The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF/PTTG1IP) has an emerging repertoire of roles, especially in thyroid biology, and functions as a protooncogene. High PBF expression is independently associated with poor prognosis and lower disease-specific survival in human thyroid cancer. However, the precise role of PBF in thyroid tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we present extensive evidence demonstrating that PBF is a novel regulator of p53, a tumor suppressor protein with a key role in maintaining genetic stability, which is infrequently mutated in differentiated thyroid cancer. By coimmunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation assays, we show that PBF binds specifically to p53 in thyroid cells and significantly represses transactivation of responsive promoters. Further, we identify that PBF decreases p53 stability by enhancing ubiquitination, which appears dependent on the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2. Impaired p53 function was evident in a transgenic mouse model with thyroid-specific PBF overexpression (transgenic PBF mice), which had significantly increased genetic instability as indicated by fluorescent inter simple sequence repeat-PCR analysis. Consistent with this, approximately 40% of all DNA repair genes examined were repressed in transgenic PBF primary cultures, including genes with critical roles in maintaining genomic integrity such as Mgmt, Rad51, and Xrcc3. Our data also revealed that PBF induction resulted in up-regulation of the E2 enzyme Rad6 in murine thyrocytes and was associated with Rad6 expression in human thyroid tumors. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the role of the protooncogene PBF as a negative regulator of p53 function in thyroid tumorigenesis, in which PBF is generally overexpressed and p53 mutations are rare compared with other tumor types.
Drug repurposing or repositioning refers to the usage of existing drugs in diseases other than those it was originally used for. For diseases like malaria, where there is an urgent need for active drug candidates, the strategy offers a route to significantly shorten the traditional drug development pipelines. Preliminary high-throughput screens on patent expired drug libraries have recently been carried out for Plasmodium falciparum. This study reports the systematic and objective further interrogation of selected compounds reported in these studies, to enable their repositioning as novel stand-alone anti-malarials or as combinatorial partners.
Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG) is a multifunctional proto-oncogene implicated in the initiation and progression of several tumors. Phosphorylation of hPTTG is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDC2), whereas cellular expression is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1). The mechanisms underlying hPTTG propagation of aberrant thyroid cell growth have not been fully defined. We set out to investigate the interplay between hPTTG and growth factors, as well as the effects of phosphorylation and SP1 regulation on hPTTG expression and function. In our study, epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGF?, and IGF-1 induced hPTTG expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells, which was associated with activation of MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Growth factors induced hPTTG independently of CDC2 and SP1 in thyroid carcinoma cells. Strikingly, CDC2 depletion in TPC-1 cells resulted in enhanced expression and phosphorylation of hPTTG and reduced cellular proliferation. In reciprocal experiments, hPTTG overexpression induced EGF, IGF-1, and TGF? mRNAs in primary human thyrocytes. Treatment of primary human thyrocytes with conditioned media derived from hPTTG-transfected cells resulted in autocrine upregulation of hPTTG protein, which was ameliorated by growth factor depletion or growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A transgenic murine model of thyroid targeted hPTTG overexpression (hPTTG-Tg) (FVB/N strain, both sexes) demonstrated smaller thyroids with reduced cellular proliferation and enhanced secretion of Egf. In contrast, Pttg(-/-) knockout mice (c57BL6 strain, both sexes) showed reduced thyroidal Egf mRNA expression. These results define hPTTG as having a central role in thyroid autocrine signaling mechanisms via growth factors, with profound implications for promotion of transformed cell growth.
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterized proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function, but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to the radioiodine ablation of thyroid hyperplasia, neoplasia, and metastasis, was also potently inhibited in PBF-Tg mice. Critically, iodide uptake was repressed in primary thyroid cultures from PBF-Tg mice, which could be rescued by PBF depletion. PBF-Tg thyroids exhibited upregulation of Akt and the TSH receptor (TSHR), each known regulators of thyrocyte proliferation, along with upregulation of the downstream proliferative marker cyclin D1. We extended and confirmed findings from the mouse model by examining PBF expression in human multinodular goiters (MNG), a hyperproliferative thyroid disorder, where PBF and TSHR was strongly upregulated relative to normal thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we showed that depleting PBF in human primary thyrocytes was sufficient to increase radioiodine uptake. Together, our findings indicate that overexpression of PBF causes thyroid cell proliferation, macrofollicular lesions, and hyperplasia, as well as repression of the critical therapeutic route for radioiodide uptake.
The folate pathway enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) converts serine to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and is essential for the acquisition of one-carbon units for subsequent transfer reactions. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate is used by thymidylate synthase to convert dUMP to dTMP for DNA synthesis. In Plasmodium falciparum an enzymatically functional SHMT (PfSHMTc) and a related, apparently inactive isoform (PfSHMTm) are found, encoded by different genes. Here, patterns of localization of the two isoforms during the parasite erythrocytic cycle are investigated.
Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is prevented by inhibitory molecules present in myelin, which bind to a receptor complex that leads to downstream RhoGTP activation and axon growth cone collapse. Here, we compared expression of Citron kinase (Citron-K), a target molecule of RhoGTP in non-regenerating dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN) after dorsal column (DC) injury, and in regenerating DRGN after either sciatic nerve (SN) injury or preconditioning SN+DC lesion models. We show by microarray that Citron-K mRNA levels in DRGN of a non-regenerating DC injury model were elevated 2-fold compared to those of intact control DRGN. Conversely, Citron-K levels were reduced by 2 and 2.4-fold at 10 days post lesion in the regenerating SN and preconditioning SN+DC lesion models, respectively, compared to levels in control intact DRGN. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed these observations and localised Citron-K immunostaining to both DRGN and satellite glia. In dissociated, adult rat DRG cell cultures, 80% knockdown of Citron-K, in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of CNS myelin extract (CME), promoted significant disinhibited DRGN neurite outgrowth, only when cells were stimulated with neurotrophic factors. The levels of RhoGTP remained unchanged after Citron-K knockdown in the presence of CME while enhanced cofilin levels correlated with disinhibited DRGN neurite outgrowth. This observation suggests that Citron-K plays a role in axon growth downstream of Rho activation. We conclude that Citron-K regulates actin polymerisation downstream of RhoA and may offer a potentially novel therapeutic approach for promoting CNS axon regeneration.
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) binding factor (PBF; PTTG1IP) is a relatively uncharacterized oncoprotein whose function remains obscure. Because of the presence of putative estrogen response elements (ERE) in its promoter, we assessed PBF regulation by estrogen. PBF mRNA and protein expression were induced by both diethylstilbestrol and 17beta-estradiol in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive MCF-7 cells. Detailed analysis of the PBF promoter showed that the region -399 to -291 relative to the translational start site contains variable repeats of an 18-bp sequence housing a putative ERE half-site (gcccctcGGTCAcgcctc). Sequencing the PBF promoter from 122 normal subjects revealed that subjects may be homozygous or heterozygous for between 1 and 6 repeats of the ERE. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and oligonucleotide pull-down assays revealed ERalpha binding to the PBF promoter. PBF expression was low or absent in normal breast tissue but was highly expressed in breast cancers. Subjects with greater numbers of ERE repeats showed higher PBF mRNA expression, and PBF protein expression positively correlated with ERalpha status. Cell invasion assays revealed that PBF induces invasion through Matrigel, an action that could be abrogated both by siRNA treatment and specific mutation. Furthermore, PBF is a secreted protein, and loss of secretion prevents PBF inducing cell invasion. Given that PBF is a potent transforming gene, we propose that estrogen treatment in postmenopausal women may upregulate PBF expression, leading to PBF secretion and increased cell invasion. Furthermore, the number of ERE half-sites in the PBF promoter may significantly alter the response to estrogen treatment in individual subjects.
To test the possibility that phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) mediates axon growth inhibition, we determined if pEGFR levels were raised in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after non-regenerating dorsal column (DC) lesions and suppressed in regenerating sciatic nerve (SN) and preconditioning (P) SN+DC lesioned DRG. Levels of EGFR mRNA and protein in DRG were unchanged between control and all injury models. Satellite glia and not DRG neurons (DRGN) constitutively contained pEGFR and, only in PSN+DC rats, were levels significantly reduced in these cells. In vitro, siRNA mediated knockdown of EGFR (siEGFR) mRNA and protein was associated with suppressed RhoA activation, but fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) was a mandatory requirement for DRGN neuritogenesis after addition of inhibitory concentrations of CNS myelin. Thus, EGFR activation in satellite glia was not consistently correlated with DRGN axogenesis and siEGFR reduction of pEGFR with attenuated Rho-GTP signalling did not promote DRGN disinhibited neurite outgrowth without exogenous FGF2 stimulation. Together, these data argue against a direct intra-axonal involvement of pEGFR in axon regeneration.
Differentiated thyroid cancers and their metastases frequently exhibit reduced iodide uptake, impacting on the efficacy of radioiodine ablation therapy. PTTG binding factor (PBF) is a proto-oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. We recently reported that PBF inhibits iodide uptake, and have now elucidated a mechanism by which PBF directly modulates sodium iodide symporter (NIS) activity in vitro. In subcellular localisation studies, PBF overexpression resulted in the redistribution of NIS from the plasma membrane into intracellular vesicles, where it colocalised with the tetraspanin CD63. Cell-surface biotinylation assays confirmed a reduction in plasma membrane NIS expression following PBF transfection compared with vector-only treatment. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down experiments demonstrated a direct interaction between NIS and PBF, the functional consequence of which was assessed using iodide-uptake studies in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. PBF repressed iodide uptake, whereas three deletion mutants, which did not localise within intracellular vesicles, lost the ability to inhibit NIS activity. In summary, we present an entirely novel mechanism by which the proto-oncogene PBF binds NIS and alters its subcellular localisation, thereby regulating its ability to uptake iodide. Given that PBF is overexpressed in thyroid cancer, these findings have profound implications for thyroid cancer ablation using radioiodine.
In investigating the consequences of gene silencing in axon growth disinhibition strategies in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC), we conducted experiments designed to silence RhoA signalling in PC12 and primary adult rat retinal cell cultures (containing RGC) by siRNA-mediated RhoA mRNA knockdown. We demonstrate wide differences in the levels of RhoA mRNA knockdown, dose-dependent cell toxicity, and induction of endogenous inflammatory cytokine and interferon responses to siRNA therapy. Toxicity effects observed with RhoA-siRNA was significantly reduced with "Stealth" chemical modification of the sequence, promoting approximately 50% and 70% knockdown of RhoA mRNA and protein in retinal cells, respectively, while promoting significant disinhibited RGC neurite outgrowth in the presence of inhibitory CNS myelin. Our results highlight differential responsiveness of cell lines compared to primary cultured cells, and demonstrate the efficacy of the "Stealth" modification to reduce siRNA-induced interferon responses, thereby increasing target cell viability and reducing off-target effects of the delivered nucleic acids.
A promising strategy to enhance axon regeneration is to employ short interfering (si)RNA targeting either RhoA or p75(NTR), which are components of a signalling cascade triggered by growth inhibitory ligands. However, it is important to profile the biological impact of siRNA on cell homeostasis in order to develop safe and effective therapies.
Polymer coating of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) particles produces a stealth Ad5 (sAd5) that confers protection from immune recognition, blocks receptor-mediated uptake, and favours uptake into pinocytic cells.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.