JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Atenolol versus Losartan in Children and Young Adults with Marfan's Syndrome.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Aortic-root dissection is the leading cause of death in Marfan's syndrome. Studies suggest that with regard to slowing aortic-root enlargement, losartan may be more effective than beta-blockers, the current standard therapy in most centers. Methods We conducted a randomized trial comparing losartan with atenolol in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome. The primary outcome was the rate of aortic-root enlargement, expressed as the change in the maximum aortic-root-diameter z score indexed to body-surface area (hereafter, aortic-root z score) over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes included the rate of change in the absolute diameter of the aortic root; the rate of change in aortic regurgitation; the time to aortic dissection, aortic-root surgery, or death; somatic growth; and the incidence of adverse events. Results From January 2007 through February 2011, a total of 21 clinical centers enrolled 608 participants, 6 months to 25 years of age (mean [±SD] age, 11.5±6.5 years in the atenolol group and 11.0±6.2 years in the losartan group), who had an aortic-root z score greater than 3.0. The baseline-adjusted rate of change (±SE) in the aortic-root z score did not differ significantly between the atenolol group and the losartan group (-0.139±0.013 and -0.107±0.013 standard-deviation units per year, respectively; P=0.08). Both slopes were significantly less than zero, indicating a decrease in the degree of aortic-root dilatation relative to body-surface area with either treatment. The 3-year rates of aortic-root surgery, aortic dissection, death, and a composite of these events did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Conclusions Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364 .).
Related JoVE Video
Valve-sparing aortic root replacement in patients with Marfan syndrome enrolled in the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions.
J. Heart Valve Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The long-term outcomes of aortic valve-sparing (AVS) root replacement in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients remain uncertain. The study aim was to determine the utilization and outcomes of AVS root replacement in MFS patients enrolled in the Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC).
Related JoVE Video
Short leukocyte telomere length predicts incidence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies, but the prospective relationship between telomere shortening and risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis has not been well-established. This study examines whether LTL at baseline predicts incidence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in American Indians in the Strong Heart Study. The analysis included 2,819 participants who were free of overt cardiovascular disease at baseline (2001-2003) and were followed through the end of 2006-2009 (average 5.5-yr follow-up). Discrete atherosclerotic plaque was defined as focal protrusion with an arterial wall thickness ?50% the surrounding wall. Carotid progression was defined as having a higher plaque score at the end of study follow-up compared to baseline. Associations of LTL with incidence and progression of carotid plaque were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for standard coronary risk factors. Compared to participants in the highest LTL tertile, those in the lowest tertile had significantly elevated risk for both incident plaque (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.03) and plaque progression (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26-2.07). Our results provide initial evidence for a potential prognostic utility of LTL in risk prediction for atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Reference values for echocardiographic assessment of the diameter of the aortic root and ascending aorta spanning all age categories.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thoracic aortic dilatation requires accurate and timely detection to prevent progression to thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. The detection of thoracic aortic dilatation necessitates the availability of cut-off values for normal aortic diameters. Tools to evaluate aortic dimension above the root are scarce and inconsistent regarding age groups. The aim of this study was to provide reference values for aortic root and ascending aortic diameters on the basis of transthoracic echocardiographic measurements in a large cohort of children and adults. Diameters at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (SoV) and ascending aorta (AA) were assessed with transthoracic echocardiography in 849 subjects (453 females, age range 1 to 85 years, mean 40.1 ± 21.3 years) and measured according to published guidelines. Linear regression analysis was applied to create nomograms, as well as equations for upper limits of normal and z-scores. SoV and AA diameters were strongly correlated with age, body surface area (BSA), and weight (r = 0.67 to 0.79, p <0.001 for all). Male subjects had significantly larger aortic dimensions at all levels in adulthood, even after BSA correction (p ?0.004 for all age intervals). Gender-, age-, and BSA-specific upper limits of normal and z-score equations were developed from a multivariate regression model, which strongly predicts SoV and AA diameters (adjusted R(2) for SoV = 0.84 and 0.67 and for AA = 0.82 and 0.74, for male and female subjects, respectively). In conclusion, this study provides widely applicable reference values for thoracic aortic dilatation screening purposes. Age, BSA, and gender must be taken into account when assessing an individual patient.
Related JoVE Video
Association of central and peripheral blood pressures with intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In conclusion, numerous studies have documented a superior relation of central over brachial BP to intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes or cardiovascular target organ damage. In general, PP has been more strongly related to vascular disease, whereas systolic pressure seems to be a more important determinant of LVH. The similarity of findings in a wide variety of patient-based and population-based studies as well as a broad range of ethnicities supports the robust nature of this phenomenon. Although data regarding the superiority of central over brachial PP with regard to LV diastolic dysfunction are preliminary, the importance of LVH, female sex, and aging as underlying risk factors for HFPEF suggests that more extensive evaluation is likely to reveal a stronger relation of central than peripheral BP with this additional measure of target organ involvement. Finally, limited data suggesting a more important impact of reversing hypertensive cardiovascular hypertrophy by lowering central pressure for a given brachial pressure require confirmation in larger, longitudinal intervention studies.
Related JoVE Video
Central blood pressure: current evidence and clinical importance.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pressure measured with a cuff and sphygmomanometer in the brachial artery is accepted as an important predictor of future cardiovascular risk. However, systolic pressure varies throughout the arterial tree, such that aortic (central) systolic pressure is actually lower than corresponding brachial values, although this difference is highly variable between individuals. Emerging evidence now suggests that central pressure is better related to future cardiovascular events than is brachial pressure. Moreover, anti-hypertensive drugs can exert differential effects on brachial and central pressure. Therefore, basing treatment decisions on central, rather than brachial pressure, is likely to have important implications for the future diagnosis and management of hypertension. Such a paradigm shift will, however, require further, direct evidence that selectively targeting central pressure, brings added benefit, over and above that already provided by brachial artery pressure.
Related JoVE Video
Leukotriene haplotype × diet interaction on carotid artery hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene × diet interaction plays an important role in atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disorder. Leukotrienes are the most potent inflammatory mediators, and genetic variants encoding leukotriene genes have been implicated in atherosclerosis. This study tests nutrigenetic interaction of a previously defined leukotriene haplotype on carotid artery hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in American Indians.
Related JoVE Video
Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of reduction of left ventricular mass in treated hypertension: the strong heart study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertensive left ventricular mass (LVM) is expected to decrease during antihypertensive therapy, based on results of clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of associations of ten candidate coronary heart disease risk genetic variants and subclinical atherosclerosis in four US populations: the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of genetic variants have been discovered by recent genome-wide association studies for their associations with clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether these variants are also associated with the development of CHD as measured by subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes, ankle brachial index (ABI), carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque.
Related JoVE Video
GenTAC registry report: gender differences among individuals with genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous data suggest women are at increased risk of death from aortic dissection. Therefore, we analyzed data from the GenTAC registry, the NIH-sponsored program that collects information about individuals with genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysms and cardiovascular conditions. We performed cross-sectional analyses in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS), familial thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection (FTAAD), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection, and subjects under 50 years of age with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection (TAAD <50 years). Women comprised 32% of 1,449 subjects and were 21% of subjects with BAV, 34% with FTAAD, 22% with TAAD <50 years, and 47% with MFS. Thoracic aortic dissections occurred with equal gender frequency yet women with BAV had more extensive dissections. Aortic size was smaller in women but was similar after controlling for BSA. Age at operation for aortic valve dysfunction, aneurysm or dissection did not differ by gender. Multivariate analysis (adjusting for age, BSA, hypertension, study site, diabetes, and subgroup diagnoses) showed that women had fewer total aortic surgeries (OR = 0.65, P < 0.01) and were less likely to receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi; OR = 0.68, P < 0.05). As in BAV, other genetically triggered aortic diseases such as FTAAD and TAAD <50 are more common in males. In women, decreased prevalence of aortic operations and less treatment with ACEi may be due to their smaller absolute aortic diameters. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if women are at higher risk for adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
Extent and severity of coronary artery disease by coronary CT angiography is associated with elevated left ventricular diastolic pressures and worsening diastolic function.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with flow-limiting coronary stenoses exhibit elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and abnormal left ventricular (LV) relaxation.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide linkage analysis of carotid artery lumen diameter: the strong heart family study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A significant proportion of the variability in carotid artery lumen diameter is attributable to genetic factors.
Related JoVE Video
Incremental value of biochemical and echocardiographic measures in prediction of ischemic stroke: the Strong Heart Study.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
American Indians have high rates of stroke. Improved risk stratification could enhance prevention, but the ability of biochemical and echocardiographic markers of preclinical disease to improve stroke prediction is not well-defined.
Related JoVE Video
Vascular biomarkers in the prediction of clinical cardiovascular disease: the Strong Heart Study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the ability of separately measured intimal-medial thickness and atherosclerotic plaque to predict incident cardiovascular disease. American Indian men and women from the Strong Heart Study who were free of cardiovascular disease were evaluated with carotid ultrasound and cardiovascular disease risk factor assessment. End-diastolic intimal-medial thickness of the common carotid arteries was measured and averaged. Arterial mass (cross-sectional area) was calculated from intimal-medial thickness and end-diastolic diameter. Atherosclerosis was defined by focal plaque (discrete thickening >50% relative to the adjacent wall) and the number of carotid segments containing plaque (plaque score); 2441 participants (age 63±8 years) were followed-up for a mean of 7.7±2.8 years, during which time 495 experienced incident cardiovascular disease events. Time-to-event analyses were performed in groups stratified according to diabetes and hypertension status. Cardiovascular disease events were predicted by presence and extent of atherosclerosis in all groups; intima-medial thickness and arterial mass were only associated with outcomes when neither hypertension nor diabetes was present. Unequivocal evidence of atherosclerosis (plaque) and its extent (plaque score) are independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease events in individuals without preexisting cardiovascular disease regardless of diabetes and hypertension status. Hypertension-related increases in intima-media thickness and arterial mass appear to limit their use as measures of early or diffuse atherosclerosis and, hence, association with cardiovascular disease outcomes. These findings support the utility of separate assessment of focal atherosclerosis and intimal-medial thickness in epidemiological studies, trials, and risk stratification protocols.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac geometry and function in diabetic or prediabetic adolescents and young adults: the Strong Heart Study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diabetes (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were associated with early alterations in left ventricular geometry and function in a large population of adolescents and young adults independently of major confounders.
Related JoVE Video
Differential impacts of blood pressure and lipid lowering on regression of ventricular and arterial mass: the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Trial.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relative impacts of lowering blood pressure versus lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on regression of ventricular and arterial mass have not been systematically examined. Changes in left ventricular mass and arterial mass (common carotid artery cross-sectional area) after 36 months of simultaneous lowering of systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol were examined in the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Trial of standard versus aggressive LDL cholesterol and blood pressure targets in American Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 2 treatment groups were combined to examine changes in left ventricular and arterial mass over a spectrum of achieved blood pressure and lipid levels. Among the combined group of 413 Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Trials participants, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and left ventricular mass were all significantly reduced, whereas arterial mass significantly increased, after 36 months of therapy (P<0.001 for all). In linear regression models, a decrease in arterial mass was significantly related to achieved systolic blood pressure and, to a lesser extent, achieved LDL cholesterol, after adjustment for important covariates. Left ventricular mass progressively decreased with lower achieved levels of systolic blood pressure, independent of baseline levels of left ventricular mass. In conclusion, achieved levels of systolic blood pressure are important determinants of the extent of regression of arterial and ventricular mass during prolonged therapy in diabetic individuals. Achieved levels of LDL cholesterol influence regression of arterial but not ventricular mass. Our findings suggest that there is no threshold of systolic blood pressure below which regression of cardiovascular target organ damage cannot be achieved.
Related JoVE Video
Sex differences in obesity-related changes in left ventricular morphology: the Strong Heart Study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is unclear whether there are sex differences in the relations of left ventricular mass to body composition and fat distribution in nonobese or obese hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals and whether the obesity-related increase in left ventricular mass is similar in men and women.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic differences in arterial wave reflections and normative equations for augmentation index.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Data regarding ethnic differences in wave reflections, which markedly affect the central pressure profile, are very limited. Furthermore, because age, heart rate, and body height are strong determinants of augmentation index, relating single measurements to normative data (in which augmentation index values correspond with average population values of its determinants) is challenging. We studied subject-level data from 10 550 adults enrolled in large population-based studies. In a healthy reference sample (n=3497), we assessed ethnic differences in augmentation index (ratio of second/first systolic peaks) and generated equations for adjusted z scores, allowing for a standardized comparison between individual augmentation index measurements and the normative population mean from subjects of the same age, sex, ethnic population, body height, and heart rate. After adjustment for age, body height, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure, African blacks (women: 154%; men: 138%) and Andean Hispanics (women: 152%; men: 133%) demonstrated higher central (aortic) augmentation index values than British whites (women: 140%; men: 128%), whereas American Indians (women: 133%; men: 122%) demonstrated lower augmentation index (all P<0.0001), without significant differences between Chinese and British whites. Similar results were found for radial augmentation index. Nonlinear ethnic/sex-specific equations for z scores were successfully generated to adjust individual augmentation index values for age, body height, and heart rate. Marked ethnic differences in augmentation index exist, which may contribute to ethnic differences in hypertensive organ damage. Our study provides normative data that can be used to complement the interpretation of individual hemodynamic assessments among men and women of various ethnic populations, after removing the effect of various physiological determinants.
Related JoVE Video
Central blood pressure measurements-an opportunity for efficacy and safety in drug development?
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over a century of experience with brachial blood pressure has produced a substantial amount of information on the role of blood pressure as a factor in heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Successful interventions lowering blood pressure and reducing damage to vital organs testify further to the importance of this vital sign. In recent years attempts to probe deeper into the value of knowledge of blood pressure levels closer to the heart (central blood pressures) suggest that noninvasive measurement of central aortic blood pressure may improve further efforts directed at both understanding drug benefit and uncovering potential drug safety issues. This commentary is a summary of a one-day meeting with the FDA in which the role of central blood pressure measurements as an adjunct to drug efficacy and safety were addressed.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship of asymmetric dimethylarginine and homocysteine to vascular aging in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is independently associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and premature arterial stiffening. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine are mechanistically interrelated mediators of endothelial dysfunction and correlates of atherosclerosis in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of ADMA and homocysteine to subclinical vascular disease in patients with SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Relations of central and brachial blood pressure to left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry: the Strong Heart Study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously demonstrated stronger relations of central vs. brachial blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, to carotid artery hypertrophy and extent of atherosclerosis. Data regarding the relative impacts of central and brachial pressures on left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular and metabolic predictors of progression of prehypertension into hypertension: the Strong Heart Study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prehypertension (defined by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) frequently evolves to hypertension (HTN) and increases cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether metabolic and/or cardiac characteristics favor development of HTN in prehypertensive subjects. We evaluated baseline anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics of 625 untreated prehypertensive participants in the Strong Heart Study, without prevalent cardiovascular disease (63% women; 22% with diabetes mellitus; mean age: 59+/-7 years) to identify predictors of the 4-year incidence of HTN. Diabetes mellitus was assessed by American Diabetic Association criteria, and a diabetes-specific definition of HTN was used. Four-year incidence of HTN was 38%. Incident HTN was independently predicted by baseline systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.60 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI: 1.30 to 2.00; P<0.0001), waist circumference (OR: 1.10 per 10 cm; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.30; P=0.04), and diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.73; 95% CI=1.77 to 4.21; P<0.0001), with no significant effect for age, sex, hemoglobin A1c, homeostatic model assessment index, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma creatinine, or urine albumin:creatinine ratio. Higher left ventricular mass index (OR: 1.15 per 5 g/m(2.7); 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.25; P=0.03) or stroke volume index (OR: 1.25 per 5 mL/m(2.04); 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.50; P=0.03) was also identified, together with baseline systolic blood pressure and the presence of diabetes mellitus, as an independent predictor of incident HTN, without an additional predictive contribution from other anthropometric, metabolic, or echocardiographic parameters (all P>0.10). Thus, progression to HTN in 38% of Strong Heart Study prehypertensive participants could be predicted by higher left ventricular mass and stroke volume in addition to baseline systolic blood pressure and prevalent diabetes mellitus.
Related JoVE Video
PREVENTION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH LDL-C LOWERING - LIPOPROTEIN CHANGES AND INTERACTIONS: THE SANDS STUDY.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces atherosclerosis. LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are commonly measured by their cholesterol content, but non-HDL cholesterol, LDL particle number (LDL-P), or total apolipoprotein B (apoB) may better predict cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined relations among lipoprotein levels and composition before and after interventions to lower LDL-C and non-HDL-C. OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in carotid artery intimal media thickness (CIMT) and lipid concentration and composition during 36 months of statin therapy. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on 418 diabetic individuals, with complete data and no prior cardiovascular events, who were randomized to aggressive (AG) versus standard (STD) treatment for LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as part of the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS). RESULTS: The AG group achieved average LDL-C and non-HDL-C of 71mg/dL and 100mg/dL and a decrease in CIMT. No significant interactions were observed between treatment effect and initial levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoB, or LDL-P. Decreases in LDL-C (p<.005) and non-HDL-C (p<.001) were independently correlated with CIMT regression in the AG group. Changes in apoB and LDL-P showed borderline correlations with CIMT regression (p=.07 and p=.09). CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic adults with no prior cardiovascular events, treatment to current targets for lipids and SBP reduces atherosclerosis progression and when more aggressive targets are met, atherosclerosis regresses. The aggressive targets for LDL-C and non-HDL-C appeared to be the main determinants of CIMT regression and were more predictive of this outcome than changes in LDL-P or apoB.
Related JoVE Video
Relation among lipoprotein subfractions and carotid atherosclerosis in Alaskan Eskimos (from the GOCADAN Study).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies have been inconsistent regarding whether lipoprotein particle subfraction measures are useful indicators of cardiovascular risk. The present study evaluated the relation between lipoprotein particle concentrations and size, analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and measures of carotid atherosclerosis in a population with high cardiovascular risk but little hyperlipidemia. In this cross-sectional, population-based sample of Alaska Eskimos >or=35 years old (n = 656), a greater carotid intimal medial thickness was associated with greater low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.03) and total LDL particle concentration (p = 0.04), independently of other traditional risk factors. The effects of LDL cholesterol and LDL particle concentration on intimal medial thickness were additive (p = 0.015). Carotid plaque was associated with greater levels of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.01), greater concentrations of large LDL particles (p = 0.003), and a reduction in the size of the very-low-density lipoprotein particles (p = 0.03). The effects of LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles on the plaque score were additive. In conclusion, the carotid intimal medial thickness was associated with greater LDL particle concentrations. The association was strongest in those with greater LDL cholesterol levels. Plaque was associated with greater concentrations of LDL cholesterol, large LDL particles, and smaller very-low-density lipoprotein particles. It might be beneficial to determine the lipoprotein subfractions in populations with little hyperlipidemia.
Related JoVE Video
Atherosclerosis in survivors of Kawasaki disease.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test the hypothesis that long-term survivors of low-risk Kawasaki disease (KD) have ongoing vascular inflammation and dysfunction and a higher risk of accelerated atherosclerosis than healthy control subjects.
Related JoVE Video
High central pulse pressure is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome the strong heart study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to facilitate clinical use of central pulse pressure (PP). We sought to determine a value that might predict adverse outcome and thereby provide a target for assessment of intervention strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging as compared to contrast-enhanced tissue characterization for detection of left ventricular thrombus.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study sought to compare contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging and contrast-enhanced tissue characterization (delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance [DE-CMR]) for left ventricular (LV) thrombus detection.
Related JoVE Video
The right sided great vessels by cardiac multidetector computed tomography: normative reference values among healthy adults free of cardiopulmonary disease, hypertension, and obesity.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to derive normative reference values for the thoracic great vessels using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a healthy normotensive non-obese population free of cardiovascular disease.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of multiple biomarkers in American Indians free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease (from the Strong Heart Study).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several biomarkers have been documented, singly or jointly, to improve risk prediction, but the extent to which they improve prediction-model performance in populations with high prevalences of obesity and diabetes has not been specifically examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of various biomarkers to improve prediction-model performance for death and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in a high-risk population. The relations of 6 biomarkers with outcomes were examined in 823 American Indians free of prevalent CVD or renal insufficiency, as were their contributions to risk prediction. In single-marker models adjusting for standard clinical and laboratory risk factors, 4 of 6 biomarkers significantly predicted mortality and major CVD events. In multimarker models, these 4 biomarkers-urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), glycosylated hemoglobin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and fibrinogen-significantly predicted mortality, while 2-UACR and fibrinogen-significantly predicted CVD. On the basis of its robust association in participants with diabetes, UACR was the strongest predictor of mortality and CVD, individually improving model discrimination or classification in the entire cohort. Singly, all remaining biomarkers also improved risk classification for mortality and enhanced average sensitivity for mortality and CVD. The addition of > or =1 biomarker to the single marker UACR further improved discrimination or average sensitivity for these outcomes. In conclusion, biomarkers derived from diabetic cohorts, and novel biomarkers evaluated primarily in lower risk populations, improve risk prediction in cohorts with prevalent obesity and diabetes. Risk stratification of these populations with multimarker models could enhance selection for aggressive medical or surgical approaches to prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Independent association of rheumatoid arthritis with increased left ventricular mass but not with reduced ejection fraction.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with premature atherosclerosis, vascular stiffening, and heart failure. This study was undertaken to investigate whether RA is associated with underlying structural and functional abnormalities of the left ventricle (LV).
Related JoVE Video
Joint associations of 61 genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes with subclinical atherosclerosis in American Indians: a gene-family analysis.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all American populations, including American Indians. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may explain only a small portion of variability in disease, the joint effect of multiple variants in a pathway on disease susceptibility could be large.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular characteristics in subjects with increasing levels of abnormal glucose regulation: the Strong Heart Study.
Diabetes Care
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or the combination of IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with progressive abnormalities of cardiac geometry and function.
Related JoVE Video
Relative fat-free mass deficiency and left ventricular adaptation to obesity: the Strong Heart Study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Relative fat-free mass (FFM) deficiency (RFFMD) can also occur in obesity, but the impact on left ventricular (LV) mass is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Normal limits in relation to age, body size and gender of two-dimensional echocardiographic aortic root dimensions in persons ?15 years of age.
Am. J. Cardiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nomograms to predict normal aortic root diameter for body surface area (BSA) in broad ranges of age have been widely used but are limited by lack of consideration of gender effects, jumps in upper limits of aortic diameter among age strata, and data from older teenagers. Sinus of Valsalva diameter was measured by American Society of Echocardiography convention in normal-weight, nonhypertensive, nondiabetic subjects ?15 years old without aortic valve disease from clinical or population-based samples. Analyses of covariance and linear regression with assessment of residuals identified determinants and developed predictive models for normal aortic root diameter. In 1,207 apparently normal subjects ?15 years old (54% women), aortic root diameter was 2.1 to 4.3 cm. Aortic root diameter was strongly related to BSA and height (r = 0.48 for the 2 comparisons), age (r = 0.36), and male gender (+2.7 mm adjusted for BSA and age, p <0.001 for all comparisons). Multivariable equations using age, gender, and BSA or height predicted aortic diameter strongly (R = 0.674 for the 2 comparisons, p <0.001) with minimal relation of residuals to age or body size: for BSA 2.423 + (age [years] × 0.009) + (BSA [square meters] × 0.461) - (gender [1 = man, 2 = woman] × 0.267), SEE 0.261 cm; for height 1.519 + (age [years] × 0.010) + (height [centimeters] × 0.010) - (gender [1 = man, 2 = woman] × 0.247), SEE 0.215 cm. In conclusion, aortic root diameter is larger in men and increases with body size and age. Regression models incorporating body size, age, and gender are applicable to adolescents and adults without limitations of previous nomograms.
Related JoVE Video
Psychosocial precursors and physical consequences of workplace violence towards nurses: a longitudinal examination with naturally occurring groups in hospital settings.
Int J Nurs Stud
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Workplace violence towards nurses is prevalent and consequential, contributing to nurses reduced health and safety, worsened job attitudes, and compromised productivity.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.