However, little is known about their export out of mitochondria. Here we show that Fe-S assembly of mitoNEET, the first identified Fe-S protein anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, strictly depends on ISC machineries and not on the CIA or CIAPIN1. We identify a dedicated ISC/export pathway in which augmenter of liver regeneration, a mitochondrial Mia40-dependent protein, is specific to mitoNEET maturation. When inserted, the Fe-S cluster confers mitoNEET folding and stability in vitro and in vivo. The holo-form of mitoNEET is resistant to NO and H2O2 and is capable of repairing oxidatively damaged Fe-S of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a master regulator of cellular iron that has recently been involved in the mitochondrial iron supply. Therefore, our findings point to IRP1 as the missing link to explain the function of mitoNEET in the control of mitochondrial iron homeostasis.
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TtcA a new tRNA-thioltransferase with an Fe-S cluster.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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TtcA catalyzes the post-transcriptional thiolation of cytosine 32 in some tRNAs. The enzyme from Escherichia coli was homologously overexpressed in E. coli. The purified enzyme is a dimer containing an iron-sulfur cluster and displays activity in in vitro assays. The type and properties of the cluster were investigated using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as by site-directed mutagenesis. These studies demonstrated that the TtcA enzyme contains a redox-active and oxygen-sensitive [4Fe-4S] cluster, chelated by only three cysteine residues and absolutely essential for activity. TtcA is unique tRNA-thiolating enzyme using an iron-sulfur cluster for catalyzing a non-redox reaction.
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Mössbauer spectroscopy.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Given its ability to detect all iron centers, to identify their electronic structures, and to quantify the ratios of the different iron forms present in a sample, many researchers turn to Mössbauer spectroscopy when wanting to address structural and mechanistic questions involving iron proteins. Yet, this technique applied to biochemistry is provided by only a few dedicated teams in the world. Technical difficulties ranging from sample preparation to data analysis and interpretation make necessary the collaboration between biochemists and Mössbauer spectroscopists. This chapter will be confined to iron Mössbauer. It will focus on giving biologists and biochemists the keys to understand what essential information Mössbauer spectroscopy can yield, and how to engage in successful collaborations with spectroscopists. After introducing the basic principles of a Mössbauer experiment, we will describe first how to prepare a suitable Mössbauer sample, then how this technique is applied to the identification of different iron species inside proteins.
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Triggering the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo compound and its reactivity toward sulfides by Ru(II) photocatalysis.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The preparation of [Fe(IV)(O)(MePy2tacn)](2+) (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [Fe(II)(MePy2tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 toward sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation, and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence, the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible explanation for the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in-situ-generated [Ru(III)(bpy)3](3+) oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide.
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Highly reactive nonheme iron(III) iodosylarene complexes in alkane hydroxylation and sulfoxidation reactions.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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High-spin iron(III) iodosylarene complexes bearing an N-methylated cyclam ligand are synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The nonheme high-spin iron(III) iodosylarene intermediates are highly reactive oxidants capable of activating strong C-H bonds of alkanes; the reactivity of the iron(III) iodosylarene intermediates is much greater than that of the corresponding iron(IV) oxo complex. The electrophilic character of the iron(III) iodosylarene complexes is demonstrated in sulfoxidation reactions.
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Formation of high-valent iron-oxo species in superoxide reductase: characterization by resonance Raman spectroscopy.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Superoxide reductase (SOR), a non-heme mononuclear iron protein that is involved in superoxide detoxification in microorganisms, can be used as an unprecedented model to study the mechanisms of O2 activation and of the formation of high-valent iron-oxo species in metalloenzymes. By using resonance Raman spectroscopy, it was shown that the mutation of two residues in the second coordination sphere of the SOR iron active site, K48 and I118, led to the formation of a high-valent iron-oxo species when the mutant proteins were reacted with H2O2. These data demonstrate that these residues in the second coordination sphere tightly control the evolution and the cleavage of the O-O bond of the ferric iron hydroperoxide intermediate that is formed in the SOR active site.
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A diiron(III,IV) imido species very active in nitrene-transfer reactions.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions arouse intense interest as clean and efficient procedures for amine synthesis. Efficient Rh- and Ru-based catalysts exist but Fe alternatives are actively pursued. However, reactive iron imido species can be very short-lived and getting evidence of their occurrence in efficient nitrene-transfer reactions is an important challenge. We recently reported that a diiron(III,II) complex is a very efficient nitrene-transfer catalyst to various substrates. We describe herein how, by combining desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, quantitative chemical quench experiments, and DFT calculations, we obtained conclusive evidence for the occurrence of an {Fe(III) Fe(IV) ?NTosyl} intermediate that is very active in H-abstraction and nitrene-transfer reactions. DFT calculations revealed a strong radical character of the tosyl nitrogen atom in very low-lying electronic configurations of the Fe(IV) ion which are likely to confer its high reactivity.
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An EPR/HYSCORE, Mössbauer, and resonance Raman study of the hydrogenase maturation enzyme HydF: a model for N-coordination to [4Fe-4S] clusters.
J. Biol. Inorg. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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The biosynthesis of the organometallic H cluster of [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase requires three accessory proteins, two of which (HydE and HydG) belong to the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme superfamily. The third, HydF, is an Fe-S protein with GTPase activity. The [4Fe-4S] cluster of HydF is bound to the polypeptide chain through only the three, conserved, cysteine residues present in the binding sequence motif CysXHisX(46-53)HisCysXXCys. However, the involvement of the two highly conserved histidines as a fourth ligand for the cluster coordination is controversial. In this study, we set out to characterize further the [4Fe-4S] cluster of HydF using Mössbauer, EPR, hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE), and resonance Raman spectroscopy in order to investigate the influence of nitrogen ligands on the spectroscopic properties of [4Fe-4S](2+/+) clusters. Our results show that Mössbauer, resonance Raman, and EPR spectroscopy are not able to readily discriminate between the imidazole-coordinated [4Fe-4S] cluster and the non-imidazole-bound [4Fe-4S] cluster with an exchangeable fourth ligand that is present in wild-type HydF. HYSCORE spectroscopy, on the other hand, detects the presence of an imidazole/histidine ligand on the cluster on the basis of the appearance of a specific spectral pattern in the strongly coupled region, with a coupling constant of approximately 6 MHz. We also discovered that a His-tagged version of HydF, with a hexahistidine tag at the N-terminus, has a [4Fe-4S] cluster coordinated by one histidine from the tag. This observation strongly indicates that care has to be taken in the analysis of data obtained on tagged forms of metalloproteins.
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A cyclic peptide-based redox-active model of rubredoxin.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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A model of rubredoxin based on a cyclic peptide with a linear tail is presented. This model reproduces almost perfectly the fold, the spectroscopic characterizations and the redox activity of rubredoxins.
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Mammalian frataxin controls sulfur production and iron entry during de novo Fe4S4 cluster assembly.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing proteins are essential components of cells. In eukaryotes, Fe-S clusters are synthesized by the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) machinery and the cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) system. In the mammalian ISC machinery, preassembly of the Fe-S cluster on the scaffold protein (ISCU) involves a cysteine desulfurase complex (NFS1/ISD11) and frataxin (FXN), the protein deficient in Friedreichs ataxia. Here, by comparing the biochemical and spectroscopic properties of quaternary (ISCU/NFS1/ISD11/FXN) and ternary (ISCU/NFS1/ISD11) complexes, we show that FXN stabilizes the quaternary complex and controls iron entry to the complex through activation of cysteine desulfurization. Furthermore, we show for the first time that in the presence of iron and L-cysteine, an [Fe(4)S(4)] cluster is formed within the quaternary complex that can be transferred to mammalian aconitase (mACO2) to generate an active enzyme. In the absence of FXN, although the ternary complex can assemble an Fe-S cluster, the cluster is inefficiently transferred to ACO2. Taken together, these data help to unravel further the Fe-S cluster assembly process and the molecular basis of Friedreichs ataxia.
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Reversible (de)protonation-induced valence inversion in mixed-valent diiron(II,III) complexes.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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The coupling of electron and proton transfers is currently under intense scrutiny. This Communication reports a new kind of proton-coupled electron transfer within a homodinuclear first-row transition-metal complex. The triply-bridged complex [Fe(III)(?-OPh)(?(2)-mpdp)Fe(II)(NH(2)Bn)] (1; mpdp(2-) = m-phenylenedipropionate) bearing a terminal aminobenzyl ligand can be reversibly deprotonated to the anilinate complex 2 whose core [Fe(II)(?-OPh)(?(2)-mpdp)Fe(III)(NHBn)] features an inversion of the iron valences. This observation is supported by a combination of UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies.
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The role of CyaY in iron sulfur cluster assembly on the E. coli IscU scaffold protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Progress in understanding the mechanism underlying the enzymatic formation of iron-sulfur clusters is difficult since it involves a complex reaction and a multi-component system. By exploiting different spectroscopies, we characterize the effect on the enzymatic kinetics of cluster formation of CyaY, the bacterial ortholog of frataxin, on cluster formation on the scaffold protein IscU. Frataxin/CyaY is a highly conserved protein implicated in an incurable ataxia in humans. Previous studies had suggested a role of CyaY as an inhibitor of iron sulfur cluster formation. Similar studies on the eukaryotic proteins have however suggested for frataxin a role as an activator. Our studies independently confirm that CyaY slows down the reaction and shed new light onto the mechanism by which CyaY works. We observe that the presence of CyaY does not alter the relative ratio between [2Fe2S](2+) and [4Fe4S](2+) but directly affects enzymatic activity.
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Characterization of caged compounds binding to proteins by NMR spectroscopy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Photolysable caged ligands are used to investigate protein function and activity. Here, we investigate the binding properties of caged nucleotides and their photo released products to well established but evolutionary and structurally unrelated nucleotide-binding proteins, rabbit muscle creatine kinase (RMCK) and human annexin A6 (hAnxA6), using saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy. We detect the binding of the caged nucleotides and discuss the general implications on interpreting data collected with photolysable caged ligands using different techniques. Strategies to avoid non-specific binding of caged compound to certain proteins are also suggested.
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Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly: the SufBCD complex is a new type of Fe-S scaffold with a flavin redox cofactor.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and maturation of Fe-S proteins in vivo require complex machineries. In Escherichia coli, under adverse stress conditions, this process is achieved by the SUF system that contains six proteins as follows: SufA, SufB, SufC, SufD, SufS, and SufE. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the SufBCD complex whose function was so far unknown. Using biochemical and spectroscopic analyses, we demonstrate the following: (i) the complex as isolated exists mainly in a 1:2:1 (B:C:D) stoichiometry; (ii) the complex can assemble a [4Fe-4S] cluster in vitro and transfer it to target proteins; and (iii) the complex binds one molecule of flavin adenine nucleotide per SufBC(2)D complex, only in its reduced form (FADH(2)), which has the ability to reduce ferric iron. These results suggest that the SufBC(2)D complex functions as a novel type of scaffold protein that assembles an Fe-S cluster through the mobilization of sulfur from the SufSE cysteine desulfurase and the FADH(2)-dependent reductive mobilization of iron.
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Discrete tetrairon(III) cluster exhibiting a square-planar Fe4(mu4-O) core: structural and magnetic properties.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The aerobic reaction of the Schiff-base ligand N-(benzimidazol-2-yl)salicylaldimine (Hbisi) with iron(II) perchlorate in methanol leads to the formation of the remarkable coordination compound [Fe(4)(mu(4)-O)(mu-MeO)(4)(bisi)(4)](ClO(4))(2) x 4 MeOH (1), whose single-crystal X-ray structure reveals the presence of a discrete Fe(III)(4)(mu(4)-O) core. Magnetic and Mossbauer studies both show that the exchange interaction within the square tetranuclear iron(III) unit is dominated by the central bridging mu(4)-oxido ligand, the involvement of the mu-methoxido bridges being negligible.
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Post-translational modification of ribosomal proteins: structural and functional characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 A crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.
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NMR measure of translational diffusion and fractal dimension. Application to molecular mass measurement.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Experimental NMR diffusion measure on polymers and on globular proteins are presented. These results, complemented with results found in the literature, enable a general description of effective fractal dimension for objects such as small organic molecules, sugars, polymers, DNA, and proteins. Results are compared to computational simulations as well as to theoretical values. A global picture of the diffusion phenomenon emerges from this description. A power law relating molecular mass with diffusion coefficients is described and found to be valid over 4 orders of magnitude. From this law, the fractal dimension of the molecular family can be measured, with experimental values ranging from 1.41 to 2.56 in full agreement with theoretical approaches. Finally, a method for evaluating the molecular mass of unknown solutes is described and implemented as a Web page.
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An N-bridged high-valent diiron-oxo species on a porphyrin platform that can oxidize methane.
Nat Chem
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High-valent oxo-metal complexes are involved in key biochemical processes of selective oxidation and removal of xenobiotics. The catalytic properties of cytochrome P-450 and soluble methane monooxygenase enzymes are associated with oxo species on mononuclear iron haem and diiron non-haem platforms, respectively. Bio-inspired chemical systems that can reproduce the fascinating ability of these enzymes to oxidize the strongest C-H bonds are the focus of intense scrutiny. In this context, the development of highly oxidizing diiron macrocyclic catalysts requires a structural determination of the elusive active species and elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Here we report the preparation of an Fe(IV)(µ-nitrido)Fe(IV)?=?O tetraphenylporphyrin cation radical species at -90 °C, characterized by ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies and by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This species exhibits a very high activity for oxygen-atom transfer towards alkanes, including methane. These findings provide a foundation on which to develop efficient and clean oxidation processes, in particular transformations of the strongest C-H bonds.
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4-Demethylwyosine synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi is a radical-S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzyme with an additional [4Fe-4S](+2) cluster that interacts with the pyruvate co-substrate.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Wybutosine and its derivatives are found in position 37 of tRNA encoding Phe in eukaryotes and archaea. They are believed to play a key role in the decoding function of the ribosome. The second step in the biosynthesis of wybutosine is catalyzed by TYW1 protein, which is a member of the well established class of metalloenzymes called "Radical-SAM." These enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster, chelated by three cysteines in a CX(3)CX(2)C motif, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate a 5-deoxyadenosyl radical that initiates various chemically challenging reactions. Sequence analysis of TYW1 proteins revealed, in the N-terminal half of the enzyme beside the Radical-SAM cysteine triad, an additional highly conserved cysteine motif. In this study we show by combining analytical and spectroscopic methods including UV-visible absorption, Mössbauer, EPR, and HYSCORE spectroscopies that these additional cysteines are involved in the coordination of a second [4Fe-4S] cluster displaying a free coordination site that interacts with pyruvate, the second substrate of the reaction. The presence of two distinct iron-sulfur clusters on TYW1 is reminiscent of MiaB, another tRNA-modifying metalloenzyme whose active form was shown to bind two iron-sulfur clusters. A possible role for the second [4Fe-4S] cluster in the enzyme activity is discussed.
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Biologically relevant heterodinuclear iron-manganese complexes.
Inorg Chem
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The heterodinuclear complexes [Fe(III)Mn(II)(L-Bn)(?-OAc)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (1) and [Fe(II)Mn(II)(L-Bn)(?-OAc)(2)](ClO(4)) (2) with the unsymmetrical dinucleating ligand HL-Bn {[2-bis[(2-pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]]-6-[benzyl-2-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-methylphenol} were synthesized and characterized as biologically relevant models of the new Fe/Mn class of nonheme enzymes. Crystallographic studies have been completed on compound 1 and reveal an Fe(III)Mn(II)?-phenoxobis(?-carboxylato) core. A single location of the Fe(III) ion in 1 and of the Fe(II) ion in 2 was demonstrated by Mössbauer and (1)H NMR spectroscopies, respectively. An investigation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of 1 revealed a moderate antiferromagnetic interaction (J = 20 cm(-1)) between the high-spin Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions in 1, which was confirmed by Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The electrochemical properties of complex 1 are described. A quasireversible electron transfer at -40 mV versus Ag/AgCl corresponding to the Fe(III)Mn(II)/Fe(II)Mn(II) couple appears in the cyclic voltammogram. Thorough investigations of the Mössbauer and EPR signatures of complex 2 were performed. The analysis allowed evidencing of a weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J = 5.72 cm(-1)) within the Fe(II)Mn(II) pair consistent with that deduced from magnetic susceptibility measurements (J = 6.8 cm(-1)). Owing to the similar value of the Fe(II) zero-field splitting (D(Fe) = 3.55 cm(-1)), the usual treatment within the strong exchange limit was precluded and a full analysis of the electronic structure of the ground state of complex 2 was developed. This situation is reminiscent of that found in many diiron and iron-manganese enzyme active sites.
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Studies of inhibitor binding to the [4Fe-4S] cluster of quinolinate synthase.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
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Stop for NadA! A [4Fe-4S] enzyme, NadA, catalyzes the formation of quinolinic acid in de?novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. A structural analogue of an intermediate, 4,5-dithiohydroxyphthalic acid (DTHPA), has an in?vivo NAD biosynthesis inhibiting activity in E. coli. The inhibitory effect can be explained by the coordination of DTHPA thiolate groups to a unique Fe site of the NadA [4Fe-4S] cluster.
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[Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH3CN)]2+: comparative reactivity of iron(IV)-oxo species with constrained equatorial cyclam ligation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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[Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) (TBC = 1,4,8,11-tetrabenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) is characterized, and its reactivity differences relative to [Fe(IV)?O(TMC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) (TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) are evaluated in hydrogen atom (H-atom) abstraction and oxo-transfer reactions. Structural differences are defined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and correlated to reactivities using density functional theory. The S = 1 ground states are highly similar and result in large activation barriers (~25 kcal/mol) due to steric interactions between the cyclam chelate and the substrate (e.g., ethylbenzene) associated with the equatorial ?-attack required by this spin state. Conversely, H-atom abstraction reactivity on an S = 2 surface allows for a ?-attack with an axial substrate approach. This results in decreased steric interactions with the cyclam and a lower barrier (~9 kcal/mol). For [Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+), the S = 2 excited state in the reactant is lower in energy and therefore more accessible at the transition state due to a weaker ligand field associated with the steric interactions of the benzyl substituents with the trans-axial ligand. This study is further extended to the oxo-transfer reaction, which is a two-electron process requiring both ?- and ?-electron transfer and thus a nonlinear transition state. In oxo-transfer, the S = 2 has a lower barrier due to sequential vs concerted (S = 1) two electron transfer which gives a high-spin ferric intermediate at the transition state. The [Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) complex is more distorted at the transition state, with the iron farther out of the equatorial plane due to the steric interaction of the benzyl groups with the trans-axial ligand. This allows for better orbital overlap with the substrate, a lower barrier, and an increased rate of oxo-transfer.
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