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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Endogenous antibody responsiveness to epidermal growth factor receptor is associated with immunoglobulin allotypes and overall survival of patients with glioblastoma.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Immunoglobulin ? marker (GM) and ? marker (KM) allotypes, hereditary antigenic determinants of ? and ? chains, respectively, have been shown to be associated with immunity to a variety of self and nonself antigens, but their possible contribution to immunity to the tumor-associated antigens epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR variant (v)III has not been evaluated. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the interindividual variation in endogenous antibody responsiveness to EGFR and EGFRvIII is associated with particular GM, KM, and Fc? receptor (Fc?R) genotypes and whether antibody levels were associated with the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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Immunoglobulin genes influence the magnitude of humoral immunity to cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a risk factor for many human diseases, but among exposed individuals, not everyone is equally likely to develop HCMV-spurred diseases, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate immunity to this virus. Here, we show that antibody responsiveness to HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) is significantly associated with particular immunoglobulin GM (? marker) genotypes. Anti-HCMV gB antibody levels were highest in GM 17/17 homozygotes, intermediate in GM 3/17 heterozygotes, and lowest in GM 3/3 homozygotes (28.2, 19.0, and 8.1 µg/mL, respectively; P = .014). These findings provide mechanistic insights in the etiopathogenesis of HCMV-spurred diseases.
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Joint effects between five identified risk variants, allergy, and autoimmune conditions on glioma risk.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Common variants in two of the five genetic regions recently identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of risk of glioma were reported to interact with a history of allergic symptoms. In a pooled analysis of five epidemiologic studies, we evaluated the association between the five GWAS implicated gene variants and allergies and autoimmune conditions (AIC) on glioma risk (851 adult glioma cases and 3,977 controls). We further evaluated the joint effects between allergies and AIC and these gene variants on glioma risk. Risk estimates were calculated as odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI), adjusted for age, gender, and study. Joint effects were evaluated by conducting stratified analyses whereby the risk associations (OR and 95 % CI) with the allergy or autoimmune conditions for glioma were evaluated by the presence or absence of the at-risk variant, and estimated p interaction by fitting models with the main effects of allergy or autoimmune conditions and genotype and an interaction (product) term between them. Four of the five SNPs previously reported by others were statistically significantly associated with increased risk of glioma in our study (rs2736100, rs4295627, rs4977756, and rs6010620); rs498872 was not associated with glioma in our study. Reporting any allergies or AIC was associated with reduced risks of glioma (allergy: adjusted OR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.55-0.91; AIC: adjusted OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.47-0.90). We did not observe differential association between allergic or autoimmune conditions and glioma by genotype, and there were no statistically significant p interactions. Stratified analysis by glioma grade (low and high grade) did not suggest risk differences by disease grade. Our results do not provide evidence that allergies or AIC modulate the association between the four GWAS-identified SNPs examined and risk of glioma.
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Semi-quantitative analysis of influenza samples using the Luminex xTAG(®) respiratory viral panel kit.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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The Luminex xTAG(®) respiratory viral panel (RVP) kit simultaneously detects and identifies multiple respiratory viruses including several subtypes of influenza A using a multiplex nucleic acid amplification test assay platform. The emitted fluorescence signal from the RVP assay provides qualitative information on the presence of a particular viral species in respiratory specimens. However, a quantitative assessment is preferred when monitoring environmental samples for respiratory viruses. In this study, we explored the potential use of the RVP kit as a semi-quantitative screening assay for influenza virus detection. The concentration- response of the RVP assay was modeled using four-parameter logistic (4-PL) fits of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) versus dilute ranges of the influenza A matrix gene, seasonal influenza vaccine, and 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. The goodness of fit of the 4-PL model was evaluated by comparing the copy number determined with the fitted model (observed copy number) with the copy number calculated from the dilution of the matrix DNA or vaccine (expected copy number). For the matrix DNA and 2009 H1N1 vaccine, the 4-PL model provided good fit for the influenza A RVP assay response over factors of 10(3) to 10(4). For seasonal influenza vaccine, the model provided good fit for RVP assay response to influenza A, influenza B, H1, and H3.
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The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p?=?0.061). The NKA, post-exposure breath naphthalene, and male gender were associated with an increase, while CYP2E1*6 DD and GSTT1-plus (++/+-) genotypes were associated with a decrease in urine naphthalene level (p?
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Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking.
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(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid: a urinary biomarker of exposure for jet fuel JP-8.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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To demonstrate the utility of the urinary metabolite (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) as a biomarker of exposure. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol [diethylene glycol monomethyl ether] is an anti-icing agent used in the formulation of JP-8, and it is added at a known uniform 0.1% (v/v) concentration to each batch lot. JP-8 is a kerosene-based fuel containing different compounds that vary in the content of every batch/lot of fuel; thus, MEAA has the potential to be a more specific and a consistent quantitative biomarker for JP-8 exposure.
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Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age group, gender, and study site. Data on 617 cases and 1260 controls were available for analyses. Using data from all 7 studies, history of allergies and/or asthma was associated with a decreased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), and history of asthma only was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). A family history of brain tumors was associated with an increased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Having had chicken pox was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in the US studies. Although there is some overlap in risk factors between oligodendroglial tumors and gliomas as a group, it is likely that additional factors specific to oligodendroglial tumors have yet to be identified. Large, multi-institution international studies will be necessary to better characterize these etiological risk factors.
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Lead and cognitive function in ALAD genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different ALAD genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16 years old, no difference in the relationship between cognitive function and blood lead concentration between genotypes was found. In adults 20 to 59 years old, mean reaction time decreased as the blood lead concentration increased in the ALAD rs1800435 CC/CG group. This represents an improvement in performance. In adults 60 years and older, no difference in the relationship between cognitive function and blood lead concentration between genotypes was found. The serum homocysteine concentration increased as the blood lead concentration increased in adults 20 to 59 years old and 60 years and older, but there were no differences between genotypes. The mean blood lead concentration of children with the ALAD rs1800435 CC/CG genotype was less than that of children with the GG genotype.
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Lead and cognitive function in VDR genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different VDR genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16 years old, performance on the digit span and arithmetic tests as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185 and VDR rs731236 genotypes. Decreases in performance occurred in some genotypes, but not in others. In adults 20 to 59 years old, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185-rs731236 haplotype. In the 12 to 16 year old children and adults 60 or more years old, the relationship between the serum homocysteine and blood lead concentrations varied by VDR genotype. The mean blood lead concentrations of the children and adults did not vary by VDR genotype.
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Blood lead, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between blood lead, serum folate, red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20-59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The three neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. Serum folate, red blood cell folate, and serum vitamin B12 decreased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine increased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine decreased as the serum folate and serum vitamin B12 concentrations increased. Neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the blood lead, serum folate, or serum vitamin B12 concentrations. In adults 20-39 years old, performance on the serial digit learning test improved as the serum homocysteine concentration increased. In adults 40-59 years old, neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the serum homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine may impair cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and improve cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate or gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.
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Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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Current evidence suggests that immune system alterations contribute to the etiology of adult glioma, the most common adult brain tumor. Although previous studies have focused on variation in candidate genes in the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system has emerged as a critical avenue for research given its known link with carcinogenesis. To identify genetic markers in pathways critical to innate immunity, we conducted an association study of 551 glioma cases and 865 matched controls of European ancestry to investigate "tag" single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 148 genetic regions. Two independent U.S. case-control studies included were as follows: a hospital-based study conducted by the National Cancer Institute (263 cases, 330 controls) and a community-based study conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (288 cases, 535 controls). Tag SNPs (1,397) chosen on the basis of an r(2) of >0.8 and minor allele frequency of >5% in Caucasians in HapMap1 were genotyped. Glioma risk was estimated by odds ratios. Nine SNPs distributed across eight genetic regions (ALOX5, IRAK3, ITGB2, NCF2, NFKB1, SELP, SOD1, and STAT1) were associated with risk of glioma with P value of <0.01. Although these associations were no longer statistically significant after controlling for multiple comparisons, the associations were notably consistent in both studies. Region-based tests were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for SELP, SOD, and ALOX5. Analyses restricted to glioblastoma (n = 254) yielded significant associations for the SELP, DEFB126/127, SERPINI1, and LY96 genetic regions. We have identified a promising set of innate immunity-related genetic regions for further investigation.
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Exposure to farm crops, livestock, and farm tasks and risk of glioma: the Upper Midwest Health Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Some studies of brain cancer have found an excess risk for farmers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously found no increased glioma risk for ever (vs. never) being exposed to pesticides on a farm among 798 cases and 1,175 population-based controls (adult (ages 18-80 years) nonmetropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin). For this analysis (1995-1998), 288 cases and 474 controls (or their proxies) who had lived on farms at age 18 years or after were asked about exposure to crops, livestock, and farm tasks. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios adjusted for age, age group, sex, state, and education. Never immediately washing up (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78, 5.34) or changing clothes (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.04, 7.78) after applying pesticides was associated with increased glioma risk. Living on a farm on which corn, oats, soybeans, or hogs were raised was associated with decreased risk (corn-OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.69; oats-OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.00; soybeans-OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98; hogs-OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93). Negative associations may be due to chance or a "healthy farmer" effect. Farmers increased risk of glioma may be due to work practices, other activities, or an inverse association with allergies (reported by other investigators).
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Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.
Int. J. Cancer
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Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours.
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Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis.
Hum. Genet.
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Gliomas account for approximately 80 % of all primary malignant brain tumors and, despite improvements in clinical care over the last 20 years, remain among the most lethal tumors, underscoring the need for gaining new insights that could translate into clinical advances. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven new susceptibility regions. We conducted a new independent GWAS of glioma using 1,856 cases and 4,955 controls (from 14 cohort studies, 3 case-control studies, and 1 population-based case-only study) and found evidence of strong replication for three of the seven previously reported associations at 20q13.33 (RTEL), 5p15.33 (TERT), and 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS), and consistent association signals for the remaining four at 7p11.2 (EGFR both loci), 8q24.21 (CCDC26) and 11q23.3 (PHLDB1). The direction and magnitude of the signal were consistent for samples from cohort and case-control studies, but the strength of the association was more pronounced for loci rs6010620 (20q,13.33; RTEL) and rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT) in cohort studies despite the smaller number of cases in this group, likely due to relatively more higher grade tumors being captured in the cohort studies. We further examined the 85 most promising single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified in our study in three replication sets (5,015 cases and 11,601 controls), but no new markers reached genome-wide significance. Our findings suggest that larger studies focusing on novel approaches as well as specific tumor subtypes or subgroups will be required to identify additional common susceptibility loci for glioma risk.
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Evaluation and comparison of urinary metabolic biomarkers of exposure for the jet fuel JP-8.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
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A study of workers exposed to jet fuel propellant 8 (JP-8) was conducted at U.S. Air Force bases and included the evaluation of three biomarkers of exposure: S-benzylmercapturic acid (BMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), and (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA). Postshift urine specimens were collected from various personnel categorized as high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38) and low (n = 61) JP-8 exposure based on work activities. BMA and PMA urinary levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and MEAA urinary levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the BMA biomarker (above the test methods limit of detection [LOD = 0.5 ng/ml]) were 96 (98.0%), 37 (97.4%), and 58 (95.1%) for the high, moderate, and low (control) exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the PMA biomarker (LOD = 0.5 ng/ml) were 33 (33.7%), 9 (23.7%), and 12 (19.7%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the MEAA biomarker (LOD = 0.1 ? g/ml) were 92 (93.4%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. Statistical analysis of the mean levels of the analytes demonstrated MEAA to be the most accurate or appropriate biomarker for JP-8 exposure using urinary concentrations either adjusted or not adjusted for creatinine; mean levels of BMA and PMA were not statistically significant between workgroup categories after adjusting for creatinine.
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The Upper Midwest Health Study: a case-control study of pesticide applicators and risk of glioma.
Environ Health
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An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case-control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using "ever-never" exposure to farm pesticides and analyzing men and women separately, found no positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma risks. The primary objective was to determine if quantitatively estimated exposure of pesticide applicators was associated with an increased risk of glioma in male and female participants.
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Detection of DNA damage in workers exposed to JP-8 jet fuel.
Mutat. Res.
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The genotoxicity of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) was assessed in the leukocytes of archived blood specimens from U.S. Air Force personnel using the comet assay. No differences in mean comet assay measurements were found between low, moderate, and high exposure groups before or after a 4h work shift. Before the work shift, mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment increased as the concentration of benzene measured in end-exhaled breath increased, indicating that prior environmental or work-related exposures to benzene produced DNA damage. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA decreased as the pre-shift benzene concentration in breath increased. It is not clear why the decrease is occurring. Mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment decreased as the concentrations of benzene and naphthalene measured in breath immediately after the work shift increased. These inverse relationships may reflect a slower rate of absorption or a faster rate of expiration of benzene in the lung. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA increased as the concentration of urinary (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) increased. This relationship was not seen in urinary MEAA adjusted for creatinine. MEAA is a metabolite of the deicing agent 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol contained in JP-8. MEAA or a component of JP-8 correlated with MEAA may have a toxic effect on DNA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.