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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiology of Meningitis in an HIV-Infected Ugandan Cohort.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains critical.
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Deletion of the NSm virulence gene of Rift Valley fever virus inhibits virus replication in and dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Previously, we investigated the role of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) virulence genes NSs and NSm in mosquitoes and demonstrated that deletion of NSm significantly reduced the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of RVFV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The specific aim of this study was to further characterize midgut infection and escape barriers of RVFV in Ae. aegypti infected with reverse genetics-generated wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) or RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-?NSm) by examining sagittal sections of infected mosquitoes for viral antigen at various time points post-infection.
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Isolation and molecular characterization of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel virus from a Kenyan bat.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens have comprised a significant component of emerging human infections in recent decades, and bats are increasingly recognized as reservoirs for many of these disease agents. To identify novel pathogens associated with bats, we screened tissues of bats collected in Kenya. Virus isolates were identified by next generation sequencing of viral nucleic acid preparations from the infected cell culture supernatant and characterized. Here we report the identification of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus isolated from a bat, Hipposideros vittatus, captured along the Kenyan coast.
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Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus.
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Inactivation of infectious virus and serological detection of virus antigen in Rift Valley fever virus-exposed mosquitoes fixed with paraformaldehyde.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Formaldehyde is routinely used to fix tissues in preparation for pathology studies, however concerns remain that treatment of tissues with cellular fixatives may not entirely inactivate infectious virus particles. This concern is of particular regulatory importance for research involving viruses that are classified as select agents such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Therefore, the specific aims of this study were to (1) assay RVFV-exposed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for the presence of infectious RVFV particles at various time points following infection and (2) demonstrate the utility of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of RVFV antigen in various tissues of paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were administered an infectious blood meal containing one of two strains of RVFV, harvested at various time points following infection, intrathoracically inoculated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and fixed overnight at 4°C. The infection status of a subset of mosquitoes was verified by IFA on leg tissues prior to fixation, and infectivity of RVFV in fixed mosquito carcasses was determined by Vero cell plaque assay. Paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes harvested 14 days post infection were also paraffin-embedded and sectioned for detection of RVFV antigen to particular tissues by IFA. None of the RVFV-exposed mosquitoes tested by Vero cell plaque assay contained infectious RVFV after fixation. Furthermore, incubation of mosquito sections with trypsin prior to antibody staining is recommended for optimal visualization of RVFV antigen in infected mosquito tissues by IFA.
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Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV) Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV) from Guatemala.
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Arbovirus surveillance of mosquitoes collected at sites of active Rift Valley fever virus transmission: Kenya, 2006-2007.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Mosquitoes collected during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Kenya from December 2006 to February 2007 were tested to isolate other mosquito-borne arboviruses circulating in the region. Twenty-seven virus isolations were made comprising seven viruses from three arbovirus families.
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Kupe virus, a new virus in the family bunyaviridae, genus nairovirus, kenya.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. Six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of Amblyomma gemma and Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 1999. We report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in cell culture and full-length genome sequencing and genetic characterization, which show it to be distinct from DUGV. We suggest that this is a new virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus, and we propose that it be designated Kupe virus.
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Isolation and characterization of a new mosquito flavivirus, Quang Binh virus, from Vietnam.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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In recent years, a number of flaviviruses that replicate only in an arthropod host have been discovered and characterized. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a new mosquito-only flavivirus in this group. The virus was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhyncus mosquitoes collected in Vietnam in 2002 and was found to be genetically different from mosquito flaviviruses described previously. We propose the isolate be named Quang Binh virus.
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Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.