JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Double Hit CD10-Negative B-Cell Lymphoma with t(3;8)(q27;q24) Leading to Juxtaposition of the BCL6 and MYC Loci Associated with Good Clinical Outcome.
Case Rep Hematol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The WHO classification of lymphomas allows for a group of diseases that have features intermediate between those of Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These are a diverse group of diseases whose genetics and clinical course are yet to be fully described. We report an unusual case of high grade B-cell lymphoma, intermediate between DLBCL and BL, lacking CD10 expression in which the chromosomal translocation t(3;8)(q27;q24) was found to be the sole chromosomal abnormality. FISH analysis demonstrated juxtaposition of the BCL6 and MYC loci without obvious involvement of the IGH locus, suggesting constitutive MYC expression due to promoter substitution. The patient responded to intensive chemotherapy and remains in remission two years after finishing therapy.
Related JoVE Video
MDM2 promotor polymorphism and disease characteristics in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of an individual patient data-based meta-analysis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with disease predisposition in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promotor region, MDM2SNP309, was shown to soothe the p53 pathway. In the current study, we aimed to clarify the effect of the MDM2SNP309 on chronic lymphocytic leukemia characteristics and outcome. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 2598 individual patients from 10 different cohorts. Patients' data and genetic analysis for MDM2SNP309 genotype, immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutation status and fluorescence in situ hybridization results were collected. There were no differences in overall survival based on the polymorphism (log rank test, stratified by study cohort; P=0.76; GG genotype: cohort-adjusted median overall survival of 151 months; TG: 153 months; TT: 149 months). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, advanced age, male sex and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes were associated with inferior survival, but not the MDM2 genotype. The MDM2SNP309 is unlikely to influence disease characteristics and prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Studies investigating the impact of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms on prognosis are often controversial. This may be due to selection bias and small sample size. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data provides a reasonable strategy for prognostic factor analyses in the case of small individual studies. Individual patient data-based meta-analysis can, therefore, be a powerful tool to assess genetic risk factors in the absence of large studies.
Related JoVE Video
Breaking good: the inexorable rise of BTK inhibitors in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although expressed in several haematological lineages and involved in multiple different signalling pathways, Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays an indispensible role in B cells in signalling from the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen. Many B cell malignancies remain dependent on constitutive BCR signalling, making BTK a functional therapeutic target. Several BTK inhibitors (BTKi) with different kinomes and modes of action are being assessed clinically. This review documents the efficacy and toxicity of BTKi in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Clinically, the furthest in development is ibrutinib (trade name, Imbruvica), an irreversible BTKi, which has shown spectacular preliminary efficacy, with rapid reductions in lymph nodes accompanied by peripheral blood lymphocytosis. The lymphocytosis resolves slowly and most patients do not enter a complete remission. Nevertheless, it is possible to maintain many CLL patients, even those with adverse cytogenetic features, on drug for many months with minimal toxicities, thus potentially transforming the therapeutic paradigms for CLL. The efficacy, lack of toxicity and oral administration of BTKi will ensure their adoption in a wide range of B cell malignancies. An outstanding challenge is to incorporate BTKi with other precision medicines in a mechanism-based manner in order to dispense with conventional chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrent mutation of JAK3 in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive post-thymic T-cell malignancy characterized by the recurrent inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) or t(X;14)(q28;q11) leading to activation of either the TCL1 or MTCP1 gene, respectively. However, these primary genetic events are insufficient to drive leukemogenesis. Recently, activating mutations in JAK3 have been identified in other T-cell malignancies. Since JAK3 is essential for T-cell maturation, we analyzed a cohort of 32 T-PLL patients for mutational hot spots in the JAK3 gene using a step-wise screening approach. We identified 14 mutations in 11 of 32 patients (34%). The most frequently detected mutation in our cohort was M511I (seen in 57% of cases) previously described as an activating change in other T-cell malignancies. Three patients carried two mutations in JAK3. In two patients M511I and R657Q were simultaneously detected and in another patient V674F and V678L. In the latter case we could demonstrate that the mutations were on the same allele in cis. Protein modeling and homology analyses of mutations present in other members of the JAK family suggested that these mutations likely activate JAK3, possibly by disrupting the activation loop and the interface between N and C lobes, increasing the accessibility of the catalytic loop. In addition, four of the 21 patients lacking a JAK3 point mutation presented an aberrant karyotype involving the chromosomal band 19p13 harboring the JAK3 locus. The finding of recurrent activating JAK3 mutations in patients with T-PLL could enable the use of JAK3 inhibitors to treat patients with this unfavorable malignancy who otherwise have a very poor prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Human telomeres that carry an integrated copy of human herpesvirus 6 are often short and unstable, facilitating release of the viral genome from the chromosome.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Linear chromosomes are stabilized by telomeres, but the presence of short dysfunctional telomeres triggers cellular senescence in human somatic tissues, thus contributing to ageing. Approximately 1% of the population inherits a chromosomally integrated copy of human herpesvirus 6 (CI-HHV-6), but the consequences of integration for the virus and for the telomere with the insertion are unknown. Here we show that the telomere on the distal end of the integrated virus is frequently the shortest measured in somatic cells but not the germline. The telomere carrying the CI-HHV-6 is also prone to truncations that result in the formation of a short telomere at a novel location within the viral genome. We detected extra-chromosomal circular HHV-6 molecules, some surprisingly comprising the entire viral genome with a single fully reconstituted direct repeat region (DR) with both terminal cleavage and packaging elements (PAC1 and PAC2). Truncated CI-HHV-6 and extra-chromosomal circular molecules are likely reciprocal products that arise through excision of a telomere-loop (t-loop) formed within the CI-HHV-6 genome. In summary, we show that the CI-HHV-6 genome disrupts stability of the associated telomere and this facilitates the release of viral sequences as circular molecules, some of which have the potential to become fully functioning viruses.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL.
Related JoVE Video
Phase IA/II, multicentre, open-label study of the CD40 antagonistic monoclonal antibody lucatumumab in adult patients with advanced non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite advancements in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), patients continue to relapse and thus a need for new targeted therapies remains. The CD40 receptor is highly expressed on neoplastic B cells and activation leads to enhanced proliferation and survival. Lucatumumab (HCD122) is a fully human antagonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody. A phase IA/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and activity of lucatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Determination of the MTD was the primary objective of the phase IA dose escalation portion and clinical response was the primary objective of the phase II dose expansion portion. Patients received escalating doses of lucatumumab administered intravenously once weekly for 4 weeks of an 8-week cycle. MTD was determined at 4 mg/kg of lucatumumab. A total of 111 patients with NHL (n = 74) and HL (n = 37) were enrolled. Responses were observed across various lymphoma subtypes. The overall response rate by computed tomography among patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MZL/MALT) was 33·3% and 42·9%, respectively. Lucatumumab demonstrates modest activity in relapsed/refractory patients with advanced lymphoma, suggesting that targeting of CD40 warrants further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of CD154/IL4 proliferation by the T follicular helper (Tfh) cytokine, IL21 and increased numbers of circulating cells resembling Tfh cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells encounter T-cells and proliferate in response to T-cell signals in the lymph node microenvironment. In this report we determined interleukin 21 (IL21) function in CLL and showed that IL21 and interleukin 4 (IL4) act co-operatively to promote leukaemic cell proliferation without apoptosis or differentiation We further show that IL21 increased side population (SP) cells, which are associated with resistance to chemotherapy and increased self-renewal capacity in CLL. IL21 and IL4 are the major cytokines produced by the recently described CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cell subset. Determination of Tfh cells in peripheral blood showed that patients had significantly increased numbers as compared to normal subjects although no association was found between Tfh numbers and IGHV gene mutational status or clinical stage. Our data suggests that the Tfh cytokines, IL4 and IL21, contribute to driving leukaemic cell proliferation in the lymph node microenvironment, and may contribute to the specific production of cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We suggest that increased circulating Tfh cells is a component of T-cell dysregulation in CLL. Our findings have implications for the therapeutic use of IL21.
Related JoVE Video
Precision medicines for B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas; progress and potential pitfalls.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is now a plethora of new precision medicines for B-cell malignancy including classical kinase inhibitors, rationally designed inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins and antibody or antibody drug/toxin conjugates with functional properties. Some are showing spectacular single agent activity in early phase clinical studies and may reduce or, in combination, even obviate the need for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, significant problems remain if these medicines are to be introduced into routine clinical practice in a rational and affordable manner. Firstly, precision medicines must be carefully matched in a mechanistic fashion with specific subtypes of disease. Whilst sensitivity may be predicted by the detection of key mutations or by expression of target molecules, for therapies that depend on intact intracellular signalling pathways, functional assessment on viable primary malignant cells will be necessary using assays that faithfully mimic in vivo conditions. A second, but no less important challenge is to define mechanism-based synergistic combinations associated with minimal toxicities rather than simply adding new precision medicines to existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Finally, a closer, open, two-way interaction between academic medicine and the pharmaceutical industry will be necessary to achieve these aims. Implementing such changes would change radically how and where patients with B-cell malignancies are managed.
Related JoVE Video
The detection of chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci in B-cell malignancies.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin (IG) loci are frequently seen in most subtypes of B-cell malignancy and have both diagnostic and prognostic utility. These translocations can be detected in clinical samples by several techniques including metaphase cytogenetics, interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization, and a variety of PCR methods; interphase FISH is the most commonly used clinical method. Although all the common IG translocations have been identified and cloned, new IG translocations continue to be identified in both B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. It remains important to identify the involved target genes since they define novel pathogenetic drivers of disease and may represent novel therapeutic targets. This brief chapter outlines methods of detection of chromosomal translocations involving the IGHJ segments using long distance inverse (LDI) PCR and their application to clinical lymphoma samples.
Related JoVE Video
Prdm6 is essential for cardiovascular development in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Members of the PRDM protein family have been shown to play important roles during embryonic development. Previous in vitro and in situ analyses indicated a function of Prdm6 in cells of the vascular system. To reveal physiological functions of Prdm6, we generated conditional Prdm6-deficient mice. Complete deletion of Prdm6 results in embryonic lethality due to cardiovascular defects associated with aberrations in vascular patterning. However, smooth muscle cells could be regularly differentiated from Prdm6-deficient embryonic stem cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were present and proliferated normally in Prdm6-deficient embryos. Conditional deletion of Prdm6 in the smooth muscle cell lineage using a SM22-Cre driver line resulted in perinatal lethality due to hemorrhage in the lungs. We thus identified Prdm6 as a factor that is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular development.
Related JoVE Video
Defining the prognosis of early stage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Approximately 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients present with early stage disease, therefore defining which patients will progress and require treatment is a major clinical challenge. Here, we present the largest study of prognostic markers ever carried out in Binet stage A patients (n?=?1154) with a median follow-up of 8?years. We assessed the prognostic impact of lymphocyte doubling time (LDT), immunoglobulin gene (IGHV) mutation status, CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) cytogenetics with regards to time to first treatment (TTFT) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis revealed LDT as the most prognostic parameter for TTFT, with IGHV mutation status most prognostic for OS. CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and FISH were also prognostic variables; combinations of these markers increased prognostic power in concordant cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that only LDT, IGHV mutation status, CD38 and age at diagnosis were independent prognostic variables for TTFT and OS. Therefore, IGHV mutation status and CD38 expression have independent prognostic value in early stage CLL and should be performed as part of the routine diagnostic workup. ZAP-70 expression and FISH were not independent prognostic markers in early stage disease and can be omitted at diagnosis but FISH analysis should be undertaken at disease progression to direct treatment strategy.
Related JoVE Video
ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but influences rapid disease progression through loss of the remaining ATM allele.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ataxia telangiectasia patients, with constitutional bi-allelic ATM mutations, have a marked risk of lymphoid tumors and ATM mutation carriers have a smaller risk of cancer. Sporadic ATM mutations occur in 10-20% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and are often associated with chromosome 11q deletions which cause loss of an ATM allele. The role of constitutional ATM mutations in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is unknown. Here we investigated the frequency of constitutional ATM mutations in either of two chronic lymphocytic leukemia cohorts, those with and without a chromosome 11q deletion. We found that in comparison to controls, constitutional pathogenic ATM mutations were increased in patients with chromosome 11q deletions (6 of 140 vs. 0 of 281, P = 0.001) but not in those without 11q deletions (2 of 178 vs. 0 of 281, P = 0.15). These results suggest that ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but rather influences rapid disease progression through ATM loss.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancing the anti-lymphoma potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) through iterative chemical redesign: mechanisms and pathways to cell death.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/ecstasy) is cytostatic towards lymphoma cells in vitro, the concentrations required militate against its translation directly to a therapeutic in vivo. The possibility of redesigning the designer drug, separating desired anti-lymphoma activity from unwanted psychoactivity and neurotoxicity, was therefore mooted. From an initial analysis of MDMA analogues synthesized with a modified ?-substituent, it was found that incorporating a phenyl group increased potency against sensitive, Bcl-2-deplete, Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cells 10-fold relative to MDMA. From this lead, related analogs were synthesized with the best compounds (containing 1- and 2-naphthyl and para-biphenyl substituents) some 100-fold more potent than MDMA versus the BL target. When assessed against derived lines from a diversity of B-cell tumors MDMA analogues were seen to impact the broad spectrum of malignancy. Expressing a BCL2 transgene in BL cells afforded only scant protection against the analogues and across the malignancies no significant correlation between constitutive Bcl-2 levels and sensitivity to compounds was observed. Bcl-2-deplete cells displayed hallmarks of apoptotic death in response to the analogues while BCL2 overexpressing equivalents died in a caspase-3-independent manner. Despite lymphoma cells expressing monoamine transporters, their pharmacological blockade failed to reverse the anti-lymphoma actions of the analogues studied. Neither did reactive oxygen species account for ensuing cell death. Enhanced cytotoxic performance did however track with predicted lipophilicity amongst the designed compounds. In conclusion, MDMA analogues have been discovered with enhanced cytotoxic efficacy against lymphoma subtypes amongst which high-level Bcl-2--often a barrier to drug performance for this indication--fails to protect.
Related JoVE Video
BCL2/BCL-X(L) inhibition induces apoptosis, disrupts cellular calcium homeostasis, and prevents platelet activation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apoptosis in megakaryocytes results in the formation of platelets. The role of apoptotic pathways in platelet turnover and in the apoptotic-like changes seen after platelet activation is poorly understood. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a specific inhibitor of antiapoptotic BCL2 proteins, which is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of leukemia and other malignancies, induces a dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. In this study, the relationship between BCL2/BCL-X(L) inhibition, apoptosis, and platelet activation was investigated. Exposure to ABT-263 induced apoptosis but repressed platelet activation by physiologic agonists. Notably, ABT-263 induced an immediate calcium response in platelets and the depletion of intracellular calcium stores, indicating that on BCL2/BCL-X(L) inhibition platelet activation is abrogated because of a diminished calcium signaling. By comparing the effects of ABT-263 and its analog ABT-737 on platelets and leukemia cells from the same donor, we show, for the first time, that these BCL2/BCL-X(L) inhibitors do not offer any selective toxicity but induce apoptosis at similar concentrations in leukemia cells and platelets. However, reticulated platelets are less sensitive to apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that treatment with ABT-263 induces a selective loss of older platelets and providing an explanation for the transient thrombocytopenia observed on ABT-263 treatment.
Related JoVE Video
The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using (3)H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
The PARP inhibitor olaparib induces significant killing of ATM-deficient lymphoid tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene is frequently inactivated in lymphoid malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and is associated with defective apoptosis in response to alkylating agents and purine analogues. ATM mutant cells exhibit impaired DNA double strand break repair. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition that imposes the requirement for DNA double strand break repair should selectively sensitize ATM-deficient tumor cells to killing. We investigated in vitro sensitivity to the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib (AZD2281) of 5 ATM mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), an ATM mutant MCL cell line, an ATM knockdown PGA CLL cell line, and 9 ATM-deficient primary CLLs induced to cycle and observed differential killing compared with ATM wildtype counterparts. Pharmacologic inhibition of ATM and ATM knockdown confirmed the effect was ATM-dependent and mediated through mitotic catastrophe independently of apoptosis. A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) murine xenograft model of an ATM mutant MCL cell line demonstrated significantly reduced tumor load and an increased survival of animals after olaparib treatment in vivo. Addition of olaparib sensitized ATM null tumor cells to DNA-damaging agents. We suggest that olaparib would be an appropriate agent for treating refractory ATM mutant lymphoid tumors.
Related JoVE Video
CD49d is an independent prognostic marker that is associated with CXCR4 expression in CLL.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The world of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) research is awash with prognostic markers. However, very few of the current group play a clearly defined role in the pathology of this disease and even fewer represent a tractable therapeutic target. One such marker that fulfils both of these criteria is the integrin CD49d. This molecule been implicated in the capacity of CLL cells to migrate into lymphoid tissues and there is a CD49d blocking antibody, Natalizumab, currently in clinical trials. Here we carried out the largest multi-centre evaluation of CD49d as a prognostic marker in 652 primary CLL samples. We confirm that CD49d is predictive for time to first treatment (P<0.0001) and overall survival (P<0.0001) and increases the prognostic power of CD38, ZAP-70 and IGHV gene mutation status in concordant cases. Furthermore, CD49d retained independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we showed no correlation between CD49d expression and in vitro resistance to fludarabine in liquid cultures (P=0.28) but CD49d(hi) cells were significantly more resistant than CD49d(lo) cells when assays were carried out on fibronectin-coated plates (P=0.03). Furthermore, we showed for the first time that the expression of CD49d is strongly associated with expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 suggesting a co-ordinated role for these molecules in the trafficking of CLL cells to the lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our data support the introduction of CD49d into routine immunophenotyping panels for CLL and indicate that the therapeutic targeting of this molecule may prove useful in this disease.
Related JoVE Video
pH regulation and beyond: unanticipated functions for the voltage-gated proton channel, HVCN1.
Trends Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrophysiological studies have implicated voltage-gated proton channels in several specific cellular contexts. In neutrophils, they mediate charge compensation that is associated with the oxidative burst of phagocytosis. Molecular characterization of the hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1) has enabled identification of unanticipated and diverse functions: HVCN1 not only modulates signaling from the B-cell receptor following B-cell activation and histamine release from basophils, but also mediates pH-dependent activation of spermatozoa, as well as acid secretion by tracheal epithelium. The importance of HVCN1 in pH regulation during phagocytosis was established by surprising evidence that indicated its first-responder role. In this review, we discuss recent findings from a functional perspective, and the potential of HVCN1 as a therapeutic target for autoimmune and other diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Diminished sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to ABT-737 and ABT-263 due to albumin binding in blood.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhibition of the antiapoptotic BCL2 family is one of the most promising areas of anticancer drug development. However, ABT-737, a specific BCL2 inhibitor, is neither orally bioavailable nor metabolically stable. To overcome these problems, the structurally related molecule ABT-263 was synthesized and recently entered clinical trials in hematologic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Almost all laboratory studies have been carried out with ABT-737 rather than ABT-263, the drug being used in clinical trials. Currently there are no published data on the comparative effects of these inhibitors. To gain insight into the potential value or limitations of ABT-263 in the clinic, we assessed its ability to induce apoptosis in clinically relevant cellular models of CLL.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic splenectomy: a personal series of 140 consecutive cases.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laparoscopic splenectomy has emerged as a safe and effective treatment for a variety of haematological conditions. The objective was to review the results from a large personal series from the perspective of outcomes according to operative time, conversion to open operation, complications and mortality. The application of laparoscopic splenectomy to cases of splenomegaly without hand assistance is examined.
Related JoVE Video
Deregulation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene by chromosomal translocations in B-cell malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sequence variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus in chromosome 5p have been recently associated with disposition for various cancers. Here we show that this locus including the gene encoding the telomerase reverse-transcriptase TERT at 5p13.33 is rarely but recurrently targeted by somatic chromosomal translocations to IGH and non-IG loci in B-cell neoplasms, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. In addition, cases with genomic amplification of TERT locus were identified. Tumors bearing chromosomal aberrations involving TERT showed higher TERT transcriptional expression and increased telomerase activity. These data suggest that deregulation of TERT gene by chromosomal abnormalities leading to increased telomerase activity might contribute to B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Presence of the P2RY8-CRLF2 rearrangement is associated with a poor prognosis in non-high-risk precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children treated according to the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-level expression of the cytokine receptor-like factor 2 gene, CRLF2, in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pB-ALL) was shown to be caused by a translocation involving the IGH@ locus or a deletion juxtaposing CRLF2 with the P2RY8 promoter. To assess its possible prognostic value, CRLF2 expression was analyzed in 555 childhood pB-ALL patients treated according to the Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 2000 (ALL-BFM 2000) protocol. Besides CRLF2 rearrangements, high-level CRLF2 expression was seen in cases with supernumerary copies of the CRLF2 locus. On the basis of the detection of CRLF2 rearrangements, a CRLF2 high-expression group (n = 49) was defined. This group had a 6-year relapse incidence of 31% plus or minus 8% compared with 11% plus or minus 1% in the CRLF2 low-expression group (P = .006). This difference was mainly attributable to an extremely high incidence of relapse (71% +/- 19%) in non-high-risk patients with P2RY8-CRLF2 rearrangement. The assessment of CRLF2 aberrations may therefore serve as new stratification tool in Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-based protocols by identifying additional high-risk patients who may benefit from an intensified and/or targeted treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Role of NOXA and its ubiquitination in proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bortezomib has been successfully used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and has been proposed as a potential treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study we investigated the mechanism by which bortezomib induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of B-cell malignancies.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of proteins aberrantly expressed in malignant B-cells can potentially be used to develop new diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets. Proteomic studies of B-cell malignancies have made significant progress, but further studies are needed to increase our coverage of the B-cell malignant proteome. To achieve this goal we stress the advantages of using sub-cellular fractionation, protein separation, quantitation and affinity purification techniques to identify hitherto unidentified signalling and regulatory proteins. For example, proteomic analysis of B-cell plasma membranes isolated from patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) identified the voltage-gated proton channel (HVCN1,[1]). This protein has now been characterised as a key modulator of B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling and abrogation of HVCN1 function could have a role in the treatment of B-cell malignancies dependent on maintained BCR signalling [2]. Similarly, proteomic studies on cell lysates from prognostic subtypes of CLL, distinguished by the absence (UM-CLL) or presence (M-CLL) of somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus identified nucleophosmin 1 (NMP1) as a potential prognostic marker [3,4]. Thus, targeted proteomic analysis on selected organelles or sub-cellular compartments can identify novel proteins with unexpected localisation or function in malignant B-cells that could be developed for clinical purposes.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing the efficacy of CD20 antibody therapy through the engineering of a new type II anti-CD20 antibody with enhanced direct and immune effector cell-mediated B-cell cytotoxicity.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD20 is an important target for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as autoimmune disorders. B-cell depletion therapy using monoclonal antibodies against CD20, such as rituximab, has revolutionized the treatment of these disorders, greatly improving overall survival in patients. Here, we report the development of GA101 as the first Fc-engineered, type II humanized IgG1 antibody against CD20. Relative to rituximab, GA101 has increased direct and immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity and exhibits superior activity in cellular assays and whole blood B-cell depletion assays. In human lymphoma xenograft models, GA101 exhibits superior antitumor activity, resulting in the induction of complete tumor remission and increased overall survival. In nonhuman primates, GA101 demonstrates superior B cell-depleting activity in lymphoid tissue, including in lymph nodes and spleen. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence for the development of GA101 as a promising new therapy for the treatment of B-cell disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Ofatumumab as single-agent CD20 immunotherapy in fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New treatments are needed for patients with fludarabine- and alemtuzumab-refractory (FA-ref) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or patients with fludarabine-refractory CLL with bulky (> 5 cm) lymphadenopathy (BF-ref) who are less suitable for alemtuzumab treatment; these groups have poor outcomes with available salvage regimens. Ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) is a human monoclonal antibody targeting a distinct small-loop epitope on the CD20 molecule. We conducted an international clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ofatumumab in patients with FA-ref and BF-ref CLL.
Related JoVE Video
Fine-scale mapping of the 6p25.3 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia susceptibility locus.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recent genome-wide association study of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has identified a susceptibility locus on 6p25.3 associated with a modest but highly significant increase in CLL risk. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, we generated a fine-scale map and narrowed the association signal to a 18 kb DNA segment within the 3-untranslated region (UTR) of the IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) gene. Resequencing this segment in European subjects identified 55 common polymorphisms, including 13 highly correlated candidate causal variants. In a large case-control study, it was shown that all but four variants could be excluded with 95% confidence. These four SNPs map to a 3 kb region of the 3-UTR of IRF4, consistent with the causal basis of the association being mediated through differential IRF4 expression.
Related JoVE Video
HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Common variants at 2q37.3, 8q24.21, 15q21.3 and 16q24.1 influence chronic lymphocytic leukemia risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify new risk variants for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 299,983 tagging SNPs, with validation in four additional series totaling 2,503 cases and 5,789 controls. We identified four new risk loci for CLL at 2q37.3 (rs757978, FARP2; odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P = 2.11 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs2456449; OR = 1.26; P = 7.84 x 10(-10)), 15q21.3 (rs7169431; OR = 1.36; P = 4.74 x 10(-7)) and 16q24.1 (rs305061; OR = 1.22; P = 3.60 x 10(-7)). We also found evidence for risk loci at 15q25.2 (rs783540, CPEB1; OR = 1.18; P = 3.67 x 10(-6)) and 18q21.1 (rs1036935; OR = 1.22; P = 2.28 x 10(-6)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
Immunoglobulin heavy chain locus chromosomal translocations in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: rare clinical curios or potent genetic drivers?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus define common subgroups of B-cell lymphoma but are rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Recent fluorescent in situ hybridization and molecular cloning studies have identified several novel IGH translocations involving genes that play important roles in normal hemopoiesis, including the cytokine receptor genes CRLF2 and EPOR, all members of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein gene family, as well as genes not normally expressed in hemopoietic cells including inhibitor of DNA binding 4. IGH translocation results in deregulated target gene expression because of juxtaposition with IGH transcriptional enhancers. However, many genes targeted by IGH translocations are also more commonly deregulated in BCP-ALL as a consequence of other genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. For example, interstitial genomic deletions also result in deregulated CRLF2 expression, whereas EPOR expression is deregulated as a consequence of the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion. The possible clinical importance of many of the various IGH translocations in BCP-ALL remains to be determined from prospective studies, but CRLF2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite their rarity, IGH chromosomal translocations in BCP-ALL therefore define not only new mechanisms of B-cell transformation but also clinically important subgroups of disease and suggest new targeted therapeutic approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of Thr29 as a critical phosphorylation site that activates the human proton channel Hvcn1 in leukocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Voltage-gated proton channels and NADPH oxidase function cooperatively in phagocytes during the respiratory burst, when reactive oxygen species are produced to kill microbial invaders. Agents that activate NADPH oxidase also enhance proton channel gating profoundly, facilitating its roles in charge compensation and pH(i) regulation. The "enhanced gating mode" appears to reflect protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. Here we examine two candidates for PKC-delta phosphorylation sites in the human voltage-gated proton channel, H(V)1 (Hvcn1), Thr(29) and Ser(97), both in the intracellular N terminus. Channel phosphorylation was reduced in single mutants S97A or T29A, and further in the double mutant T29A/S97A, by an in vitro kinase assay with PKC-delta. Enhanced gating was evaluated by expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant H(V)1 channels in LK35.2 cells, a B cell hybridoma. Stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate enhanced WT channel gating, and this effect was reversed by treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The single mutant T29A or double mutant T29A/S97A failed to respond to phorbol myristate acetate or GF109203X. In contrast, the S97A mutant responded like cells transfected with WT H(V)1. We conclude that under these conditions, direct phosphorylation of the proton channel molecule at Thr(29) is primarily responsible for the enhancement of proton channel gating. This phosphorylation is crucial to activation of the proton conductance during the respiratory burst in phagocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced Fas-associated death domain recruitment by histone deacetylase inhibitors is critical for the sensitization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable disease characterized by failure of mature lymphocytes to undergo apoptosis. CLL cells are inherently resistant to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Pretreatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) sensitizes CLL cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis primarily via TRAIL-R1 and offers a novel approach for the therapy of CLL and other malignancies. Depsipeptide (romidepsin), a HDACi, did not enhance TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R1 aggregation, or internalization of TRAIL-R1, but it enhanced Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) recruitment to TRAIL-R1 in the death-inducing signaling complex. Cotreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, dramatically inhibited the HDACi-mediated increase in FADD recruitment and sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and both of these were reversed by PKC inhibitors. Thus, enhanced FADD recruitment is a critical step in HDACi-mediated sensitization of CLL cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and this step is differentially affected by HDACi and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Using biotinylated TRAIL and streptactin-tagged TRAIL, we have identified several novel TRAIL receptor interacting proteins, including PKCbeta, lymphocyte-specific protease-1, Lyn, and Syk. These molecules may play an as yet unappreciated role in TRAIL signaling in CLL cells and inhibition of one or more of these kinases/phosphatases may provide a novel target to overcome TRAIL resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variation in CXCR4 and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A genome-wide linkage scan has provided evidence for a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) susceptibility locus at 2q21 to which the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene maps. Recent data provide some evidence for common variation in CXCR4 according to the polymorphic variant rs2228014 defining CLL risk. To examine the role of genetic variation in CXCR4 on CLL risk, we screened 188 familial CLL cases and 213 controls for germline mutations in the coding regions of CXCR4 and genotyped rs2228014 in 1058 CLL cases and 1807 controls. No association between rs2228014 and risk of CLL was seen (P = .83). One truncating (W195X) and 2 missense mutations with possible functional consequences (V139I and G335S) were identified among 186 familial cases and 0 in 213 controls sequenced. Our analysis provides no evidence that common variation in CXCR4 defined by rs228014 influences the risk of CLL, but that functional coding mutations in CXCR4 may contribute to familial CLL.
Related JoVE Video
Voltage-gated proton channels maintain pH in human neutrophils during phagocytosis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phagocytosis of microbial invaders represents a fundamental defense mechanism of the innate immune system. The subsequent killing of microbes is initiated by the respiratory burst, in which nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase generates vast amounts of superoxide anion, precursor to bactericidal reactive oxygen species. Cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial because NADPH oxidase functions optimally at neutral pH, yet produces enormous quantities of protons. We monitored pH(i) in individual human neutrophils during phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan, using confocal imaging of the pH sensing dye SNARF-1, enhanced by shifted excitation and emission ratioing, or SEER. Despite long-standing dogma that Na(+)/H(+) antiport regulates pH during the phagocyte respiratory burst, we show here that voltage-gated proton channels are the first transporter to respond. During the initial phagocytotic event, pH(i) decreased sharply, and recovery required both Na(+)/H(+) antiport and proton current. Inhibiting myeloperoxidase attenuated the acidification, suggesting that diffusion of HOCl into the cytosol comprises a substantial acid load. Inhibiting proton channels with Zn(2+) resulted in profound acidification to levels that inhibit NADPH oxidase. The pH changes accompanying phagocytosis in bone marrow phagocytes from HVCN1-deficient mice mirrored those in control mouse cells treated with Zn(2+). Both the rate and extent of acidification in HVCN1-deficient cells were twice larger than in control cells. In summary, acid extrusion by proton channels is essential to the production of reactive oxygen species during phagocytosis.
Related JoVE Video
Deregulated expression of cytokine receptor gene, CRLF2, is involved in lymphoid transformation in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report 2 novel, cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL): a translocation, either t(X;14)(p22;q32) or t(Y;14)(p11;q32), in 33 patients and an interstitial deletion, either del(X)(p22.33p22.33) or del(Y)(p11.32p11.32), in 64 patients, involving the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. The incidence of these abnormalities was 5% in childhood ALL (0.8% with the translocation, 4.2% with the deletion). Patients with the translocation were older (median age, 16 years), whereas the patients with the deletion were younger (median age, 4 years). The 2 abnormalities result in deregulated expression of the cytokine receptor, cytokine receptor-like factor 2, CRLF2 (also known as thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin receptor, TSLPR). Overexpression of CRLF2 was associated with activation of the JAK-STAT pathway in cell lines and transduced primary B-cell progenitors, sustaining their proliferation and indicating a causal role of CRLF2 overexpression in lymphoid transformation. In Down syndrome (DS) ALL and 2 non-DS BCP-ALL cell lines, CRLF2 deregulation was associated with mutations of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain, suggesting oncogenic cooperation as well as highlighting a link between non-DS ALL and JAK2 mutations.
Related JoVE Video
A comprehensive microarray-based DNA methylation study of 367 hematological neoplasms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alterations in the DNA methylation pattern are a hallmark of leukemias and lymphomas. However, most epigenetic studies in hematologic neoplasms (HNs) have focused either on the analysis of few candidate genes or many genes and few HN entities, and comprehensive studies are required.
Related JoVE Video
Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2(+)/MYC(+)) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein-negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 6 patients remained in remission and 32 died within 6 months of the MYC(+) rearrangement, irrespective of whether MYC(+) occurred at diagnosis (31 of 54) or transformation (23 of 54; P = .53). A non-IG/MYC translocation partner, absent BCL2 protein expression and treatment with rituximab-based chemotherapy, were associated with a more favorable outcome, but a low International Prognostic Index score and DLBCL morphology were independent predictors of overall survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Drug cross-resistance and therapy-induced resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia by an enhanced method of individualised tumour response testing.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous results with individualised tumour response testing (ITRT) in vitro in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) have consistently shown good correlation with patient response and survival. We describe here an improved test and report its use with samples from the Leukaemia Research Fund CLL4 randomised clinical trial and previously treated patients. ITRT was performed by the tumour response to anti-neoplastic compounds (TRAC) assay, a modification of the differential staining cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay. Improvements included drying drugs into wells before assay and using the Octospot system to cytocentrifuge eight spots of cells onto one microscope slide. We successfully tested 765/782 (98%) cellular blood samples received within 48 h of phlebotomy. Cross-resistance (Pearsons r > 0.7) in untreated CLL was found between similar drugs. Mitoxantrone (r = 0.31), cyclophosphamide (r = 0.35) and pentostatin (r = 0.29) had low cross-resistance with fludarabine. Treatment resulted in increased resistance to chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, corticosteroids, cladribine and fludarabine (P < 0.01) but not to pentostatin. These results provide further rationale for standard drug combinations such as fludarabine-mitoxantrone and fludarabine-mitoxantrone-cyclophosphamide and suggest possible pentostatin salvage in fludarabine-resistant patients. ITRT results could assist both in determining the best treatment for individual patients and in the design and rationale of future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Concurrent up-regulation of BCL-XL and BCL2A1 induces approximately 1000-fold resistance to ABT-737 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABT-737 and its orally active analog, ABT-263, are rationally designed inhibitors of BCL2 and BCL-X(L). ABT-263 shows promising activity in early phase 1 clinical trials in B-cell malignancies, particularly chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In vitro, peripheral blood CLL cells are extremely sensitive to ABT-737 (EC(50) approximately 7 nM), with rapid induction of apoptosis in all 60 patients tested, independent of parameters associated with disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. In contrast to data from cell lines, ABT-737-induced apoptosis in CLL cells was largely MCL1-independent. Because CLL cells within lymph nodes are more resistant to apoptosis than those in peripheral blood, CLL cells were cultured on CD154-expressing fibroblasts in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) to mimic the lymph node microenvironment. CLL cells thus cultured developed an approximately 1000-fold resistance to ABT-737 within 24 hours. Investigations of the underlying mechanism revealed that this resistance occurred upstream of mitochondrial perturbation and involved de novo synthesis of the antiapoptotic proteins BCL-X(L) and BCL2A1, which were responsible for resistance to low and high ABT-737 concentrations, respectively. Our data indicate that after therapy with ABT-737-related inhibitors, resistant CLL cells might develop in lymph nodes in vivo and that treatment strategies targeting multiple BCL2 antiapoptotic members simultaneously may have synergistic activity.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of the gene encoding cyclin E1 (CCNE1) as a novel IGH translocation partner in t(14;19)(q32;q12) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a subset of B-cell malignancies, the genes encoding members of the cyclin D familiy are juxtaposed to immunoglobulin loci through recurrent chromosomal translocations. Here, we identified the gene encoding cyclin E1 as novel translocation partner of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus involved in a t(14;19)(q32;q12) in a case of t(8;14)(q24;q32) IGH-MYC-positive leukemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The translocation breakpoints were cloned and mapped to the switch region Salpha1 of IGH in 14q32 and approximately 60kb centromeric to CCNE1 in 19q12. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed overexpression of the cyclin E1 protein in this case, which to a comparable extent was observed in 3/41 independent DLBCL. These data indicate that cyclin E1 may act as a novel oncogene in B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Humanized anti-CD20 antibody, veltuzumab, in refractory/recurrent non-Hodgkins lymphoma: phase I/II results.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This is a multicenter phase I/II dose-finding study in relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) evaluating veltuzumab, a humanized anti-CD20 antibody with structure-function differences from chimeric rituximab.
Related JoVE Video
Protein profiling of plasma membranes defines aberrant signaling pathways in mantle cell lymphoma.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used shotgun proteomics to identify plasma membrane and lipid raft proteins purified from B cells obtained from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients in leukemic phase. Bioinformatics identified 111 transmembrane proteins, some of which were profiled in primary MCL cases, MCL-derived cell lines, and normal B cells using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Several transmembrane proteins, including CD27, CD70, and CD31 (PECAM-1), were overexpressed when compared with normal B cells. CD70 was up-regulated (>10-fold) in three of five MCL patients along with its cognate receptor CD27, which was up-regulated (4-9-fold) in five of five patients, suggesting that MCL cells may undergo autocrine stimulation via this signaling pathway. Activated calpain I and protein kinase C betaII were also detected in the plasma membranes, suggesting that these proteins are constitutively active in MCL. Protein kinase C betaII has been associated with lipid rafts, and shotgun proteomics/protein profiling revealed that key lipid raft proteins, raftlin (four of five patients) and CSK (C-terminal Src kinase)-binding protein (Cbp)/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG) (four of four patients) were down-regulated in MCL. Levels of other known lipid raft proteins, such as Lyn kinase and flotillin 1, were similar to normal B cells. However, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), a key enzyme in leukotriene biosynthesis, was associated with lipid rafts and was up-regulated approximately 7-fold in MCL compared with normal B cells. Significantly inhibitors of 5-LO activity (AA861) and 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) (MK886, its activating enzyme) induced apoptosis in MCL cell lines and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, indicating an important role for the leukotriene biosynthetic pathway in MCL and other B cell malignancies. Thus, using shotgun proteomics and mRNA and protein expression profiling we identified a subset of known and unknown transmembrane proteins with aberrant expression in MCL plasma membranes. These proteins may play a role in the pathology of the disease and are potential therapeutic targets in MCL.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular allelokaryotyping of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia cells with high density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays identifies novel common genomic lesions and acquired uniparental disomy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is a rare aggressive lymphoproliferative disease with a mature T-cell phenotype and characteristic genomic lesions such as inv(14)(q11q34), t(14;14)(q11;q32) or t(X;14)(q28;q11), mutation of the ATM gene on chromosome 11 and secondary alterations such as deletions of chromosome 8p and duplications of 8q.
Related JoVE Video
Caspase cleavage of Itch in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the final step in the ubiquitylation cascade and therefore determine the specificity of this important cellular metabolic pathway. Although first thought to be constitutively active, increasing evidence demonstrates the existence of a wide variety of posttranslational modifications that regulate the activity of these enzymes. Here we show that upon induction of apoptosis the ubiquitin ligase Itch is processed by caspases both in vitro and ex vivo in cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The specific cleavage site was mapped to residue Asp240. Interestingly, cleavage of Itch by active caspases does not inhibit the catalytic activity of Itch, but results in the loss of an N-terminal Itch fragment that contains a negative regulatory region. Our data suggests that caspase-dependent Itch cleavage might be an important regulator of Itch at the endogenous level under both physiological and stressed conditions.
Related JoVE Video
GeneChip analyses point to novel pathogenetic mechanisms in mantle cell lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the genetic hallmark of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) but is not sufficient for inducing lymphomagenesis. Here we performed genome-wide 100K GeneChip Mapping in 26 t(11;14)-positive MCL and six MCL cell lines. Partial uniparental disomy (pUPD) was shown to be a recurrent chromosomal event not only in MCL cell lines but also in primary MCL. Remarkably, pUPD affected recurrent targets of deletion like 11q, 13q and 17p. Moreover, we identified 12 novel regions of recurrent gain and loss as well as 12 high-level amplifications and eight homozygously deleted regions hitherto undescribed in MCL. Interestingly, GeneChip analyses identified different genes, encoding proteins involved in microtubule dynamics, such as MAP2, MAP6 and TP53, as targets for chromosomal aberration in MCL. Further investigation, including mutation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridisation as well as epigenetic and expression studies, revealed additional aberrations frequently affecting these genes. In total, 19 of 20 MCL cases, which were subjected to genetic and epigenetic analyses, and five of six MCL cell lines harboured at least one aberration in MAP2, MAP6 or TP53. These findings provide evidence that alterations of microtubule dynamics might be one of the critical events in MCL lymphomagenesis contributing to chromosomal instability.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting autophagy potentiates tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced cell death in Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells, including primary CML stem cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Imatinib mesylate (IM), a potent inhibitor of the BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase, has become standard first-line therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but the frequency of resistance increases in advancing stages of disease. Elimination of BCR/ABL-dependent intracellular signals triggers apoptosis, but it is unclear whether this activates additional cell survival and/or death pathways. We have shown here that IM induces autophagy in CML blast crisis cell lines, CML primary cells, and p210BCR/ABL-expressing myeloid precursor cells. IM-induced autophagy did not involve c-Abl or Bcl-2 activity but was associated with ER stress and was suppressed by depletion of intracellular Ca2+, suggesting it is mechanistically nonoverlapping with IM-induced apoptosis. We further demonstrated that suppression of autophagy using either pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference of essential autophagy genes enhanced cell death induced by IM in cell lines and primary CML cells. Critically, the combination of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), i.e., IM, nilotinib, or dasatinib, with inhibitors of autophagy resulted in near complete elimination of phenotypically and functionally defined CML stem cells. Together, these findings suggest that autophagy inhibitors may enhance the therapeutic effects of TKIs in the treatment of CML.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of ofatumumab in patients with fludarabine and alemtuzumab refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Ther Adv Hematol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are now many therapeutic CD20 monoclonal antibodies undergoing clinical trials for B-cell malignancy and autoimmune conditions; which is optimal for cancer therapy is not clear. The novel human IgG1 CD20 monoclonal antibody ofatumumab has shown significant activity in difficult to treat patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, namely those resistant or refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab and has now been licensed for this uncommon indication. This brief review summarizes the clinical data obtained with ofatumumab in CLL in terms of both efficacy and toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
t(X;14)(p11;q32) in MALT lymphoma involving GPR34 reveals a role for GPR34 in tumor cell growth.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic aberrations, including trisomies 3 and 18, and well-defined IGH translocations, have been described in marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs); however, these known genetic events are present in only a subset of cases. Here, we report the cloning of an IGH translocation partner on chromosome X, t(X;14)(p11.4;q32) that deregulates expression of an poorly characterized orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR34. Elevated GPR34 gene expression was detected independent of the translocation in multiple subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and distinguished a unique molecular subtype of MZL. Increased expression of GPR34 was also detected in tissue from brain tumors and surface expression of GPR34 was detected on human MZL tumor cells and normal immune cells. Overexpression of GPR34 in lymphoma and HeLa cells resulted in phosphorylation of ERK, PKC, and CREB; induced CRE, AP1, and NF-?B-mediated gene transcription; and increased cell proliferation. In summary, these results are the first to identify a role for a GPR34 in lymphoma cell growth, provide insight into GPR34-mediated signaling, identify a genetically unique subset of MZLs that express high levels of GPR34, and suggest that MEK inhibitors may be useful for treatment of GPR34-expressing tumors.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput sequencing analysis of the chromosome 7q32 deletion reveals IRF5 as a potential tumour suppressor in splenic marginal-zone lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using high-resolution genomic microarray analysis, a distinct genomic profile was defined in 114 samples from patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). Deletion or uniparental disomy of chromosome 7q were detected in 42 of 114 (37%) SMZLs but in only nine of 170 (5%) mature B-cell lymphomas (P < 0·00001). The presence of unmutated IGHV, genomic complexity, 17p13-TP53 deletion and 8q-MYC gain, but not 7q deletion, correlated with shorter overall survival of SMZL patients. Mapping studies narrowed down a commonly deleted region of 2·7 Mb in 7q32.1-q32.2 spanning a region between the SND1 and COPG2 genes. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the 7q32-deleted segment did not identify biallelic deletions/insertions or clear pathogenic gene mutations, but detected six nucleotide changes in IRF5 (n = 2), TMEM209 (n = 2), CALU (n = 1) and ZC3HC1 (n = 1) not found in healthy individuals. Comparative expression analysis found a fourfold down-regulation of IRF5 gene in lymphomas with 7q32 deletion versus non-deleted tumours (P = 0·032). Ectopic expression of IRF5 in marginal-zone lymphoma cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro, and impaired lymphoma development in vivo. These results show that cryptic deletions, insertions and/or point mutations inactivating genes within 7q32 are not common in SMZL, and suggest that IRF5 may be a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor in this lymphoma entity.
Related JoVE Video
Common variation at 6p21.31 (BAK1) influences the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a meta-analysis of 3 genome-wide association studies to identify additional common variants influencing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) risk. The discovery phase was composed of genome-wide association study data from 1121 cases and 3745 controls. Replication analysis was performed in 861 cases and 2033 controls. We identified a novel CLL risk locus at 6p21.33 (rs210142; intronic to the BAK1 gene, BCL2 antagonist killer 1; P = 9.47 × 10(-16)). A strong relationship between risk genotype and reduced BAK1 expression was shown in lymphoblastoid cell lines. This finding provides additional support for polygenic inheritance to CLL and provides further insight into the biologic basis of disease development.
Related JoVE Video
The CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is recurrently involved in IGH chromosomal translocation t(14;16)(q32;q24) in pediatric B-cell lymphoma with germinal center phenotype.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Translocations involving immunoglobulin (IG) loci are the hallmarks of several subtypes of B-cell lymphoma. Common to these translocations is that cellular proto-oncogenes come under the influence of IG regulatory elements leading to deregulated expression. In case of a breakpoint in the IGH switch region, oncogene activation can take place on both derivative chromosomes, which means that in principle one translocation can result in concurrent activation of two genes. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified a case of leukemic B-cell lymphoma in a child with an IGH break and unknown partner. Subsequent long-distance inverse PCR revealed fusion of IGH Sl in 14q32 and the 50 region of CBFA2T3 in 16q24.3, suggesting presence of the t(14;16)(q32;q24.3). Candidate oncogenes targeted through this translocation are CBFA2T3 and ACSF3, which could be activated on der(16) and der(14), respectively. FISH screening of a population-based cohort of B-cell lymphomas from a prospective trial for the treatment of lymphoma in childhood (BFM-NHL) identified additionally a follicular lymphoma Grade 3/diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with IGH-CBFA2T3/ACSF3 juxtaposition. Both lymphomas shared expression of CD10 and CD20 in the absence of TdT, suggesting a germinal center (GC) B-cell origin. Our data indicate that the CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is a novel recurrent oncogenic target of IGH translocations, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of pediatric GC-derived B-cell lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Cell surface phenotype profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABSTRACT Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging systems, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 over-expression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, +12, 11q(-), 17p(-)) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all CLL cases at risk. In a recent review (Huang et al. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2012; 53:1046-56), we summarised those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan CLL antibody microarray (Version 3, 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19+ B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (2 epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196, and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage CLL patients by probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.